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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 STAT 250: Introduction to Biostatistics Kari Lock Morgan klm47@psu.edu

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Biology Education Core Competencies (Vision and Change, 2011)Vision and Change 1. Ability to apply the process of science: Biology is evidence based and grounded in the formal practices of observation, experimentation, and hypothesis testing. 2. Ability to use quantitative reasoning: Biology relies on applications of quantitative analysis and mathematical reasoning 3. Ability to use modeling and simulation (plus 3 more…)

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 www.personal.psu.edu/klm47/Courses/STAT250/Spring20 15/schedule.html www.personal.psu.edu/klm47/Courses/STAT250/Spring20 15/schedule.html Lecture slides and course documents will be posted here Course Website Syllabus

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Course Materials Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data by Lock, Lock, Lock Morgan, Lock, and Lock *Purchase with WileyPlus Purchasing options Purchasing options Why WileyPlus?WileyPlus Get iclicker or iclicker+ Register by 1/23/15 at clickers.psu.educlickers.psu.edu

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Keys to Success Come to class ready to think and be engaged Come to lab ready to think and be engaged Do the homework and give it an honest effort Do lots of practice problems Read the textbook or watch videos Stay on top of the material

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Introduction to Data SECTION 1.1 Data Cases and variables Categorical and quantitative variables Explanatory and response Variables Using data to answer a question

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Why Statistics? Statistics is all about DATA Collecting DATA Describing DATA – summarizing, visualizing Analyzing DATA Data are everywhere! You will have to make decisions based on data, or evaluate decisions someone else has made based on data (This is particularly true in the health sciences!)

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Data Data are a set of measurements taken on a set of individual units Usually data is stored and presented in a dataset, comprised of variables measured on cases

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Cases and Variables We obtain information about cases or units. A variable is any characteristic that is recorded for each case. Generally each case makes up a row in a dataset, and each variable makes up a column

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Countries of the World Country Land AreaPopulationRuralHealthInternet Birth Rate Life ExpectancyHIV Afghanistan65223029021099763.71.746.543.9 Albania27400314329153.38.223.914.676.6 Algeria23817403437342634.810.610.220.872.40.1 American Samoa200661077.7 Andorra4708381011.121.370.510.4 Angola12467001802066843.36.83.142.9472 Antigua and Barbuda4408663469.51175 Argentina273669039882980813.728.117.375.30.5

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Diet Coke and Calcium DrinkCalcium Excreted Diet cola50 Diet cola62 Diet cola48 Diet cola55 Diet cola58 Diet cola61 Diet cola58 Diet cola56 Water48 Water46 Water54 Water45 Water53 Water46 Water53 Water48

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5

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Data Applicable to You Think of a potential dataset (it doesn’t have to actually exist) that you would be interested in analyzing What are the cases? What are the variables? What interesting questions could it help you answer?

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Kidney Cancer Source: Gelman et. al. Bayesian Data Anaylsis, CRC Press, 2004. Counties with the highest kidney cancer death rates

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Kidney Cancer If the values in the kidney cancer dataset are rates of kidney cancer deaths, then what are the cases? (a) The people living in the US (b) The counties of the US

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Kidney Cancer If the values in the kidney cancer dataset are yes/no, then what are the cases? (a) The people living in the US (b) The counties of the US

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Categorical versus Quantitative A categorical variable divides the cases into groups A quantitative variable measures a numerical quantity for each case Variables are classified as either categorical or quantitative:

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5

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Kidney Cancer If the cases in the kidney cancer dataset are counties, then the measured variable is… (a) Categorical (b) Quantitative

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Kidney Cancer If the cases in the kidney cancer dataset are people, then the measured variable is… (a) Categorical (b) Quantitative

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Explanatory and Response If we are using one variable to help us understand or predict values of another variable, we call the former the explanatory variable and the latter the response variable Examples: Does meditation help reduce stress? Does sugar consumption increase hyperactivity?

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Variables For each of the following situations: What are the variables? Is each variable categorical or quantitative? Identify the explanatory and response variables. 1. Are children with higher exposure to pesticides more likely to develop ADHD? 2. Does exercise make you smarter? 3. Can dogs detect cancer? 4. Do males find females more attractive if they wear red? (We’ll explore all of these questions during the course!)

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Summary Data are everywhere, and pertain to a wide variety of topics A dataset is usually comprised of variables measured on cases Variables are either categorical or quantitative Data can be used to provide information about essentially anything we are interested in and want to collect data on!

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 To Do Read Section 1.1 Due Friday, 1/16: Take the two pretests Pretest 1 Pretest 2 Due Friday, 1/23: Section 1.1 HW If you haven’t already… Get the textbook with WileyPlus Get a clicker and register it on ANGEL by 1/23

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of Data Lock 5 Why Statistics? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nTBZuQR7 dRc&feature=youtu.be

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