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STARTER “Like a plague overlooked by incompetent doctors, the new political order, called communism, spread... With the power of guns, few communists and.

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Presentation on theme: "STARTER “Like a plague overlooked by incompetent doctors, the new political order, called communism, spread... With the power of guns, few communists and."— Presentation transcript:

1 STARTER “Like a plague overlooked by incompetent doctors, the new political order, called communism, spread... With the power of guns, few communists and mutual agreement of the Allies, Communist Russia became the new ruler over the country. What followed was the systematic destruction of democracy, by terror, murder, corruption, lies and propaganda. People died, were arrested, deported. The luckiest ones fled the country. The rest of them entered a dark era.” What is the message of this source? Who do you think wrote it? When? Why do you think this?

2 HOMEWORK TASK – HOW DID THE USSR GAIN CONTROL OF EASTERN EUROPE BY 1948? It is Produce a briefing paper to update President Truman on the situation in Eastern Europe. Your report should include:  The communist successes in eastern Europe between 1945 and 1948 and the reasons for them  Stalin’s plan for eastern Europe and his reasons  The methods being used by Stalin to control eastern Europe  Whether or not you think that America should be worried.

3 Learning Objectives – To understand how Stalin extended his influence over Eastern Europe To understand what is meant by the term ‘Salami Tactics’ Learning Outcomes – All will have a briefing paper for President Truman on the situation in eastern Europe. All will have a response to 2 source questions, showing knowledge of Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe.

4 RECAP… Why did East and West have a massive mistrust of each other? To the West, Stalin appeared to be little more than a merciless predator; to Stalin, the West appeared to be laying the foundations for a strong Germany – something he feared more than anything else. Who was right? Why?

5 THE IRON CURTAIN To protect Eastern Europe from the West, in 1946 Stalin built the iron curtain, a 1600km fence cutting off the communist countries of the East from the non communist West. At some points, the ‘curtain’ became a series of fences protected by razor wire, dog runs, photo electric beams, remote controlled weapons and guard towers. The most famous example of the Iron Curtain was the Berlin Wall. However, this was not built until 1961

6 WHAT WAS STALIN’S FEAR? In December 1946, Britain and USA agreed to unite their zones in Germany for economic purposes. In January 1947, Bizonia was created. This later became known as ‘West Germany’. But in the Soviet Union it was greeted with fury. He felt that the West was insensitive to his needs and had not asked his permission to rebuild Germany.

7 WHY DID STALIN TAKEOVER THE EAST? 1. To spread communism 2. To create a ‘buffer’ zone of friendly states which would offer protection against the West 3. To absorb the wealth and natural resources from these areas, such as wood and metals.

8 TASK Read page 76 in Walsh. Record the events of Stalin’s takeover of eastern Europe, from Put the countries in the order of their falling to communism.

9 TASK – Albania. The Communists immediately took power 1945 – Bulgaria 1945 – East Germany 1947 – Romania 1947 – Poland 1947 – Hungary Czechoslovakia The Hungarian Communist Rakosi described this process as ‘slicing salami’ – gradually getting rid of all opposition, bit-by-bit. In this way, Russia gained control of the East

10 Using your timeline, what factors helped the Communists take power? Executing leaders of other political parties (Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia) Arrest all non- communist leaders and force others out of the country (Poland) Persuade political parties to join with the communists. (Albania) Take over the police, set up a new, brutal police force, and terrorise non communists (Hungary)

11 In this cartoon, the robber labelled ‘Russia’ is stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. He is being helped by Stalin, who says: ‘It’s all right – he’s with me!’ Policeman Truman, from the 'World League Police Station' says: ‘Oh, OK!’. What is the message of this cartoon? This American cartoon is from 1946.

12 A robber labelled ‘Russia’ is making ‘territorial grabs’. Theft is an anti-social act – the cartoonist is labelling Russia’s actions as anti-social/ criminal. What can you see? What does it suggest? Meaning Russia’s ‘salami tactics’ to expand its influence in eastern Europe are aggressive and criminal, and amount merely to empire-building. In this cartoon, the robber labelled ‘Russia’ is stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. He is being helped by Stalin, who says: ‘It’s all right – he’s with me!’ Policeman Truman, from the 'World League Police Station' says: ‘Oh, OK!’. This American cartoon is from 1946.

13 Policeman Stalin is helping the thief; is smiling in a smug, self-satisfied way. Stalin is abusing his position – and a corrupt policeman is especially despicable. What can you see? What does it suggest? Meaning Stalin was one of the Big Three, who was supposed to be securing the peace of the world – instead he is taking advantage of his power in eastern Europe to increase Russia’s power. In this cartoon, the robber labelled ‘Russia’ is stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. He is being helped by Stalin, who says: ‘It’s all right – he’s with me!’ Policeman Truman, from the 'World League Police Station' says: ‘Oh, OK!’. This American cartoon is from 1946.

14 Stalin carries a truncheon. A truncheon is a weapon of assault. He is almost ‘daring’ Truman to do something to stop him. What can you see? What does it suggest? Meaning This is a suggestion that Russia is conquering eastern Europe by force, and by threat of force. He is challenging the West. In this cartoon, the robber labelled ‘Russia’ is stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. He is being helped by Stalin, who says: ‘It’s all right – he’s with me!’ Policeman Truman, from the 'World League Police Station' says: ‘Oh, OK!’. This American cartoon is from 1946.

15 The ‘World League Police Station’. The ‘World League Police Station’. = the fledgling United Nations. What can you see? What does it suggest? Meaning There is a fear here that the UN is going to be as weak and ineffective as the League of Nations had been. In this cartoon, the robber labelled ‘Russia’ is stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. He is being helped by Stalin, who says: ‘It’s all right – he’s with me!’ Policeman Truman, from the 'World League Police Station' says: ‘Oh, OK!’. This American cartoon is from 1946.

