3“Americans must accept wholeheartedly our duty and our opportunity as the most powerful and vital nation in the world and in consequence to assert upon the world the full impact of our influence, for such means we see fit.”Henry Luce (1941) Founder / Publisher of Fortune and Time Magazines
4Essential Questions What does the term “Cold War” Mean? How did the legacies of WWII build the foundation?Outcomes of Cold War – Impact on the United StatesWhat caused the Cold War?What was the Ideology of Containment? How did the USSR respond?What were the U.S.’s Policies?
5Two Interpretations of Cold War The Cold War Was Not InevitablePolitical and Military RealityMisunderstandings Between Policy Makers of U.S. and USSRThe Cold War Represents a ParadoxConformity to “True American Values”Economic Prosperity and Socio Economic Mobility of Middle- and Working Class Americans
6The Cold WarWhat is a “cold” war? How is it different from a “hot” warTimelinePhase One – 1945 – 1950 – Most DangerousPhase Two – 1950 – 1970s – 007Phase Three – 1970s – Detente
7Legacies of WWII The United States Economics Death and Destruction – 500,000Status in WorldEurope – The Human FactorGermany – 6.8 millionSoviet Union – 20.6 millionAsiaJapan – OccupiedChina – RevolutionFrench Indochina (Vietnam) – Nationalism and War for Independence
8Consequences of Legacies: Shift in Power Structure Western European Nations – Loss of PowerImpact of WarNeo-colonialism – loss of “colonies”Two Super PowersThe United States – DemocracyThe Soviet Union - Communism
9Essential Questions 3.5.09 What are two origins of the Cold War? What are three things that George Kennan identified about the USSR?Did we ever invade RussiaHow is communism different then capitalism?
10Origins of Cold War Red Scare of 1920’s German Industry – rebuild Russia with our $$Control Europe?Wilson’s “making world safe for democracy”Satellite statesManhattan Project – USSR against WOMDKarl Marx – next transition of economy
11Karl Marx – The Communist Manifesto 10 Planks of the Communist ManifestoAbolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes.A heavy progressive or graduated income tax.Abolition of all right of inheritance.Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly.Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State.Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State; the bringing into cultivation of waste-lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan.Equal liability of all to labor. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture.Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country, by a more equal distribution of the population over the country.Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, &c.
12Players in Cold War: Two views United StatesPolitical Perspective: DemocracyFear: Ghost of Depression Past and Depression FutureNeed: Free Markets for Trade – Global EconomyThe Soviet UnionPolitical Perspective: CommunismFear: National Security – Future InvasionsNeed: “Buffer Zone” – Eastern Europe and Weak Germany
13Ideology: Policy of “Containment” What is Containment?Underlying Assumptions:The Soviet Union Planned to Expand Its InfluenceImpact on US:Notion of Democracy and Self Determination of NationsEconomic Impact – Rob US of its Global MarketsGeorge KennanConcept of ContainmentRecommendations: Economic & Education
14What did George Kennan Find? The history of Russia has been one of hostile neighbors and a constant fear of attack; it's inevitable that Russia will try to take over its neighbor states to provide a buffer zone.The United States has a duty to confront Soviet aggression with "unalterable counterforce.“The United States must maintain a policy of long-term containment of Soviet aggression.
16Outcomes for United States Economic Prosperity Conformity & Consensus At HomeThe American “Empire”Social & Reform DarwinismSpread Democracy and CapitalismVietnam – Case Study
17Outcomes cont: The Tentacles of Communism Domestic Anticommunism: Fear of Subversive Ideas Response:“McCarthyism”House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)American Society – ConformityWomenRacial Ethnic GroupsMembers of Labor UnionsEducators and JournalistsLeft-leaning liberals, socialists, members of the American communist party
19Essential QuestionsWhat was the Truman Doctrine and how did it impact the Cold WarHow was the Marshall Plan going to help stop communism from spreading in Europe?Why was the Berlin Airlift was one of the most tense moment of the Cold War?
20Essential QuestionsWhy was the Berlin Airlift was one of the most tense moment of the Cold War?What was NSC 68, what event caused it come about, and why was it so significant to our future with the USSR?Explain the causes and significance of the Korean War.
21The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan]METHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
22Focus on Berlin, 1945After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops.Occupation zones after Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.
23The “Iron Curtain”From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
25Truman Doctrine Civil War in Greece-communists vs. freedom fightersTurkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.“The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.”The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
26Marshall Plan  “European Recovery Program.” Secretary of State, George MarshallThe U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
27The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.
