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1 The Bologna Process and its implications for Language Schools/Departments in UK HEIs Herman Prada Language Centre Manager London South Bank University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Bologna Process and its implications for Language Schools/Departments in UK HEIs Herman Prada Language Centre Manager London South Bank University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Bologna Process and its implications for Language Schools/Departments in UK HEIs Herman Prada Language Centre Manager London South Bank University Ministerial Summit Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) April 2009

2 2 Who participates in the Process? The Process has 46 signatory countries and it is conducted outside the formal decision-making framework of the European Union. 46 Signatory countries: EU member states (27) plus: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Holy See, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Moldova, Montenegro, Norway, Russian Federation, Serbia, Switzerland, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey and Ukraine.

3 3 Key areas to achieve the Bologna Process’ aim: Removing obstacles to student and academic mobility within Europe and to students from outside. Greater mobility brings increased career opportunities for students and teachers in the European employment market. The development of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees will simplify comparison between qualifications across Europe. This would be aided by the establishment of a system of credits in the form of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the adoption of the Diploma Supplement by all countries involved. Development of courses and curricula with significant European content to increase the European dimension of higher education. Promotion of partnership activities and establishment of joint degrees.

4 4 Language Related Issues (1) Students must master foreign languages. Source: Speech by Ondřej Liška, Conference of the European Ministers Responsible for Higher Education More efforts are needed to widen participation in mobility. Moreover, students at all levels should be given the opportunity to learn at least two foreign languages. Source: The Bologna beyond 2010 report. Universities and other HEIs are called to be an ‘open space’ where methodological exchange, critical reflection, and unlimited questioning can thrive. A space characterized by transparency and functional diversity will allow pay particular attention to the diversity of languages and cultures, providing for the mobility that will allow a rich diversity to thrive. Edited. Source: Opening address prof. Marc Vervenne, rector K.U.Leuven

5 5 Language Related Issues (2) According to Eurostat – Eurostudent Social Dimension and Mobility Indicators: The highest share of foreign graduates within the EHEA was registered in the UK: 22%. In Belgium, Germany, France, Austria, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Switzerland, more than one in eight students enrolled were not nationals. Some countries state that organising doctoral studies is within the autonomous control of HEIs, and thus HEIs themselves decide whether to include taught courses or not. Such courses could include advanced studies in the chosen field of research, foreign languages, etc. Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009

6 6 Language Related Issues (3) HEIs should consider mobility of students, researchers and staff an integral part of their institutional strategies. This would also involve a conscious language policy. Taking into account the needs of mobile students and staff, HEIs have to strike a delicate balance between offering courses in the local or national language and in a widely spoken language. Improving the quality of mobility would require, among others, a better integration of mobility periods into the curricula, more joint programmes, facilitating recognition of study periods abroad, better cooperation between sending and receiving institutions, better language training for mobile students and staff as well as for teachers and administrative staff at receiving institutions. Source: Bologna Coordination Group on Mobility Report, 2009

7 7 Language Related Issues (4) The report suggests to diversify the types of mobility, for instance short study visits, language courses, summer schools, placements and flexible curricula. The importance of language learning was stressed regularly and it was proposed to encourage HEIs to grant credits within any degree programme for language learning, (a foreign language for national students or the local language for international ones). Source: Bologna Coordination Group on Mobility Report, 2009

8 8 Employability Student-centred learning: mobility will help develop the competences they need in a changing labour market. Markets increasingly relying on higher skill levels. Higher education should equip students with the advanced knowledge, skills and competences. Allow institutions to be more responsive to employers needs and employers to better understand the educational perspective. Improve the provision, accessibility and quality of their careers and employment related guidance services. Encourage work placements embedded in study programmes. Source: Communiqué of the Conference of European Ministers Responsible for Higher Education,

9 9 Report from the Working Group on Employability: The report takes forward the request to consider how to improve employability in higher education. The Working Group carried out its own mini-survey of countries to establish what they considered to be the main challenges with regards to graduate employability. The Group looked at the skills a graduate would need to be able to show to be considered ‘employable’. Answers included, among others, supplementary knowledge foreign languages.

10 10 Mobility Mobility is a key area for cooperation which has been a leading issue in the previous communiqués of the Bologna Process. It encourages linguistic pluralism and fosters respect for diversity and a capacity to deal with other cultures. It is a priority that the diplomas are recognised in the Bologna countries just as the Euro is in the Euro zone. This can be done by supporting mobility. Source: Speech by Ondřej Liška, Conference of the European Ministers Responsible for HE Ondřej Liška’s figures: One third of the students say they intend to study in another country. Less than 10% of students participate in mobility schemes. 40% of respondents say they have never planned to study abroad 11% replied they have planned to do so but gave up. Therefore, mobility is an area where more statistical data are requested given that this is what policy makers look at.

11 11 Incoming student mobility Outgoing student mobility Less than 1 % 1-3 % 3-6 % 6-10 % 10 % + Data not available Source: Report by David Crosier, The information network on education in Europe, Eurydice, Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, EACEA According to the Communiqué, mobility should lead to a more balanced flow of incoming and outgoing students across the EHEA.

12 12 For mobility to become an integral part of studies, one of the points would be to ensure that study programmes are designed so as to include a “mobility window” in their curricula. How? Establishing university networks and the cooperation of institutions. Encouraging joint degree programmes. Attention must be paid to those who, for some reason, cannot be mobile in the traditional sense of the word. Virtual mobility: Make it possible for them at least to familiarise indirectly with an international environment. Source: Speeches by Ondřej Liška and Marc Vervenne How to increase outgoing mobility: Some countries are planning to credit their teaching abroad towards their teaching duties at home. Some countries support student mobility by planning a “mobility window” or “free space” in the curriculum which can then be used for a period abroad.

