The Early Cold War: 1945-1970 The Early Cold War: 1945-1970 Mr. Meyer Mr. Wolf
The Cold War: Foundations and Assumptions (1945-1955)
“Americans must accept wholeheartedly our duty and our opportunity as the most powerful and vital nation in the world and in consequence to assert upon the world the full impact of our influence, for such means we see fit.” –Henry Luce (1941) Founder / Publisher of Fortune and Time Magazines
Essential Questions What does the term “Cold War” Mean? How did the legacies of WWII build the foundation? Outcomes of Cold War – Impact on the United States What caused the Cold War? What was the Ideology of Containment? How did the USSR respond? What were the U.S.’s Policies?
Two Interpretations of Cold War The Cold War Was Not Inevitable –Political and Military Reality –Misunderstandings Between Policy Makers of U.S. and USSR The Cold War Represents a Paradox –Conformity to “True American Values” –Economic Prosperity and Socio Economic Mobility of Middle- and Working Class Americans
The Cold War What is a “cold” war? How is it different from a “hot” war Timeline Phase One – 1945 – 1950 – Most Dangerous Phase Two – 1950 – 1970s – 007 Phase Three – 1970s – 1989 - Detente
Legacies of WWII The United States Economics Death and Destruction – 500,000 Status in World Europe – The Human Factor Germany – 6.8 million Soviet Union – 20.6 million Asia Japan – Occupied China – Revolution French Indochina (Vietnam) – Nationalism and War for Independence
Consequences of Legacies: Shift in Power Structure Western European Nations – Loss of Power Impact of War Neo-colonialism – loss of “colonies” Two Super Powers The United States – Democracy The Soviet Union - Communism
Essential Questions 3.5.09 What are two origins of the Cold War? What are three things that George Kennan identified about the USSR? Did we ever invade Russia How is communism different then capitalism?
Origins of Cold War Red Scare of 1920’s German Industry – rebuild Russia with our $$ Control Europe? –Wilson’s “making world safe for democracy” Satellite states Manhattan Project – USSR against WOMD Karl Marx – next transition of economy
Karl Marx – The Communist Manifesto 10 Planks of the Communist Manifesto 1.Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes. 2.A heavy progressive or graduated income tax. 3.Abolition of all right of inheritance. 4.Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels. 5.Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly. 6.Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State. 7.Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State; the bringing into cultivation of waste-lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan. 8.Equal liability of all to labor. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture. 9.Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country, by a more equal distribution of the population over the country. 10.Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, &c.
Players in Cold War: Two views United States Political Perspective: Democracy Fear: Ghost of Depression Past and Depression Future Need: Free Markets for Trade – Global Economy The Soviet Union Political Perspective: Communism Fear: National Security – Future Invasions Need: “Buffer Zone” – Eastern Europe and Weak Germany
Ideology: Policy of “Containment” What is Containment? Underlying Assumptions: The Soviet Union Planned to Expand Its Influence Impact on US: –Notion of Democracy and Self Determination of Nations –Economic Impact – Rob US of its Global Markets George Kennan Concept of Containment Recommendations: Economic & Education
What did George Kennan Find? 1.The history of Russia has been one of hostile neighbors and a constant fear of attack; it's inevitable that Russia will try to take over its neighbor states to provide a buffer zone. 2.The United States has a duty to confront Soviet aggression with "unalterable counterforce.“ 3.The United States must maintain a policy of long-term containment of Soviet aggression.
Outcomes for United States Economic Prosperity Conformity & Consensus At Home The American “Empire” –Social & Reform Darwinism –Spread Democracy and Capitalism –Vietnam – Case Study
Outcomes cont: The Tentacles of Communism Domestic Anticommunism: Fear of Subversive Ideas Response: “McCarthyism” House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) American Society – Conformity Women Racial Ethnic Groups Members of Labor Unions Educators and Journalists Left-leaning liberals, socialists, members of the American communist party
Part I: “Reconstruction & Confrontation” Part I: “Reconstruction & Confrontation”
Essential Questions 3.6.09 1.What was the Truman Doctrine and how did it impact the Cold War 2.How was the Marshall Plan going to help stop communism from spreading in Europe? 3.Why was the Berlin Airlift was one of the most tense moment of the Cold War?
