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Presentation on theme: "Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Europe

2 Europe The world’s second smallest continent
Located in the northern hemisphere Huge diversity of landforms and cultures

3 Regions of Europe Western Europe Eastern Europe British Isles
Northern Europe Mediterranean Europe

4 Landforms and Resources
Peninsulas Europe is a large peninsula stretching to the west of Asia Europe as several small peninsulas Major European peninsulas Scandinavian Peninsula Jutland Peninsula Iberian Peninsula Italian Peninsula Balkan Peninsula

5 Islands Great Britain Ireland Iceland Greenland Corsica Sardinia
Sicily Crete

6 Mountains and Uplands Alps Pyrenees Apennine Mts. Balkan Mts.


8 Rivers and Fertile Plains
Danube- cuts through the heart of Europe from west to east Touches 9 countries Rhine- flows 820 miles from interior to the North Sea Northern European Plain- one of the most fertile agricultural regions in the world Stretches across France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, and Poland

9 Resources Coal and Iron Energy
Oil and natural gas beneath the North Sea Norway, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Denmark pump oil from rigs The North Sea fields are major sources of petroleum for the world Agricultural land 33% of Europe’s land is suitable for agriculture (world average is 11%) Produce a variety of crops- grains, grapes, olives, cork Timber

10 Climate Westerly winds warm Europe
Most of Europe is marine west coast climate The nearby ocean and dominant winds create the mild climate North Atlantic Drift- current of warm water from the tropics, flows near Europe’s west coast Prevailing westerlies blow west to east, pick up warmth from this current and carry it over Europe Also carry moisture- giving the region adequate rainfall

11 Climate and Vegetation
Far from the Atlantic- Sweden, Finland, eastern part of Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary, and all of Romania have a humid continental climate Cold snowy winters and either warm or hot summers Adequate rainfall

12 Climate and Vegetation
Sunny Mediterranean Southern part of Spain and France through Italy to Greece and other parts of the Balkan Peninsula Hot dry summers Exception- Mediterranean France- not protected by high mountains In winter most of this coast receives mistral (cold and dry) winds from the north

13 Climate and Vegetation
Most of the Mediterranean countries experience a wind called the sirocco- hot, steady south wind that blows from North Africa across the Mediterranean Sea into south Europe Produces rain

14 Assignment Create a country snapshot based on one country in Europe.
The information you collect will be used in group discussions so make sure you collect enough information.

15 Snapshot Physical Geography Political Social Economic Freebie Location

16 Discussion Questions Explain your country to your group.
Why do you think Switzerland did not become a maritime leader as opposed to England, Spain, Portugal, and Norway? What are the unique physical features, climates, and resources of Europe's nations? How does the physical location of a nation affect its political, social, and economic characteristics? How does the physical geography shape a nations culture?

17 Human-Environment Interaction
Venice, Italy- more than 150 canals Almost anything that is moved on wheels elsewhere is moved by water in Venice Located at the north end of the Adriatic Sea- trade helped Venice grow Swampy land- made construction more difficult Causes the city to gradually sink

18 Human-Environment Interaction
Deforestation- clearing forests from an area Europe has lost huge areas of forests Acid rain strips forests Factories produce high amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions These combine with water vapor and oxygen to form acid rain or snow

19 Urbanization Europe is among the most highly urbanized regions of the world 73% of Europeans live in cities West is more urbanized than East Most urbanized countries Belgium, Iceland, United Kingdom, Germany, France Least urbanized country Albania ©2012, TESCCC

20 Urbanization European urban areas are like suburban areas in the United States European cityscapes differ from North American cities due to: Long histories Scarce land Strong government control of urban land development ©2012, TESCCC

21 Population 3rd largest population cluster
High Population densities in western Europe Nordic Europe very sparsely populated After East Asia and South Asia ©2012, TESCCC

22 Changing Population Population falling Smaller working age population
Fertility at all-time low Immigration offsetting losses Fewer young people ©2012, TESCCC

23 Human-Environment Interaction
The Netherlands- the Dutch needed more land for their growing population so they reclaimed land from the sea At least 40% of the Netherlands was once under the sea Polder- land that is reclaimed by diking and draining

24 How is acid rain affecting Europe?
While reading the article take notes on page 62 or 63. Use these questions to guide your note-taking. How is acid rain affecting Europe? What is contributing to the problem? What other problems (non environmental) can acid rain cause? What are some ways that Europeans can solve the issues caused by acid rain?