13 13 Recommendations from working groups on the Bologna Coordination of Mobility (1) Group 1 - Financing Mobility: HEIs should provide free language courses. Furthermore, as higher education institutions often have language institutes, free language courses should be provided to those who want to go abroad. Group 2 - Mobility For Sale Mobility should principally aim at fostering cultural diversity and exchange, academic learning and language. Define a clear paradigm of student and staff mobility.

14 14 Recommendations from working groups on the Bologna Coordination of Mobility (2) Group 3 - Diversifying Mobility When students go abroad they often learn a new language and even take courses in the local language. This should be recognised as an informal learning, and students should receive ECTS credits for their mobility period. Some institutions only offer courses in the local language, often due to national language legislation. The language barrier needs to be addressed by establishing an institutional language policy that addresses the needs of mobile students and staff. Group 4 – Mobility Quality Professional development of the teacher’s language skills is necessary.

15 15 According to the Bologna beyond 2010 Report prepared by the Benelux Bologna Secretariat: Mobility of students and staff: Underpins the multilingual tradition of the EHEA. Is a key instrument within HE which needs to be further developed under the bologna beyond 2010 agenda. Is important for personal development, boosting people’s employability. In an increasingly multicultural society, mobility fosters respect for diversity and is a key ingredient for a more stable and peaceful world. National action plans for large-scale mobility - with clear benchmarks for inward and outward mobility - should be developed and included in any future stocktaking exercise. Mature students are less likely to engage in mobility schemes for personal or family reasons. The same applies to part-time students (combine work and study). Mobility will have to be conceived of differently to meet the demands of an ageing population, which should not be excluded from mobility schemes.

16 16 Obstacles to mobility: Eurostat – Eurostudent Social Dimension and Mobility Indicators’ survey asked students to rate some main barriers to mobility as having a moderate, strong or very strong influence or not in preventing them from going abroad. Students assessed as a very strong item the lack of language competency/insufficient skills in foreign language. Other factors include financial insecurities, insufficient support of mobility in home (host) country and lack of individual motivation. Difficulties related to studying in a foreign language. 10% of young EU graduates in the broad field of humanities, languages and arts are unemployed – twice as high as for health and welfare.

17 17 Source: “Bologna with Student Eyes” by Ligia Deca, Chair of the European Students’ Union

18 18 European Quality labels (1) The labels are given to universities which: have made it easier for students to study abroad. shown excellence in applying the European Credit Transfer and Accu- mulation System (ECTS) and the Diploma Supplement (DS). These instruments (ECTS and DS) are designed to: increase transparency in teaching and learning. facilitate the recognition of studies and qualifications. Source: Europa Press Releases, 11 June 2009

19 19 European Quality labels (2) The DS is: A flexible, non-prescriptive document attached to a HE diploma. Issued in a widely spoken European language and, if requested, in another language. Flexible so that it can be adapted to local needs. Aims: improving international ‘transparency’. facilitating academic and professional recognition of qualifications. The DS label: Awarded to institutions which provide DSs (which comply with the CoE standard model) to all its students upon graduation (automatically and free of charge). Regarding the commitment to issuing the DS to all graduates by 2005, only half of the countries have managed to implement it fully by Source: Report on the Work Programme of the Bologna Follow-up Group ( )

20 20 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2005/07 The 2009 scorecard: stocktaking indicators and criteria.

21 21 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2005

22 22 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2005

23 23 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2007

24 24 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2007

25 25 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking scorecards 2009

26 26 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking scorecards 2009

27 27 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009 <---- UK (EWNI)

28 28 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009

29 29 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009

30 30 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009

31 31 European Quality labels (3) The ECTS label: ECTS: makes teaching and learning more transparent. facilitates the recognition of studies (formal, non-formal or informal). Institutions which apply ECTS publish on the web detailed descriptions of study programmes including: learning outcomes (what students are expected to know, understand and be able to do) workload (the time students typically need to achieve the learning outcomes), expressed in terms of credits. Source: Europa Press Releases, 11 June 2009

32 32 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009 <---- UK (EWNI)

33 33 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009

34 34 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009

35 35 Source: Bologna Process Stocktaking Report 2009

36 36 Of the 63 applications for the ECTS label, 23 institutions have been successful. Of the 161 applications for the DS label, 52 institutions have been successful. Ten institutions will receive both labels. Bournemouth University, the University of Kent and the University of Swansea have all been awarded the Diploma Supplement label. As of yet no UK institutions have been awarded an ECTS label. Source: Europe Unit, Weekly European HE newsletter, 12 June 2009

37 37 Opportunities (??) According to the Report on Overall Developments of the EHEA in a Global Context… “While a lot has already been done to improve information on the EHEA, more work remains to be done, especially since the demand for such information about developments at institutional, national and European level is still growing. This information needs to be made available in widely spoken languages and also needs to be continuously updated”…. They also include that an important element of the majority of campaigns is a central website. The website (“Study-in…..”) is the core instrument for guiding potential international students to the information they seek in order to make their destination decision and later enrol…. Advanced websites exist in a range of languages that are widely spoken worldwide.

38 38 Challenges: Communiqué In 2020, at least 20% of those graduating in the EHEA should have had a study or training period abroad. Mobility policies – It is necessary the funding of mobility. Report on the Work Programme of the Bologna Follow-up Group: Give students at all levels the opportunity to learn at least two foreign languages; (also a recommendation from the Mobility Coordination Group).

39 39 Sources: JISC infoNet advisory service: Bologna Process - An Overview: Europe Unit: Ministerial Conference hosted by the Benelux countries at the universities of Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve in 2009 :

40 40 Herman Prada Language Centre Manager London South Bank University


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