Essential Questions 3.9.09 Why was the Berlin Airlift was one of the most tense moment of the Cold War? What was NSC 68, what event caused it come about, and why was it so significant to our future with the USSR? Explain the causes and significance of the Korean War.
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Focus on Berlin, 1945 After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops. Occupation zones after 1945. Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Truman Doctrine  1.Civil 1.Civil War in Greece-communists vs. freedom fighters 2.Turkey 2.Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. 3.“The 3.“The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.” 4.The 4.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Marshall Plan  1.“European Recovery Program.” 2.Secretary of State, George Marshall 3.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.
Partition of Germany U.S. and W. Europeans felt German economy vital to recovery of Europe 1949, West Germany became an independent country when US, France and Britain gave back each of their zones Federal Republic of Germany – led by Konrad Adenauer 1949, East Germany formally established – Democratic Republic of Germany led by Walter Ulbricht (1883-1973); communist regime influenced by Moscow
Eventual site of the Berlin Wall In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade.
· President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin. A huge airlift: · At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily.
A huge airlift cont… Images of soldiers loading planes and a German girl. Blockade ended in 1949 with Stalin giving in, but keeps Germany separate
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania
The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. }Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
Change in Policy In response to the explosion of a Soviet Atomic bomb, which changed everything, the US came up with National Security Council Paper 68 (NSC-68) –Written by Paul Nitze and Policy Planning Staff –Initialed by Truman in April 1950
Assumptions of NSC 68 With destruction of German and Japanese power and the decline of Britain and France, world power was being contested for only by US and USSR Soviets’ top priority was establish absolute power over their homeland and Eastern Europe and they were being driven by communism, a “new fanatic faith” that “seeks to impose its absolute authority over the rest of the world” Conflict between the two superpowers was endemic and due to growing number of weapons of mass destruction, every individual faces the threat of annihilation Since Soviets relied on military power to get their way, they could therefore be checked by US military power If this military power worked, then there was hope because Soviets’ weak link was relations with Soviet people who, once the US showed it could contain and drive back Soviets, would foster internal seeds of destruction THUS saw not just containment but destruction of Soviets
NSC 68 Based on its assumptions, Secretary of State Dean Acheson favored: RAPID, MASSIVE MILITARYBUILD- UP Creation of large military force so would not have to rely on nuclear weapons Establishment of alliances PROBLEM: Assumption that Stalin understood only power, so no use to negotiate until build up complete— dismissed idea that this militarization could undermine our system.
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2 nd } Power!
In mid-1947, Marshall, now Secretary of State, sent Gen. Albert Wedemeyer to investigate situation in China Wedemeyer’s report recommended massive aid and 10,000 advisors to help the Chinese Nationalist beat Mao’s Communist forces Marshall knew this would be inadequate so he did not support or share this report (kept secret) fueling latter charges that Truman lost China
The Loss of China In October 1949, Mao Zedong and the communists won the civil war Jiang and the remnants of the KMT (Kuomintang) fled to Formosa, which they would call Taiwan In February 1950, Mao and Stalin signed a mutual assistance pact
Essential Questions 3.10.09 What is one (probable) cause of the Korean War? Why do the Chinese get involved in this war? How does this cause friction between Truman and MacArthur? Why is the Korean War significant and what is it’s impact?
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory”
On the road to Korea After World War II, Japanese-occupied Korea was temporarily divided into northern and southern parts. The Soviet Union controlled Korea north of the 38 th parallel. The United States would be in charge of Korea south of the 38 th parallel. The Soviet Union established a communist government in North Korea. North Korea called itself the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Its first leader was Kim Il Sung. In South Korea, the United States promoted a democratic system. The Republic of Korea was led by president Syngman Rhee.