25 Mediterranean Europe- “All roads lead to Rome”
Home to the two great civilizations of ancient Europe Ancient Greece and ancient Rome Mild climate made it easier for people to settle and survive Mediterranean Sea encouraged overseas trade

26 Mediterranean Europe Greece- birthplace of democracy
2000 B.C.- people moved from the north to the Balkan Peninsula Mountainous region so the cities and villages were very isolated from each other and developed into separate city-states. City-state- political unit made up of a city and its surrounding lands

27 Mediterranean Europe Ancient Greece left a lasting impact on modern life Athens developed the first democracy (government in which people rule) Athenian democracy helped inspire the U.S. system of government Greek science, philosophy, drama, and art helped shape modern culture In the 400s B.C. conflict made Greece weak Several city-states fought costly series of wars with Persia- an empire in southwest Asia Athens also fought a war with Sparta- a rival Greek city-state Finally in 338 B.C., Macedonia conquered Greece and in 336 B.C. Macedonia general Alexander the Great conquered Persia and part of India. His empire spread Greek Culture but broke apart after his death.

28 Mediterranean Europe The Roman Empire
As Greece was losing power, Rome (west) was rising Rome ruled most of the Italian Peninsula by 275 B.C. Rome was a republic- government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name The Roman Empire grew by conquering territory overseas, including the Iberian and Balkan Peninsulas Republic ended when an emperor took control of Rome Spread Christianity (Rome’s official religion) By A.D. 395, the empire was too large so it split into a western and eastern half Western Rome fell in A.D. 476 because of German invaders Eastern Rome lasted for about 1,000 more years

29 Mediterranean Europe Crusades The Renaissance
1096, European Christians launched the crusades- a series of wars to take Palestine from the Muslims The Renaissance A time of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th-16th centuries Inspired by classical art and writings Bubonic plague reached Italy from Asia and killed millions of Europeans (we’ll spend more time on this tomorrow)

30 Mediterranean Europe Spain’s Empire
700s- Muslims from North Africa conquered the Iberian Peninsula Muslims controlled the region for more than 700 years In 1492, Spain’s Catholic rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella took retook Spain from the Muslims The empires spread Catholicism and the Spanish and Portuguese languages throughout the world

31 Mediterranean Europe Culture Greek, Portuguese, Spanish, and Italian
Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholicism Classical statues, Renaissance painting and sculpture

32 Mediterranean Europe Political turmoil in the 20th century
Two dictators- Benito Mussolini in Italy and Francisco Franco in Spain They both ruled for long periods of time Fascism- government has complete control over peoples lives and they are not allowed to disagree with the government After WWII- Italy became a republic

33 Activity Complete the reading on the Crusades and the assignment that follows.

34 Western Europe Dominant countries- France and Germany
Both places have strong cultures that spread over Europe Charlemagne- Germanic king- he conquered most of the region His empire declined after his death Western Europe remained a region of small, competing kingdoms

35 Western Europe Reformation Religious movement
Many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches Hostility between Catholics and Protestants to fight religious wars that tore Europe apart Today people still are mainly Catholic and Protestant in western Europe

36 Western Europe Period between fall of Rome and the Renaissance= the Middle Ages Nation-state- an independent nation of people with a common culture After Rome fell Feudalism gradually developed Europe A political system in which powerful lords owned most of the land They gave some land to nobles in exchange for military service by those nobles Nationalism developed- the belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture, and history

37 Western Europe Late 1600’s- French kings held absolute power
The French Revolution- 1789 Napoleon Bonaparte seized power and made himself Emperor. He tried to conquer all of Europe but was defeated Nation-states of Europe became rivals Experienced industrial growth in the late 1800s Industrialism caused European nations to set up colonies around the world

38 Western Europe Nationalistic conflict rivalry and competition helped to cause WWI. Allied Powers (France) found the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) Allied Powers won and imposed harsh terms on Germany German resentment helped to cause WWII

39 Western Europe WWII- Germany, led by Hitler and the Nazis, tried to conquer Europe Holocaust- A program of mass murder of European Jews and other minorities Allies defeated Germany and Germany was split into two nations- East Germany (aligned with Communist) and West Germany The two nations were divided by the Berlin Wall In 1989, anti-Communist reforms swept Europe and East Germany opened the Berlin Wall 1990- the two Germanys reunited under a democratic government

40 Western Europe Regions economy is strong- includes agriculture, and manufacturing, plus high-tech and service industries The region has three of Europe’s top manufacturing nations: France, Germany, and the Netherlands Tourism is also a major part of the regions economies. (We’ll talk more about economics in the region next week- The European Union)

41 Western Europe What is a nation state?
How did nation-states emerge from feudal societies? How was Germany divided and then re-united? Why are France and Germany the dominant counties of Western Europe? How did language differences develop in Western Europe? What economic challenge does Germany face?

