2Europe The world’s second smallest continent Located in the northern hemisphereHuge diversity of landforms and cultures
3Regions of Europe Western Europe Eastern Europe British Isles Northern EuropeMediterranean Europe
4Landforms and Resources PeninsulasEurope is a large peninsula stretching to the west of AsiaEurope as several small peninsulasMajor European peninsulasScandinavian PeninsulaJutland PeninsulaIberian PeninsulaItalian PeninsulaBalkan Peninsula
5Islands Great Britain Ireland Iceland Greenland Corsica Sardinia SicilyCrete
6Mountains and UplandsAlpsPyreneesApennine Mts.Balkan Mts.
8Rivers and Fertile Plains Danube- cuts through the heart of Europe from west to eastTouches 9 countriesRhine- flows 820 miles from interior to the North SeaNorthern European Plain- one of the most fertile agricultural regions in the worldStretches across France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, and Poland
9Resources Coal and Iron Energy Oil and natural gas beneath the North SeaNorway, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Denmark pump oil from rigsThe North Sea fields are major sources of petroleum for the worldAgricultural land33% of Europe’s land is suitable for agriculture (world average is 11%)Produce a variety of crops- grains, grapes, olives, corkTimber
10Climate Westerly winds warm Europe Most of Europe is marine west coast climateThe nearby ocean and dominant winds create the mild climateNorth Atlantic Drift- current of warm water from the tropics, flows near Europe’s west coastPrevailing westerlies blow west to east, pick up warmth from this current and carry it over EuropeAlso carry moisture- giving the region adequate rainfall
11Climate and Vegetation Far from the Atlantic- Sweden, Finland, eastern part of Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary, and all of Romania have a humid continental climateCold snowy winters and either warm or hot summersAdequate rainfall
12Climate and Vegetation Sunny MediterraneanSouthern part of Spain and France through Italy to Greece and other parts of the Balkan PeninsulaHot dry summersException- Mediterranean France- not protected by high mountainsIn winter most of this coast receives mistral (cold and dry) winds from the north
13Climate and Vegetation Most of the Mediterranean countries experience a wind called the sirocco- hot, steady south wind that blows from North Africa across the Mediterranean Sea into south EuropeProduces rain
14Assignment Create a country snapshot based on one country in Europe. The information you collect will be used in group discussions so make sure you collect enough information.
16Discussion Questions Explain your country to your group. Why do you think Switzerland did not become a maritime leader as opposed to England, Spain, Portugal, and Norway?What are the unique physical features, climates, and resources of Europe's nations?How does the physical location of a nation affect its political, social, and economic characteristics?How does the physical geography shape a nations culture?
17Human-Environment Interaction Venice, Italy- more than 150 canalsAlmost anything that is moved on wheels elsewhere is moved by water in VeniceLocated at the north end of the Adriatic Sea- trade helped Venice growSwampy land- made construction more difficultCauses the city to gradually sink
18Human-Environment Interaction Deforestation- clearing forests from an areaEurope has lost huge areas of forestsAcid rain strips forestsFactories produce high amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissionsThese combine with water vapor and oxygen to form acid rain or snow
23Human-Environment Interaction The Netherlands- the Dutch neededmore land for their growingpopulation so they reclaimedland from the seaAt least 40% of the Netherlandswas once under the seaPolder- land that is reclaimedby diking and draining
24How is acid rain affecting Europe? While reading the article take notes on page 62 or 63. Use these questions to guide your note-taking.How is acid rain affecting Europe?What is contributing to the problem?What other problems (non environmental) can acid rain cause?What are some ways that Europeans can solve the issues caused by acid rain?