Causes of Korean War 1st Theory USSR launches a probe, to test things out and see if the Americans will respond: will the Americans stand up to them, or let Korea be taken over? Americans make a statement that Korea is outside their defense perimeter, therefore, Soviet Union felt they could get away with it –this theory more consistent with Soviet action in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia while they were establishing their eastern sphere of influence (1945 - 48)
Causes of Korean war cont… 2nd Theory Soviet Union was trying to set up a trap for China which turned communist in 1949 China is a young upstart nation, as the theory goes, that Stalin wants to put their in place i.e. second to or behind the USSR so Stalin starts a war to create a situation where China will feel compelled to get involved, get into a direct conflict with the USA, who will humiliate the Chinese and put them in their place
Causes of Korean war cont… 3rd Theory China, acting on its own, wanted to show the world they were a strong communist nation problem with this theory is that China had just gone through 23 years of war, last thing China needed was another major conflict
Causes of Korean war cont… 4th Theory Kim Il Sung, leader of N. Korea, took it upon himself to attack S. Korea, which was a country only because it was divided by the Cold War Kim Il Sung dies in 1994, taking his secret to the grave
The War Begins North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. Most leaders in the United States were surprised by this attack. –American troops stationed in South Korea since WW II had recently completed their withdrawal. –The United States was not well prepared to fight in Korea; however, the decision to fight was made quickly. Truman decided that the United States would take a stand against Communist aggression in Korea – we back Syngman Rhee’s democratic government The United Nations Security Council voted unanimously in favor of the use of force in Korea- becomes a POLICE ACTION against North Korea This attack also confirmed the analysis of NSC 68 – Soviets were hell bent to spread communism throughout the world
Chinese involvement? Chairman Mao Tse Tung is watching American forces closely He has 500,000 troops waiting in Manchuria for the arrival of American Forces As the NKPA is pushed back across the 38 th parallel, Washington gives MacArthur permission to cross the parallel, but he is told: –Stop at any sign of Russian or Chinese intervention –DO NOT cross or even fire in the direction of the Yalu River
Truman vs. MacArthur General Douglas MacArthur, who had been put in charge of there construction of Japan, was running the Korean War –Pres. Truman is getting nervous and summons MacArthur to Wake Island For a Face-to-Face. MacArthur is upset that he is interrupted and has to leave during his campaign. Truman Concerned about the possibility of Chinese intervention –MacArthur’s arrogance abounds MacArthur claims that the war will be over by Thanksgiving and the men will be home by Christmas
Combat in Korea Offensives from Inchon and Pusan resulted in the destruction or surrender of huge numbers of North Korean troops. By October 1950 all of South Korea was back in UN hands. UN forces made an amphibious landing behind North Korean lines at the port city of Inchon. MacArthur’s surprise attack worked beautifully. The September 1950 invasion at Inchon was a key victory for UN forces. “In order to hook a big fish, you must let the fish taste your bait.” – Chairman Mao Tse Tung UN forces had begun to move into North Korea, but the when 260,000 Chinese troops joined the North Koreans the UN began to retreat. UN forces retreated all the way back to Seoul. It was the longest fallback in U.S. military history.
General MacArthur Is Fired MacArthur said that the UN faced a choice between defeat by the Chinese or a major war with them. He wanted to expand the war by bombing the Chinese mainland, perhaps even with atomic weapons. Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway stopped the Chinese onslaught and pushed them back to the 38 th parallel— without needing to expand the war or use atomic weapons. MacArthur disagreed with President Truman about the direction of the fighting and challenged the authority of the president. Truman fired MacArthur. Many Americans were outraged at the firing of MacArthur.