29Partition of GermanyU.S. and W. Europeans felt German economy vital to recovery of Europe1949, West Germany became an independent country when US, France and Britain gave back each of their zonesFederal Republic of Germany – led by Konrad Adenauer1949, East Germany formally established – Democratic Republic of Germany led by Walter Ulbricht ( ); communist regime influenced by Moscow
32Eventual site of the Berlin Wall In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade.Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
33A huge airlift:· President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin.· At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily.
34A huge airlift cont…Images of soldiers loading planes and a German girl.Blockade ended in 1949 with Stalin giving in, but keeps Germany separate
35North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: Spain
36Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East GermanyHungaryPolandRumania
37The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
38Change in PolicyIn response to the explosion of a Soviet Atomic bomb, which changed everything, the US came up with National Security Council Paper 68 (NSC-68)Written by Paul Nitze and Policy Planning StaffInitialed by Truman in April 1950
39Assumptions of NSC 68With destruction of German and Japanese power and the decline of Britain and France, world power was being contested for only by US and USSRSoviets’ top priority was establish absolute power over their homeland and Eastern Europe and they were being driven by communism, a “new fanatic faith” that “seeks to impose its absolute authority over the rest of the world”Conflict between the two superpowers was endemic and due to growing number of weapons of mass destruction, every individual faces the threat of annihilationSince Soviets relied on military power to get their way, they could therefore be checked by US military powerIf this military power worked, then there was hope because Soviets’ weak link was relations with Soviet people who, once the US showed it could contain and drive back Soviets, would foster internal seeds of destructionTHUS saw not just containment but destruction of Soviets
40NSC 68Based on its assumptions, Secretary of State Dean Acheson favored:RAPID, MASSIVE MILITARYBUILD-UPCreation of large military force so would not have to rely on nuclear weaponsEstablishment of alliancesPROBLEM: Assumption that Stalin understood only power, so no use to negotiate until build up complete—dismissed idea that this militarization could undermine our system.
41Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power! Mao’s Revolution: 1949Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!
42In mid-1947, Marshall, now Secretary of State, sent Gen In mid-1947, Marshall, now Secretary of State, sent Gen. Albert Wedemeyer to investigate situation in China•Wedemeyer’s report recommended massive aid and 10,000 advisors to help the Chinese Nationalist beat Mao’s Communist forces•Marshall knew this would be inadequate so he did not support or share this report (kept secret)fueling latter charges that Truman lost China
43The Loss of ChinaIn October 1949, Mao Zedong and the communists won the civil warJiang and the remnants of the KMT (Kuomintang) fled to Formosa, which they would call TaiwanIn February 1950, Mao and Stalin signed a mutual assistance pact
44Essential QuestionsWhat is one (probable) cause of the Korean War?Why do the Chinese get involved in this war? How does this cause friction between Truman and MacArthur?Why is the Korean War significant and what is it’s impact?
45The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Kim Il-SungSyngman Rhee“Domino Theory”
46On the road to KoreaAfter World War II, Japanese-occupied Korea was temporarily divided into northern and southern parts.The Soviet Union controlled Korea north of the 38th parallel. The United States would be in charge of Korea south of the 38th parallel.The Soviet Union established a communist government in North Korea. North Korea called itself the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Its first leader was Kim Il Sung.In South Korea, the United States promoted a democratic system. The Republic of Korea was led by president Syngman Rhee.