25Mediterranean Europe- “All roads lead to Rome” Home to the two great civilizations of ancient EuropeAncient Greece and ancient RomeMild climate made it easier for people to settle and surviveMediterranean Sea encouraged overseas trade
26Mediterranean Europe Greece- birthplace of democracy 2000 B.C.- people moved from the north to the Balkan PeninsulaMountainous region so the cities and villages were very isolated from each other and developed into separate city-states.City-state- political unit made up of a city and its surrounding lands
27Mediterranean EuropeAncient Greece left a lasting impact on modern lifeAthens developed the first democracy (government in which people rule)Athenian democracy helped inspire the U.S. system of governmentGreek science, philosophy, drama, and art helped shape modern cultureIn the 400s B.C. conflict made Greece weakSeveral city-states fought costly series of wars with Persia- an empire in southwest AsiaAthens also fought a war with Sparta- a rival Greek city-stateFinally in 338 B.C., Macedonia conquered Greece and in 336 B.C. Macedonia general Alexander the Great conquered Persia and part of India.His empire spread Greek Culture but broke apart after his death.
28Mediterranean Europe The Roman Empire As Greece was losing power, Rome (west) was risingRome ruled most of the Italian Peninsula by 275 B.C.Rome was a republic- government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their nameThe Roman Empire grew by conquering territory overseas, including the Iberian and Balkan PeninsulasRepublic ended when an emperor took control of RomeSpread Christianity (Rome’s official religion)By A.D. 395, the empire was too large so it split into a western and eastern halfWestern Rome fell in A.D. 476 because of German invadersEastern Rome lasted for about 1,000 more years
29Mediterranean Europe Crusades The Renaissance 1096, European Christians launched the crusades- a series of wars to take Palestine from the Muslimshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0zudTQelzIThe RenaissanceA time of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th-16th centuriesInspired by classical art and writingsBubonic plague reached Italy from Asia and killed millions of Europeans (we’ll spend more time on this tomorrow)
30Mediterranean Europe Spain’s Empire 700s- Muslims from North Africa conquered the Iberian PeninsulaMuslims controlled the region for more than 700 yearsIn 1492, Spain’s Catholic rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella took retook Spain from the MuslimsThe empires spread Catholicism and the Spanish and Portuguese languages throughout the world
31Mediterranean Europe Culture Greek, Portuguese, Spanish, and Italian Eastern Orthodox and Roman CatholicismClassical statues, Renaissance painting and sculpture
32Mediterranean Europe Political turmoil in the 20th century Two dictators- Benito Mussolini in Italy and Francisco Franco in SpainThey both ruled for long periods of timeFascism- government has complete control over peoples lives and they are not allowed to disagree with the governmentAfter WWII- Italy became a republic
33ActivityComplete the reading on the Crusades and the assignment that follows.
34Western Europe Dominant countries- France and Germany Both places have strong cultures that spread over EuropeCharlemagne- Germanic king- he conquered most of the regionHis empire declined after his deathWestern Europe remained a region of small, competing kingdoms
35Western Europe Reformation Religious movement Many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churchesHostility between Catholics and Protestants to fight religious wars that tore Europe apartToday people still are mainly Catholic and Protestant in western Europe
36Western EuropePeriod between fall of Rome and the Renaissance= the Middle AgesNation-state- an independent nation of people with a common cultureAfter Rome fellFeudalism gradually developed EuropeA political system in which powerful lords owned most of the landThey gave some land to nobles in exchange for military service by those noblesNationalism developed- the belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture, and history
37Western Europe Late 1600’s- French kings held absolute power The French Revolution- 1789Napoleon Bonaparte seized power and made himself Emperor. He tried to conquer all of Europe but was defeatedNation-states of Europe became rivalsExperienced industrial growth in the late 1800sIndustrialism caused European nations to set up colonies around the world
38Western EuropeNationalistic conflict rivalry and competition helped to cause WWI.Allied Powers (France) found the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary)Allied Powers won and imposed harsh terms on GermanyGerman resentment helped to cause WWII
39Western EuropeWWII- Germany, led by Hitler and the Nazis, tried to conquer EuropeHolocaust- A program of mass murder of European Jews and other minoritiesAllies defeated Germany and Germany was split into two nations- East Germany (aligned with Communist) and West GermanyThe two nations were divided by the Berlin WallIn 1989, anti-Communist reforms swept Europe and East Germany opened the Berlin Wall1990- the two Germanys reunited under a democratic government
40Western EuropeRegions economy is strong- includes agriculture, and manufacturing, plus high-tech and service industriesThe region has three of Europe’s top manufacturing nations: France, Germany, and the NetherlandsTourism is also a major part of the regions economies.(We’ll talk more about economics in the region next week- The European Union)
41Western Europe What is a nation state? How did nation-states emerge from feudal societies?How was Germany divided and then re-united?Why are France and Germany the dominant counties of Western Europe?How did language differences develop in Western Europe?What economic challenge does Germany face?