Fighting Ends in Korea Negotiating for Peace In July 1951 peace talks began. One major obstacle was the location of the boundary between the Koreas. Meanwhile battles such as Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge continued, inflicting heavy casualties on both sides. In October 1951 peace talks stalled over prisoners of war. Negotiators in Panmunjom continued to argue over the details of a peace agreement throughout 1952. Events of 1953 In 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower— who promised to end the war— was elected president. Fighting remained deadly—in the final two months of the war, UN forces lost 57,000 men and the Communists lost 100,000. An armistice agreement was finally reached on July 27, 1953. The Korean War left the map of Korea looking much as it had in 1950. The human costs were huge.
Impact of Korean War First armed conflict of the Cold War Proxy war-a war fought by the two superpowers would fight in another country, forcing the people in that nation to suffer the bulk of the destruction and death involved in a war between such large nations Cold War not limited to Europe DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) established between the two countries - heavily guarded by both sides 155 miles long, 2.5 miles wide, most heavily guarded in the entire world
Essential Questions 3.11.09 How does the Cold War affect domestic (home) affairs? Who was someone accused of being a communist during the Cold War? What happened to them? How does Senator Joe McCarthy rise to power during the Cold War?
HOLLYWOOD TEN In 1947, the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) investigated supposed communists in Hollywood – 41 interviewed A group of actors, named “The Hollywood Ten,” refused to testify and on November 24, 1947,were blacklisted and sent to jail for a year –claimed they were protected by the 1 st Amendment – court disagreed Many others did cooperate and name names resulting in the blacklisting of some 250 Hollywood personalities. Once blacklisted, it was almost impossible for these people to get a job in Hollywood (or any where else for that matter)
Alger Hiss In January 1950, Alger Hiss was convicted of PERJURY Journalist Whittaker Chambers claimed that in the 1930s Hiss had been a fellow member of the Communist party and had passed secret government documents to him Hiss denied it Role of young California Congressman, R.M. Nixon Hiss was sentenced to 44 months in jail.
Richard Nixon (right) and the chief investigator for the House Committee on Un-American Activities inspect microfilm of the “pumpkin papers.” Hidden inside a pumpkin on the Maryland farm of committee informant Whittaker Chambers, the papers helped convict Alger Hiss of perjury. Nixon’s role in pursuing Hiss launched a political career that took him to the White House.
Rosenbergs In the same month, a spy ring was discovered It included Klaus Fuchs, a German born British scientist who had helped develop the atomic bomb and had passed secrets to the Russians both during and immediately after WWII The FBI traced the trail back to Fuch's courier, Harry Gold From Gold to one of his contacts, former army machinist David Greenglass And from Greenglass to his sister and brother-in-law, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Rosenbergs Gold, Greenglass and his wife Ruth cooperated with the authorities, the Rosenbergs did not They were tried and convicted of espionage They were executed in June 1953,leaving two young sons
Essential Questions 3.12.09 Why does Senator Joseph McCarthy latch onto communism in 1950? How would you describe his attacks on Americans? How does he get so many people to listen to him? What causes him to finally fall out of the public spotlight in 1954? How did this cause long term damage to America?
Are you a Communist? Senator Joseph McCarthy January 1950, Joseph McCarthy needed an issue to win re-election in1952 He seized on communism, declaring in a speech in West Virginia that 205 communists infested the State Department Later pressed for proof, the numbers changed to 81, 57 and “a lot.” A Senate investigation concluded that McCarthy’s accusations were empty
Senator Joe McCarthy used press releases and carefully managed congressional committee hearings to attack suspected Communists, although he had almost no hard information. At the Army-McCarthy hearings in June 1954, he clashed with attorney Joseph Welch. Here Welch listens as McCarthy points to Oregon on a map that supposedly showed Communist Party organization in the United States.
