Presentation on theme: "By MAJ Donna DeBonis 30 JUL 2010 Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo."— Presentation transcript:
By MAJ Donna DeBonis 30 JUL 2010 Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo
To inform medical treatment personnel about current risks of rabies in the Balkans. To educate about state of the art rabies prevention in Balkan wild animals.
Family: Rhabdoviridae - infect a broad range of hosts throughout the animal and plant kingdom. Animal rhabdoviruses infect insects, fish, and mammals, including humans Genus: Lyssavirus - Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, so their infectious particles are approximately cylindrical in shape Species: Rabies virus
Rabies (from Latin: rabies, “madness, rage, fury.” Also known as “hydrophobia”) is a viral zoonotic neuroinvasive disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in mammals.
Tortoise Pigeon Bullfrog Hermann tortoise on CBS
European Hare on Camp Bondsteel Not a bunny Runs in droves
From World Health Organization, Rabies Bulletin Europe published MAY 2010, Geneva www.who-rabies-bulletin.org WildlifeDomesticBatsHumansTOTAL Albania01 -Bov001 Bulgaria7-Fx0007 Macedonia00000 Serbia34-Fx10-Fe/k90044 Montenegro10-Fx3-k 9/Bov/Ov 0013 Bosnia Herzegovin 01-Bov001
fox deer racoon dog racoon wolf badger Marten mustelides wild boar
The ‘ magic ‘ tool for rabies control : have not only succeeded to eradicate the disease in less than 10 years in many countries but remains available at any time in case of its re-emergence
No human cases of rabies have been reported at least for the past 30 years in Kosovo. In October 2007, two cases of rabies in wild animals (foxes) were reported. To date, sound data on rabies based on a national surveillance plan are so far lacking but will be collected during the OIF project funded by European Union. OIF Project in order to decrease Rabies; Kosovo goal to join European Union
European Commission Liaison Office to Kosovo Project funding Equipment Consultants
Drops bait at colder altitudes so doesn’t melt GPS/flies grid-records location and numbers of bait dropped Vaccinate the main culprits(red foxes) with oral rabies vaccine (ORV) Czechoslvokian contractor flies this specially outfitted plane
Fox rabies re-emerged in northeastern Italy in 2008, in an area bordering Slovenia. In 2009, the infection spread westward to Veneto region and in 2010 to the provinces of Trento and Bolzano. Aerial emergency oral fox vaccination was implemented in the winter 2009-10. Of the foxes sampled following the vaccination campaign, 77% showed a protective rabies antibody titre of ≥0.5 IU/ml.
At least 300 fox Samples to be Collected per year for two years.
In some countries (like Italy), the foxes are captured, tranquilized and blood samples collected. In Kosovo, the fox brain is tested for rabies and the femur is xrayed to check for tetracycline marker used in ORV RABIES SURVEILLANCE SAMPLES
Tetracycline in bones Fluorescent Antibody Test for Rabies Detection in brain
Arrange big hunts to kill the offending animal(s) As recent as last month over 500 dogs were killed in Gjellane Many pets were killed when running with the pack
Ligji Nr. 02/L-10 PËR PËRKUJDESJEN NDAJ KAFSHËVE Neni 8 Vrasja e kafshëve 8.1. Përveç në rastet emergjente të cilat dukshëm tregojnë dhembje ekstreme që mund të pasojnë me ngordhje, vetëm veterinari ose personi tjetër kompetent lejohet të vras kafshën e llojit të zbutur ose çfarëdo kafshe të egër e cila është zbutur, përveç kafshëve të mbarështuara për prodhim të ushqimit. 8.2. Në rastet kur është e domosdoshme vrasja e kafshës, duhet të bëhet me vuajtje minimale fizike dhe mentale të saj. 8.3. Personi përgjegjës për vrasje do të sigurojë se kafsha ka ngordhur para eliminimit të trupit të saj. 8.4. Ministria do të nxjerr akt nënligjor me të cilin përcakton: a) rastet në të cilat lejohet vrasja e kafshëve dhe mënyra në të cilën mund të bëhet vrasja; b) personin që mund të vrasë kafshën; c) objektet dhe pajisjet e thertoreve; d) metodat e trullosjes dhe therjes së mëparshme, me kusht që metodat e tilla të sjellin kafshën në gjendje të pavetëdijes, e cila zgjatë derisa të vritet; e) transportin e kafshëve të lënduara apo sëmura me qëllim të therjes, duke siguruar që transporti i tillë nuk shkakton vuajtje të mëtutjeshme për kafshët. 8.5. Dispozitat e paragrafit 8.4 të këtij neni nuk zbatohen për kafshët e egra të gjahut.
Article 8 Slaughtering animals 8.1. Excepting emergency cases in which animals seem to be in extreme pain that may lead to death, only a veterinarian or other competent person may kill domestic or domesticated wild animals; this does not include animals bred for consumption. 8.2. When killing is imperative, ensure minimal physical and mental harm is inflicted upon the animal. 8.3. The person responsible for killing must ensure the animal is dead before disposing it.
8.4. The ministry will issue a sublegal act to determine: a) when killing animals is allowed and how it must be conducted; b) who may kill animals; c) butchery facilities and equipment; d) methods of stupefaction and pre-slaughtering; ensure the animal remains unconscious until slaughtering is complete. e) transportation of wounded or sick animals to butcheries, ensuring no further suffering is caused to them. 8.5. Provisions of al. 8.4 of this article do no apply for wild animals.
‘ Killing is not and cannot be a solution if we want a Kosovo with no killing any more,” Pristina Mayor Ismet Beqiri said. Quoted from article : Muslim Kosovo Killing off Dogs By Julia GorinJulia Gorin PoliticalMavens.com April 29th, 2007
This is the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Kosovar government provides free rabies vaccine to all private veterinarians. Vaccination clinics are performed annually by the Kosovar government veterinarians.
WORLD RABIES DAY September 28 The most important global source of rabies in humans is from uncontrolled rabies in dogs. www.worldrabiesday.org
1. through ensuring adequate animal vaccination and control 2. educating those at risk 3. enhancing access of those bitten to appropriate medical care
Exposure to rodents, rabbits and hares seldom, if ever, requires specific anti-rabies treatment. If an apparently healthy dog or cat in or from a low-risk area is placed under observation, it may be justified to delay specific treatment. This observation period applies only to domestic dogs and cats Except in the case of threatened or endangered species, other domestic and wild animals suspected as rabid should be euthanized and their tissues examined using appropriate laboratory techniques.
Vaccinate your animals! Quarantine animals a. if suspected rabid b. Before travel to another country Vaccinate yourself Rabies education Post exposure treatment Seek medical advice Report animal bites