43Northern EuropeThe United Kingdom, Ireland, and Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and SwedenHistory of seafaring conquerors
44Northern Europe Great Britain’s influence Developed representative governmentParliamentary MonarchIdeas spread to the U.S., Canada, and various British coloniesIndustrial revolutionIron ore and coal
45Northern EuropeNordic countries did not involve themselves in other nations’ affairsBritain played major role in world wars (Allies).British involvement in other parts of the worldColoniesLasting affects
46Northern Europe Economy Highly developed Manufacturing and traditional economic activities like fishing and forestryHigh-tech industries
47Northern EuropeMost people live in cities and have high standard of livingNordic countries have many welfare systems for their familiesFamilies are given allowancesNational health insurance programsPeople in these places pay very high taxes
49Homework Quiz BHow do language and religion reflect the cultural division in Western Europe?How did the the Reformation affect Northern Europe?How does the economic strength of a nation affect its willingness to welcome immigrants?Why is there conflict in Northern Ireland?
50Eastern EuropeAlbania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, YugoslaviaCultural Crossroads- place where various cultures cross pathsPeople moving between Asia and Europe have crossed this region- traders, nomads, migrants, and armiesThe region was controlled by Empires for a long time so the rise of independent nations was slow
51Eastern EuropeCenturies of foreign rule led to ethnic groups guarding their identitiesSparked many conflicts in the 20th century1912- Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia went to war against the Ottomans1913- Balkan countries fought over territory ownership- led to balkanization- the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units
52Eastern Europe1914- A Serb assassinated an Austrian noble, sparking WWIOttoman Empire ended and is now Turkey-1923During WWII the Soviet Union gains control over much of Eastern EuropeSet up satellite nations- nations dominated by another countryThe Soviet Union controls most of Easter Europe for 4 decades
53Eastern Europe Instability followed after the Soviet Union lost power After communist party people returned to ethnic loyalties.Caused conflict
54Eastern Europe Economy After most Eastern European countries began to move toward a market economySome countries have had problems making economic progressOld equipmentLack of fundsCivil warsEastern Europe is much less urbanized than the rest of EuropeAs industry grows so will the cities
55Activity In your groups… Look over the Bosnia timeline together. Discuss the questions on your desks. (Number 3 must go on a separate sheet of paper)Remember your grade is based on how much I hear you discussing the CONTENT!!!
56Discussion prompts What is genocide? How can nationalism lead to war? Create a five-event timeline. Name 5 events that occurred during the war.Compare and contrast genocide and ethnic cleansing.What region in the world are we talking about here?
57Draw this chart in your notebook! IssueExplain the issue. What is happening?How can we fix it?Climate ChangeLand UseAir pollutionBiodiversityUrban GrowthWater
591993 European Union created 1951 – France and West Germany gave control of their coal and steel resources to a multination group called the European Coal and Steel Community1993 European Union created
60The EU is similar to NAFTA Encourages trade among the member nations
61What would be some of the concerns people would have about these? Common currency called the Euro replaced national currency.Workers are free to move throughout the EU zone.EU law supersedes sovereign laws.What would be some of the concerns people would have about these?
62Eastern European countries have begun to join the EU The alliance is expanding . . .Eastern European countries have begun to join the EU
63Warm-up 1/29What do you already know about the Bubonic Plague? What is it? Where did it happen? When did it happen? How was it spread?