Joseph McCarthy McCarthyism seemed to reign triumphant as Republicans, including now Senator Nixon, won big Book burners tried to burn Robin Hood claiming it was communist Racists claimed those who said Blacks weren’t treated fairly were probably communist McCarthy launched unending attacks on the State Dept, especially on Dean Acheson, that drove many, particularly knowledgeable East Asian hands accused of “losing China,” out of the government
Joseph McCarthy In 1952, he criticized George Marshall, the man who had championed then presidential candidate Ike (who made no comment) George Marshall was the creator of the Marshall Plan and was a WWII hero Loved by many Americans McCarthy claimed that Marshall was part of a “conspiracy so immense and an infamy so black as to dwarf any previous such venture in the history of man.”
Army vs. McCarthy McCarthy’s end McCarthy’s assistant was drafted by the U.S. Army, and wanted special exception to not fight-special treatment McCarthy claims the military has been infiltrated by communists and he needs to investigate Army-McCarthy hearings started in April 1954 and lasted for 36 days
Army vs. McCarthy cont… Hearings were televised Most Americans first view of McCarthy Many believed that he was a well-spoken proper man They were surprised by his language and savage attacks on the Army He fabricated evidence for the case, and had been caught cropping pictures and offering fake letters before After 1954 elections, Senate finally censured McCarthy and his power faded (he died1957) Unfortunately, despite McCarthy’s death, his policies remained alive
Long Term Results Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, had tried to please fervent anti-communists by letting one control the State Department As a result, hundreds left foreign service and morale and standards sank, especially in Asia Complete decimation of the Communist Party in America Aborted much needed reforms (New Deal) Effective criticism of American foreign policy non-existent Fear of national security took precedence of ordinary law and civil rights/liberties
Essential Questions 3.13.09 How does America’s and Russia's policy change in the beginning of the 1950’s? Why does East Germany (at the approval of the Soviet Union) create the Berlin Wall? Describe the Bay of Pigs invasion. How was this an example of American hypocrisy?
Eisenhower becomes President in 1952 Committed to fight the Cold War Stand up to Chinese and Russians He will defend U.S. interests around the world Called Communism “a tyranny… attempting to make all of humankind it chattel.” John Foster Dulles is Secretary of State Helps design U.S. foreign policy Thought containment was not enough –Liberation against “Godless communism”
Nikita Khrushchev Part of a group of men who run Russia after Stalin's death in 1953 De-Stalinization Khrushchev initiates “The Thaw” Eliminates the central state authority Develop missile defensive/offensive Wants to sincerely (probably) improve relations with West, but… He finally comes to power over all of USSR in March 27 th, 1958
Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. you. -- 1956 De-Stalinization Program
The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister }Promised free elections. }This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.
The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 The Politburo (Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) initially decided not to act because they believed that Hungary would stay communist, Hungary asked to be removed from the Warsaw Pact and the USSR decided to move in and violently end revolution Thousands evacuated (up to 200,000) to the West Time magazine named the Hungarian Freedom Fighter for the man of the year
U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Establish an airbase in Pakistan –cover for a major communications intercept operation run by the American National Security Agency (NSA) Wanted info on the Soviet war machine Weapons sites, nuclear reactor output, etc… Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev stated that an American “spy plane” had been shot down (no mention of the pilot) America claimed the plane was from NASA for weather research – autopilot mistake no pilot = no problem
U-2 Spy Plane Incident On May 7, Khrushchev sprang his trap and announced “I must tell you a secret. When I made my first report I deliberately did not say that the pilot was alive and well… and now just look how many silly things [the Americans] have said.” They had recovered wreckage, photos, and the pilots survival kit At Paris Summit, Eisenhower refused to apologize
JFK elected President 1960 He is also a cold warrior Take any action necessary to protect America In his Inaugural speech, he says the famous quote: “ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country” Battle against USSR is: “a struggle for supremacy between two conflicting ideologies: Freedom under God versus ruthless, godless tyranny
Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
Creation of the Berlin Wall USSR tired of seeing escapes to West USSR tired of seeing escapes to West First it was made with barbed wire, but eventually was all concrete First it was made with barbed wire, but eventually was all concrete 8 crossings from East to West Berlin 8 crossings from East to West Berlin Most famous is Checkpoint Charlie Most famous is Checkpoint Charlie Wall went through 5 different versions Wall went through 5 different versions President Eisenhower did send a battalion of troops to protect Western interests President Eisenhower did send a battalion of troops to protect Western interests
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) Checkpoint Charlie
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
“Prague Spring” (1968) Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček Communism with a human face!