47Causes of Korean War 1st Theory USSR launches a probe, to test things out and see if the Americans will respond: will the Americans stand up to them, or let Korea be taken over?Americans make a statement that Korea is outside their defense perimeter, therefore, Soviet Union felt they could get away with itthis theory more consistent with Soviet action in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia while they were establishing their eastern sphere of influence ( )
48Causes of Korean war cont… 2nd TheorySoviet Union was trying to set up a trap for China which turned communist in 1949China is a young upstart nation, as the theory goes, that Stalin wants to put their in place i.e. second to or behind the USSRso Stalin starts a war to create a situation where China will feel compelled to get involved, get into a direct conflict with the USA, who will humiliate the Chinese and put them in their place
49Causes of Korean war cont… 3rd TheoryChina, acting on its own, wanted to show the world they were a strong communist nationproblem with this theory is that China had just gone through 23 years of war, last thing China needed was another major conflict
50Causes of Korean war cont… 4th TheoryKim Il Sung, leader of N. Korea, took it upon himself to attack S. Korea, which was a country only because it was divided by the Cold WarKim Il Sung dies in 1994, taking his secret to the grave
51The War Begins North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. Most leaders in the United States were surprised by this attack.American troops stationed in South Korea since WW II had recently completed their withdrawal.The United States was not well prepared to fight in Korea; however, the decision to fight was made quickly.Truman decided that the United States would take a stand against Communist aggression in Korea – we back Syngman Rhee’s democratic governmentThe United Nations Security Council voted unanimously in favor of the use of force in Korea-becomes a POLICE ACTION against North KoreaThis attack also confirmed the analysis of NSC 68 – Soviets were hell bent to spread communism throughout the world
52Chinese involvement?Chairman Mao Tse Tung is watching American forces closelyHe has 500,000 troops waiting in Manchuria for the arrival of American ForcesAs the NKPA is pushed back across the 38th parallel, Washington gives MacArthur permission to cross the parallel, but he is told:Stop at any sign of Russian or Chinese interventionDO NOT cross or even fire in the direction of the Yalu River
53Truman vs. MacArthurGeneral Douglas MacArthur, who had been put in charge of there construction of Japan, was running the Korean WarPres. Truman is getting nervous and summons MacArthur to Wake Island For a Face-to-Face.MacArthur is upset that he is interrupted and has to leave during his campaign.Truman Concerned about the possibility of Chinese interventionMacArthur’s arrogance aboundsMacArthur claims that the war will be over by Thanksgiving and the men will be home by Christmas
54Combat in KoreaUN forces made an amphibious landing behind North Korean lines at the port city of Inchon.MacArthur’s surprise attack worked beautifully.The September 1950 invasion at Inchon was a key victory for UN forces.Offensives from Inchon and Pusan resulted in the destruction or surrender of huge numbers of North Korean troops.By October 1950 all of South Korea was back in UN hands.“In order to hook a big fish, you must let the fish taste your bait.” – Chairman Mao Tse TungUN forces had begun to move into North Korea, but the when 260,000 Chinese troops joined the North Koreans the UN began to retreat.UN forces retreated all the way back to Seoul. It was the longest fallback in U.S. military history.
55General MacArthur Is Fired MacArthur said that the UN faced a choice between defeat by the Chinese or a major war with them.He wanted to expand the war by bombing the Chinese mainland, perhaps even with atomic weapons.Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway stopped the Chinese onslaught and pushed them back to the 38th parallel— without needing to expand the war or use atomic weapons.MacArthur disagreed with President Truman about the direction of the fighting and challenged the authority of the president.Truman fired MacArthur.Many Americans were outraged at the firing of MacArthur.
56Fighting Ends in Korea Negotiating for Peace Events of 1953 In July 1951 peace talks began.One major obstacle was the location of the boundary between the Koreas.Meanwhile battles such as Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge continued, inflicting heavy casualties on both sides.In October 1951 peace talks stalled over prisoners of war.Negotiators in Panmunjom continued to argue over the details of a peace agreement throughout 1952.Events of 1953In 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower—who promised to end the war—was elected president.Fighting remained deadly—in the final two months of the war, UN forces lost 57,000 men and the Communists lost 100,000.An armistice agreement was finally reached on July 27, 1953.The Korean War left the map of Korea looking much as it had in 1950.The human costs were huge.
57Impact of Korean War First armed conflict of the Cold War Proxy war-a war fought by the two superpowers would fight in another country, forcing the people in that nation to suffer the bulk of the destruction and death involved in a war between such large nationsCold War not limited to EuropeDMZ (Demilitarized Zone) established between the two countries - heavily guarded by both sides155 miles long, 2.5 miles wide, most heavily guarded in the entire world
58Essential QuestionsHow does the Cold War affect domestic (home) affairs?Who was someone accused of being a communist during the Cold War? What happened to them?How does Senator Joe McCarthy rise to power during the Cold War?
60HOLLYWOOD TENIn 1947, the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) investigated supposed communists in Hollywood – 41 interviewedA group of actors, named “The Hollywood Ten,” refused to testify and on November 24, 1947,were blacklisted and sent to jail for a yearclaimed they were protected by the 1st Amendment – court disagreedMany others did cooperate and name names resulting in the blacklisting of some 250 Hollywood personalities.Once blacklisted, it was almost impossible for these people to get a job in Hollywood (or any where else for that matter)
61Alger Hiss In January 1950, Alger Hiss was convicted of PERJURY Journalist Whittaker Chambers claimed that in the 1930s Hiss had been a fellow member of the Communist party and had passed secret government documents to himHiss denied itRole of young California Congressman, R.M. NixonHiss was sentenced to 44 months in jail.
62Richard Nixon (right) and the chief investigator for the House Committee on Un-American Activities inspect microfilm of the “pumpkin papers.” Hidden inside a pumpkin on the Maryland farm of committee informant Whittaker Chambers, the papers helped convict Alger Hiss of perjury. Nixon’s role in pursuing Hiss launched a political career that took him to the White House.
