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© 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Principles of International Marketing 9th Edition Chapter 2 The Economic Environment

2 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Exhibit The Global Economy

3 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Market Characteristics Population –Population figures can be classified to show specific characteristics of their respective markets. –Age distribution and life expectancy correlate heavily with the level of development of the market. –A household describes all the persons, both related and unrelated, who occupy a housing unit. –The degree of urbanization dictates the nature of the marketing task the company faces, in terms of distribution, market potential, and buying habits.

4 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Exhibit World Economic Pyramid

5 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Market Characteristics Income –Income-distribution can be classified as very low family incomes, very low, very high family incomes, low, medium, high family income, and mostly medium family incomes. –Per capita GDP is often used as a primary indicator for evaluating purchasing power. –Purchasing power parities (PPP) show how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country.

6 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Market Characteristics Income –Income figures are useful in the initial screening of markets; however, in product-specific cases, income may not play a major role. –The lack of income in a market may preclude the marketing of a standardized product but, at the same time, provide an opportunity for an adjusted product.

7 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Market Characteristics Consumption patterns –Engel’s laws - As a family’s income increases, the percentage spent on food will decrease, the percentage spent on housing and household operations will be roughly constant, and the amount saved or spent on other purchases will increase. –Product saturation or diffusion provides information on the percentage of households in a market that own a particular product.

8 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Market Characteristics Consumption patterns –General consumption figures must be viewed with caution as they may conceal critical product-form differences. –Inflation affects the buying ability of both industrial customers and consumers, and also introduces uncertainty into both the marketer’s planning process and consumers’ buying habits.

9 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Market Characteristics Infrastructure –Transportation networks by land, rail, waterway, or air are essential for distribution. –Communication systems for marketing include telephones, computers, broadcast media, print media, internet, and wireless technology. –The more extensive the firm’s international involvement, the more it can rely on its already existing support network of banks, advertising agencies, and distributors to assess new markets.

10 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Impact of the Economic Environment on Social Development Factors impeding economic growth: –Infrastructure limits –Labor shortages –Demand for greater political freedom –Environmental destruction –Urban congestion –Spread of drug addiction

11 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) –Is a composite measure of the level of welfare in a country. –Is composed of life expectancy, infant mortality, and adult literacy rates. Impact of the Economic Environment on Social Development

12 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Emotional well-being may be determined by: –Quality of social relationships –Enjoyment at work –Job stability –Overall conditions of the country Impact of the Economic Environment on Social Development

13 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Exhibit Forms of Economic Integration in Regional Markets

14 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Levels of Economic Integration Free trade area Customs union Common market Economic union European integration North American integration Other economic alliances

15 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Levels of Economic Integration Free trade area –Eliminates tariff and quota barriers among member countries. –Each country is free to set its own tariff and quota barriers against nonmember countries. –Is sometimes formed only for certain classes of goods or services.

16 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Levels of Economic Integration Customs union –Tariff and quota barriers among member countries are eliminated. –Establishes a common trade policy with respect to nonmembers, which takes the form of a common external tariff, whereby imports from nonmembers are subject to the same tariff when sold to any member country.

17 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Levels of Economic Integration Common market area –Covers the exchange of goods and services, prohibits duties in exports and imports between members, and adopts a common external tariff with respect to nonmembers. –Factors of production are mobile among members. –Abolishes restrictions on immigration and cross-border investment. –Members must cooperate closely in monetary, fiscal, and employment policies.

18 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Levels of Economic Integration Economic union –Requires integration of economic policies in addition to the free movement of goods, services, and factors of production across borders. –Harmonizes taxation, government spending, and monetary policies. –Establishes a common currency for members.

19 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Levels of Economic Integration European integration –Results in economic growth; sources of growth being: Elimination of transaction costs. Economies of scale attained as production becomes concentrated. More intense competition from European companies. –Operations from one country can be freely expanded to other countries. –There is a “Fortress Europe” fear.

20 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Exhibit Proposed Company Responses to European Integration

21 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Levels of Economic Integration North American integration –Is for purely economic reasons. –There are no constituencies for political integration. –The ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) created the world’s largest free market, with 450 million consumers and a total output of $15.7 trillion.

22 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Levels of Economic Integration North American integration –Distinctive features of NAFTA are the two-side agreements to correct perceived abuses in labor and the environment in Mexico. –Introduction of maquiladoras.

23 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Regional Economic Integration Other economic alliances –Integration in Latin America –Integration in Asia –Integration in Africa and the Middle East

24 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Exhibit Major Regional Trade Agreements

25 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Exhibit Major Regional Trade Agreements

26 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Regional Economic Integration Economic integration and the international marketer –Regional economic integration creates opportunities and potential problems for the international marketer. –Decisions regarding integrating markets must be assessed from four different perspectives: Effects of change Strategic planning Reorganization Lobbying

27 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Emerging Markets Emerging markets - A country making an effort to change and improve its economy with the goal of raising its performance to that of the world’s most advanced nations. Strategies adopted by marketers to thrive in emerging markets: –Adjust entry strategy –Manage affordability –Invest in distribution –Build strong brands

28 © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Developing Markets Five elements of success required for an international marketer to take advantage of and thrive in developing markets. –Research –Creating buying power –Tailoring local solutions –Improving access –Shaping aspirations


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