“Prague Spring” Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav Havel—future president of a free Czech Republic ].
4 th French Republic: 1945-1958 4th French Republic: 1945-1958 1.Democratic, but politically unstable [27 governments!] 2.Universal suffrage. 3.Weak President; powerful legislature 4.Many political parties [coalition governments] 5.Failure to gracefully leave Indochina. 6.Botched the Suez War. 7.Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis.
5 th French Republic (1958-Present) 1.Powerful President. * first: Charles DeGaulle 2.Weak Cabinet. 3.Weakened legislature. 4.Separation of powers.
DeGaulle’s Achievements 1.Settled the Algerian Crisis. 2.Made France a nuclear power. 3.Sustained general prosperity. 4.Maintained a stable, democratic government. 5.Made France more politically independent. BUT, late ’60s student unrest and social changes challenged him. In 1968 he resigned & died of a heart attack in 1970.
Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951 1.Limited socialist program [modern welfare state]. Natl. Insurance Act Natl. Health Service Act 2.Nationalized coal mines, public utilities, steel industry, the Bank of England, RRs, motor transportation, and aviation. 3.Social insurance legislation: “Cradle-to-Grave” security. 4.Socialized medicine free national health care.
Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951 6.Britain is in a big debt! 7.The beginning of the end of the British Empire. India – 1947 Palestine – 1948 Kenya Mau Mau uprising - 1955
Churchill Returns: 1951-1955 He never really tried to destroy the “welfare state” established by Attlee’s government.
The Federated Republic of Germany 1.Created in 1949 with the capital at Bonn. 2.Its army limited to 12 divisions [275,000]. 3.Konrad Adenauer, a Christian Democrat, was its 1 st President. Coalition of moderates and conservatives. Pro-Western foreign policy. German “economic miracle.” 4. “Father of Modern Germany.”
Italy After WW II 1.Alcide de Gasperi was Italy’s P.M. from 1948- 1953 2.Coalition governments [short and unstable!]
Part II: “European Union” Part II: “European Union”
European Economic Integration 1.1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] 23 nations. Became the foundation of postwar global commerce. It set up procedures to handle commercial complaints. It provided a framework for continuing negotiations [“rounds”]. By 1990, 99 nations were participating.
European Economic Integration 2.1952 European Coal & Steel Community [ECSC]. HQ in Luxembourg. “Inner Six” Benelux nations, France, Italy, W. Germany. Placed their coal and steel industries under a form of supranational authority. Eliminated tariff duties and quotas on coal and steel.
European Economic Integration 3.1957 European Economic Community [EEC] HQ Brussels. Treaty of Rome.
European Economic Integration 3.1957 European Economic Community [EEC] France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux. Created a larger free trade area, or customs union. Eliminate all trade barriers. One common tariff with the outside world. Free movement of capital & labor.
European Economic Integration 4.1967 combined the ECSC & EEC to form the European Community [EC]. HQ Brussels. European Parliament. “Eurocrats.” 518 members [elected by all voters in Europe]. Only limited legislative power. Court of Justice.
European Economic Integration 5.1991-92 Maastricht Agreements European Union [EU] created from the EC. One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment! Create a “frontier-free” Europe a common EU passport. One large “common market.” Goods coming into the EU would have high tariffs placed on them. 2002 a common currency [Euro] 2003 60,000 men EU rapid defense force was created.