63Rosenbergs In the same month, a spy ring was discovered It included Klaus Fuchs, a German born British scientist who had helped develop the atomic bomb and had passed secrets to the Russians both during and immediately after WWIIThe FBI traced the trail back to Fuch's courier, Harry GoldFrom Gold to one of his contacts, former army machinist David GreenglassAnd from Greenglass to his sister and brother-in-law, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
64RosenbergsGold, Greenglass and his wife Ruth cooperated with the authorities, the Rosenbergs did notThey were tried and convicted of espionageThey were executed in June 1953,leaving two young sons
65Essential QuestionsWhy does Senator Joseph McCarthy latch onto communism in 1950?How would you describe his attacks on Americans? How does he get so many people to listen to him?What causes him to finally fall out of the public spotlight in 1954? How did this cause long term damage to America?
66Are you a Communist? Senator Joseph McCarthy January 1950, Joseph McCarthy needed an issue to win re-election in1952He seized on communism, declaring in a speech in West Virginia that 205 communists infested the State DepartmentLater pressed for proof, the numbers changed to 81, 57 and “a lot.” A Senate investigation concluded that McCarthy’s accusations were empty
67Senator Joe McCarthy used press releases and carefully managed congressional committee hearings to attack suspected Communists, although he had almost no hard information. At the Army-McCarthy hearings in June 1954, he clashed with attorney Joseph Welch. Here Welch listens as McCarthy points to Oregon on a map that supposedly showed Communist Party organization in the United States.
68Joseph McCarthyMcCarthyism seemed to reign triumphant as Republicans, including now Senator Nixon, won bigBook burners tried to burn Robin Hood claiming it was communistRacists claimed those who said Blacks weren’t treated fairly were probably communistMcCarthy launched unending attacks on the State Dept, especially on Dean Acheson, that drove many, particularly knowledgeable East Asian hands accused of “losing China,” out of the government
69Joseph McCarthyIn 1952, he criticized George Marshall, the man who had championed then presidential candidate Ike (who made no comment)George Marshall was the creator of the Marshall Plan and was a WWII heroLoved by many AmericansMcCarthy claimed that Marshall was part of a “conspiracy so immense and an infamy so black as to dwarf any previous such venture in the history of man.”
70Army vs. McCarthy McCarthy’s end McCarthy’s assistant was drafted by the U.S. Army, and wanted special exception to not fight-special treatmentMcCarthy claims the military has been infiltrated by communists and he needs to investigateArmy-McCarthy hearings started in April 1954 and lasted for 36 days
71Army vs. McCarthy cont… Hearings were televised Most Americans first view of McCarthyMany believed that he was a well-spoken proper manThey were surprised by his language and savage attacks on the ArmyHe fabricated evidence for the case, and had been caught cropping pictures and offering fake letters beforeAfter 1954 elections, Senate finally censured McCarthy and his power faded (he died1957)Unfortunately, despite McCarthy’s death, his policies remained alive
72Long Term ResultsSecretary of State, John Foster Dulles, had tried to please fervent anti-communists by letting one control the State DepartmentAs a result, hundreds left foreign service and morale and standards sank, especially in AsiaComplete decimation of the Communist Party in AmericaAborted much needed reforms (New Deal)Effective criticism of American foreign policy non-existentFear of national security took precedence of ordinary law and civil rights/liberties
74Essential QuestionsHow does America’s and Russia's policy change in the beginning of the 1950’s?Why does East Germany (at the approval of the Soviet Union) create the Berlin Wall?Describe the Bay of Pigs invasion. How was this an example of American hypocrisy?
75Eisenhower becomes President in 1952 Committed to fight the Cold WarStand up to Chinese and RussiansHe will defend U.S. interests around the worldCalled Communism“a tyranny… attempting to make all of humankind it chattel.”John Foster Dulles is Secretary of StateHelps design U.S. foreign policyThought containment was not enoughLiberation against “Godless communism”
76Nikita KhrushchevPart of a group of men who run Russia after Stalin's death in 1953De-StalinizationKhrushchev initiates “The Thaw”Eliminates the central state authorityDevelop missile defensive/offensiveWants to sincerely (probably) improve relations with West, but…He finally comes to power over all of USSR in March 27th, 1958
77Premier Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization Program About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury youDe-Stalinization Program
78The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister Promised free elections.This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.