16 President Truman turns up late. He is weak and dithery, and allows Stalin to continue. Weak and dithery = - ineffectual and uncertain. What can you see? What does it suggest? Meaning This is a huge criticism of Truman whom, the cartoonist asserts, is not fulfilling his role as world’s policeman, and is simply allowing Russia to deprive the countries of eastern Europe of their freedom. In this cartoon, the robber labelled ‘Russia’ is stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. He is being helped by Stalin, who says: ‘It’s all right – he’s with me!’ Policeman Truman, from the 'World League Police Station' says: ‘Oh, OK!’. This American cartoon is from 1946.

17 An American cartoonist. Americans regarded themselves as the defenders – the ‘good policeman’ - of world democracy. Origin Details Significance Although many Americans were still isolationist, there was an increasing feeling that the Soviets were ‘evil’ and that the USA needed to get involved in world affairs to stop them. In this cartoon, the robber labelled ‘Russia’ is stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. He is being helped by Stalin, who says: ‘It’s all right – he’s with me!’ Policeman Truman, from the 'World League Police Station' says: ‘Oh, OK!’.

18 This American cartoon is from … when Soviet power in eastern Europe was growing (perhaps about the time of the Fulton speech). Date Details Significance This cartoon shows America becoming alarmed by Soviet actions, and ‘getting ready’ to announce the Truman Doctrine. In this cartoon, the robber labelled ‘Russia’ is stealing a bag labelled ‘territorial grabs’. He is being helped by Stalin, who says: ‘It’s all right – he’s with me!’ Policeman Truman, from the 'World League Police Station' says: ‘Oh, OK!’.

19 MODEL ANSWER “The cartoonists message is essentially a call for America to get tougher with Stalin; it is saying that the US needs to adopt what was later called ‘The Truman Doctrine’. The cartoon reflects the growing feeling in the US in 1946 that the USSR is effectively conquering Europe. Stalin – as one of the big 3 – is depicted as a policeman (one of those charged with keeping order in the world) but he is taking advantage of his territorial position by making lots of territorial grabs. The cartoonist is also critical of Truman and the United Nations, who are depicted as weak, dithery and ultimately complicit in Stalin’s expansionism, because they are allowing it.”

20 How similar are these 3 political cartoons?

21 What is the message of this cartoon? A British cartoon, published June 1947

22 A map of Europe showing the Iron Curtain countries in black. Black is the colour of evil and fear. What can I see? What does it suggest? Meaning An evil, frightening shadow is creeping across Europe … creeping towards Britain. The ‘hammer and sickle’ is the flag of the Soviet Union. This cartoon by the British cartoonist Illingworth was published in June 1947.

23 Stalin is stretching across to plant Soviet flags in western Europe. ‘Planting the flag’ is a symbol of claiming a territory for an empire. What can I see? What does it suggest? Meaning Stalin’s Soviet Union has grown, intends to grow further (and must be stopped). The ‘hammer and sickle’ is the flag of the Soviet Union. This cartoon by the British cartoonist Illingworth was published in June 1947.

24 Questions marks on Sweden and France. Sweden was next to Finland; France had a strong Communist party. What can I see? What does it suggest? Meaning These two countries are in danger of becoming the next countries in the Soviet empire. The ‘hammer and sickle’ is the flag of the Soviet Union. This cartoon by the British cartoonist Illingworth was published in June 1947.

25 The British cartoonist Illingworth. Illingworth drew for the right- wing newspaper the Daily Mail. Origin Details Significance This cartoon is a Western, anti-Soviet comment, frightening people about the Iron Curtain. The ‘hammer and sickle’ is the flag of the Soviet Union.

26 This cartoon by the British cartoonist Illingworth was published in June June At the time of the Marshall Plan. Date Details Significance This cartoon is supporting Marshall’s interpretation that all Europe is in danger of turning communist, and being added to the ‘evil empire’. The ‘hammer and sickle’ is the flag of the Soviet Union.

27 HOMEWORK How successful was Soviet expansion in Europe by 1948? Explain your answer. (10)

28 Target: AO1 Written communication to be assessed in this question. Level 1 General answer lacking specific contextual knowledge 1-2 e.g.. ‘Very, as they dominated.’ Level 2 Identifies AND/OR describes expansion 2-4 e.g.. ‘Many soviet satellite states were set up.’ ‘Rigged elections resulted in Soviet expansion.’ ‘Churchill said the border between East and West was an ‘Iron Curtain’.’ ‘They were not successful in Greece.’ Level 3 Explains success OR otherwise of Soviet expansion 4-6 (Developed explanation to be given two marks within L3 and L4). e.g.. ‘By 1946 Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania had Communist governments.’ ‘The Red Army liberated eastern Europe from the Nazis. The Red Army remained in these to make sure these governments were communist-controlled.’ ‘In Romania the King, in 1945, was forced by the USSR to appoint a communist Prime Minister. This quickly resulted in a communist takeover and in 1947 the monarchy was abolished.’ ‘In Hungary in November 1945 free elections were help and the non-communists won the most seats. In August 1947 fresh elections were held. These were rigged to ensure total communist control. All other parties were banned.’ OR ‘In Greece the communists were not successful. They fought a civil war against the royalists supported by Britain and the USA. Stalin stuck by his promise not to support the Greek communists.’ ‘Yugoslavia was not liberated by the Red Army. Instead its own communist resistance leader, Tito, set up a government and was elected President. Yugoslavia became a communist state but would not accept Stalin’s orders.’

29 PLENARY With your partner, explain how the West saw the Russian takeover of Eastern Europe. What are Salami tactics? Challenge – Was Stalin wrong? refer to the evidence…


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