42 Vocabulary Quiz Tomorrow
City-state Parliament Republic Satellite nation Crusades Market economy Renaissance Anti-Semitism Aqueduct Ethnic cleansing Reformation Feudalism Nationalism Democracy Holocaust Berlin Wall

43 Northern Europe The United Kingdom, Ireland, and Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden History of seafaring conquerors

44 Northern Europe Great Britain’s influence
Developed representative government Parliamentary Monarch Ideas spread to the U.S., Canada, and various British colonies Industrial revolution Iron ore and coal

45 Northern Europe Nordic countries did not involve themselves in other nations’ affairs Britain played major role in world wars (Allies). British involvement in other parts of the world Colonies Lasting affects

46 Northern Europe Economy Highly developed
Manufacturing and traditional economic activities like fishing and forestry High-tech industries

47 Northern Europe Most people live in cities and have high standard of living Nordic countries have many welfare systems for their families Families are given allowances National health insurance programs People in these places pay very high taxes


49 Homework Quiz B How do language and religion reflect the cultural division in Western Europe? How did the the Reformation affect Northern Europe? How does the economic strength of a nation affect its willingness to welcome immigrants? Why is there conflict in Northern Ireland?

50 Eastern Europe Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Cultural Crossroads- place where various cultures cross paths People moving between Asia and Europe have crossed this region- traders, nomads, migrants, and armies The region was controlled by Empires for a long time so the rise of independent nations was slow

51 Eastern Europe Centuries of foreign rule led to ethnic groups guarding their identities Sparked many conflicts in the 20th century 1912- Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia went to war against the Ottomans 1913- Balkan countries fought over territory ownership- led to balkanization- the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units

52 Eastern Europe 1914- A Serb assassinated an Austrian noble, sparking WWI Ottoman Empire ended and is now Turkey-1923 During WWII the Soviet Union gains control over much of Eastern Europe Set up satellite nations- nations dominated by another country The Soviet Union controls most of Easter Europe for 4 decades

53 Eastern Europe Instability followed after the Soviet Union lost power
After communist party people returned to ethnic loyalties. Caused conflict

54 Eastern Europe Economy
After most Eastern European countries began to move toward a market economy Some countries have had problems making economic progress Old equipment Lack of funds Civil wars Eastern Europe is much less urbanized than the rest of Europe As industry grows so will the cities

55 Activity In your groups… Look over the Bosnia timeline together.
Discuss the questions on your desks. (Number 3 must go on a separate sheet of paper) Remember your grade is based on how much I hear you discussing the CONTENT!!! 

56 Discussion prompts What is genocide? How can nationalism lead to war?
Create a five-event timeline. Name 5 events that occurred during the war. Compare and contrast genocide and ethnic cleansing. What region in the world are we talking about here?

57 Draw this chart in your notebook!
Issue Explain the issue. What is happening? How can we fix it? Climate Change Land Use Air pollution Biodiversity Urban Growth Water

58 The European Union

59 1993 European Union created
1951 – France and West Germany gave control of their coal and steel resources to a multination group called the European Coal and Steel Community 1993 European Union created

60 The EU is similar to NAFTA
Encourages trade among the member nations

61 What would be some of the concerns people would have about these?
Common currency called the Euro replaced national currency. Workers are free to move throughout the EU zone. EU law supersedes sovereign laws. What would be some of the concerns people would have about these?

62 Eastern European countries have begun to join the EU
The alliance is expanding . . . Eastern European countries have begun to join the EU

63 Warm-up 1/29 What do you already know about the Bubonic Plague? What is it? Where did it happen? When did it happen? How was it spread?


65 Warm-up 2/3 Promote what you love instead of bashing what you hate.
Answer the questions on your warm-up paper based on the quote above.

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