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Women in security sector reform UN RESOLUTIONS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS REGIONAL ACADEMY FOR DEMOCRACY Subotica, Monday, 25 February.

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Presentation on theme: "Women in security sector reform UN RESOLUTIONS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS REGIONAL ACADEMY FOR DEMOCRACY Subotica, Monday, 25 February."— Presentation transcript:

1 Women in security sector reform UN RESOLUTIONS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS REGIONAL ACADEMY FOR DEMOCRACY Subotica, Monday, 25 February 2013 Sonja Lokar CEE Network for Gender Issues Executive Director

2 FORGOTEN WOMEN ROLES AT HISTORIC CROSSROAD SITUATIONS French Revolution – Women’s March on Versailles 1790 – Olympe de Gauges decapitated 1793 Soviet Revolution – women textile workers STRIKES IN 1917 in Petrograd – Alexandra Kollontay – equla rights of working women and men, state care for maternal needs and child care Yugoslavia – AFŽ, socialist achievments in gender equality

3 WOMEN ROLES AT RECENT HISTORIC CROSSROAD SITUATIONS COMBATING COLONIALISM IN AFRICA TUNIS, ALGERIA, the story of Gamila EGYPT, Doria Shafiq bravely led a march of 1,500 women to storm the gates of the Egyptian Parliament on Feb. 19, Her march to Parliament later led to the inclusion of women’s suffrage in the 1956 ConstitutionEgyptian Parliament SOUTH AFRICA ARAB SPRING – COMBATING RADICAL ISLAMIST BACKLASH Tunisia- women as equals or complementary to men? Egypt: Erasing Doria Shafig from school books; gang rapes in Tahrir square as a tool of elinminating women from the public space

4 TRANSITIONS IN SEE New women’s movement Slo, Cro, Serbia in the eighties Losers of political change – thrown out of political decision making in the parliaments and governments: from 20% to 4% of WMPs New women’s peace movement defeated Women warmangers and war criminals: Mira Marković, Biljana Plavšić Nationalistic instrumentalization of the women peace movement: Pokret bundi za očuvanje zime, Bedem ljubavi Women soldiers, women support of the warriors: Kolo srpskih sestara, Women war victims: killed, maimed, raped, widowed, made homless and jobless, internally displaced, refugees Balkan women peace movement – crucial part of UN Beijing conference 1995 – rape in war becomes internationally defined crime against humanity

5 TRANSITIONS IN SEE Cooperation of women peace groups accross national boarders – justice for women victims of wars – very few results CEE Network for Gender Issues CEE Network of TU Women 1999 – SP GTF – new regional movement for political empowerment of women a year before UN SC Resolution 1325!

6 TRANSITIONS IN SEE Strife for equal political representation Regional mechanismn for gender mainstreaming – SP GTF Big coalition strategy – Croatia 1995 B.a.B.e Sandwich strategy Parallel electoral campaign strategy Results: Changed constitutions, changed electoral legislation, legal quota and placing rules

7 Share of women in the parliaments in the SEE region Country First election 2013 Albania 3 17 BiH 2 21 Croatia 3 23 Macedonia 3 32 Serbia 3 32 Slovenia Montenegro 2 17 Kosovo ? 33 Average 4% 29% EU 24%

8 UN Resolutions on women, peace and security 1325 – October (2008) – focused on sexual violence against women in armed conflicts 1888 (2009) – combating impunity of sexual violence against women and children in violent conflicts; Special UN representative for sexual vioence in armed conflicts 1889 (2009) on role of women and their needs in building peace after violent conflicts

9 Three P Prevention Participation Protection and post - conflict recovery December 2012 – 37 NAPs all over the world National action plans for the implementation of 1325 in SEE Kosovo 2008, BiH – 2010, Croatia – 2011; Slovenia 2010, Serbia 2011, Regional Women’s Lobby for Peace

10 KEY AREAS Women's participation in decision-making and peace processes. The protection of women and girls Gender training Progress in participation Very small progress in protection Biggest progress in training No progress in prevention and real inclusion of women in strategic political decisions reagring crucial reforms of economic and political systems Women in top positions making a difference: Serbian speaker of the parliament and president of the state Natasa Micic; Radmila Šekerinska and Ilinka Mitreva getting Macedonia to EU, Jadranka Kosor, Vesna Pusić – resolving boarder and LB disputes between Slovenia and Croatia, Edita Tahiri, Jahjaga in negotiations Serbia-Kosovo – results in peace negotiations

11 Main challenges of yesterday Cooperation of women in aid offering and aid accepting - beneficiary countries Governmental level national and EU Parliamentary level national and EU NGO level - Regionla Women’s Lobby for Peace, EPLO Good example of Croatia Bad example of Slovenia

12 MAIN CHALLENGES OF TODAY CRISES OF THE MAINSTREAM POLITICAL ELITES PREVENTION OF THE RENEWAL OF NATIONALISTIC AND RELIGIOUS BACKLASH ES IN THE SEE REGION PREVENTION OF TRANSFORMATION OF CRIPPLED DEMOCRACIES IN FUL FLEDGED VIOLENT DICTATORSHIPS –ALBANIA, MACEDONIA, SLOVENIA, TUNISIA, EGYPT. ACTIVE ROLE IN THE NEEDED CHANGE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY – REINDUSTRIALIZATION, REFORM OF WELFARE STATES ACTIVE ROLE IN THE NEEDED DEMOCRATIZATION OF DEMOCRACY – FROM PARTITOCRACY TO PARTICIPATORY PARITY DEMOCRACY AT WORKPLACE AND IN POLITICS EU DIMENTION OF THIS ROCESSES


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