79The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 The Politburo (Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) initially decided not to act because they believed that Hungary would stay communist,Hungary asked to be removed from the Warsaw Pact and the USSR decided to move in and violently end revolutionThousands evacuated (up to 200,000)to the WestTime magazine named the Hungarian Freedom Fighter for the man of the year
83Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. U-2 Spy Incident (1960)Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
84U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Establish an airbase in Pakistan cover for a major communications intercept operation run by the American National Security Agency (NSA)Wanted info on the Soviet war machineWeapons sites, nuclear reactor output, etc…Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev stated that an American “spy plane” had been shot down (no mention of the pilot)America claimed the plane was from NASA for weather research – autopilot mistakeno pilot = no problem
85U-2 Spy Plane IncidentOn May 7, Khrushchev sprang his trap and announced“I must tell you a secret. When I made my first report I deliberately did not say that the pilot was alive and well… and now just look how many silly things [the Americans] have said.”They had recovered wreckage, photos, and the pilots survival kitAt Paris Summit, Eisenhower refused to apologize
86JFK elected President 1960 He is also a cold warrior Take any action necessary to protect AmericaIn his Inaugural speech, he says the famous quote:“ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country”Battle against USSR is:“a struggle for supremacy between two conflicting ideologies: Freedom under God versus ruthless, godless tyranny
87Paris, 1961Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
88Creation of the Berlin Wall USSR tired of seeing escapes to WestFirst it was made with barbed wire, but eventually was all concrete8 crossings from East to West BerlinMost famous is Checkpoint CharlieWall went through 5 different versionsPresident Eisenhower did send a battalion of troops to protect Western interests
89The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) Checkpoint Charlie
90President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them! Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
98“Prague Spring” (1968) Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček Communism with a human face!
99“Prague Spring” Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav Havel—future president of a free Czech Republic].
1004th French Republic:Democratic, but politically unstable [27 governments!]Universal suffrage.Weak President; powerful legislatureMany political parties [coalition governments]Failure to gracefully leave Indochina.Botched the Suez War.Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis.
1015th French Republic (1958-Present) Powerful President. * first: Charles DeGaulleWeak Cabinet.Weakened legislature.Separation of powers.
102DeGaulle’s Achievements Settled the Algerian Crisis.Made France a nuclear power.Sustained general prosperity.Maintained a stable, democratic government.Made France more politically independent.BUT, late ’60s student unrest and social changes challenged him. In 1968 he resigned & died of a heart attack in 1970.
104Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951 Limited socialist program [modern welfare state].Natl. Insurance ActNatl. Health Service ActNationalized coal mines, public utilities, steel industry, the Bank of England, RRs, motor transportation, and aviation.Social insurance legislation: “Cradle-to-Grave” security.Socialized medicine free national health care.
105Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951 Britain is in a big debt!The beginning of the end of the British Empire.India – 1947Palestine – 1948Kenya Mau Mau uprising
106Churchill Returns:He never really tried to destroy the “welfare state” established by Attlee’s government.
107The Federated Republic of Germany Created in 1949 with the capital at Bonn.Its army limited to 12 divisions [275,000].Konrad Adenauer, a Christian Democrat, was its 1st President.Coalition of moderates and conservatives.Pro-Western foreign policy.German “economic miracle.”“Father of Modern Germany.”
108Italy After WW II Alcide de Gasperi was Italy’s P.M. from 1948-1953 Coalition governments [short and unstable!]
110European Economic Integration 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT]23 nations.Became the foundation of postwar global commerce.It set up procedures to handle commercial complaints.It provided a framework for continuing negotiations [“rounds”].By 1990, 99 nations were participating.
111European Economic Integration 1952 European Coal & Steel Community [ECSC].HQ in Luxembourg.“Inner Six” Benelux nations, France, Italy, W. Germany.Placed their coal and steel industries under a form of supranational authority.Eliminated tariff duties and quotas on coal and steel.
112European Economic Integration 1957 European Economic Community [EEC]HQ Brussels.Treaty of Rome.
113European Economic Integration 1957 European Economic Community [EEC]France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux.Created a larger free trade area, or customs union.Eliminate all trade barriers.One common tariff with the outside world.Free movement of capital & labor.
114European Economic Integration 1967 combined the ECSC & EEC to form the European Community [EC].HQ Brussels.European Parliament.“Eurocrats.”518 members [elected by all voters in Europe].Only limited legislative power.Court of Justice.
115European Economic Integration Maastricht AgreementsEuropean Union [EU] created from the EC.One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment!Create a “frontier-free” Europe a common EU passport.One large “common market.”Goods coming into the EU would have high tariffs placed on them.2002 a common currency [Euro]2003 60,000 men EU rapid defense force was created.