Presentation on theme: "Patriarchy and residence patterns of the aged Siegfried Gruber and Mikołaj Szołtysek Laboratory of Historical Demography 2nd mosaic conference; Budapest,"— Presentation transcript:
Patriarchy and residence patterns of the aged Siegfried Gruber and Mikołaj Szołtysek Laboratory of Historical Demography 2nd mosaic conference; Budapest, 6-7 September 2012
MPIDR Family systems and their quintessentials 2 Laslett and HPSS: household structure – service – age at marriage Hajnal: household formation rules Das Gupta: norms of residence and inheritance Dribe/Manfredini/ Derosas/Oris: sequence of life course trajectories Ruggles: living arrangements of the aged Todd: postmarital residence and parental authority Kok: illegitimate fertility Wall: the size and composition of the kin group within the household
MPIDR Integrative approach to family systems: seeking for a ‘master measure’ HOLISTIC: includes variables about the elderly, but does not ignore other aspects of familial behaviour FEASIBLE: easily derived from historical census-like listings with often limited information QUANTIFIABLE: can be computed from basic numerical variables COMPARABLE: yields quantities that can be compared across time and space
MPIDR Goals Design a composite measure that incorporates variables on the aged Explore its comparative advantages 4 Explore how ‘elderly’ and ‘non- elderly’ components of the measure are related: is the ‘measurement’ of family systems derived from those two going to be similar or different?
MPIDR Patriarchy: the ‘master’ variable UBIQUITOUS: all traditional family systems have comprised three regimes - of patriarchy, marriage and fertility (THERBORN 2004) BROADLY DEFINED o Beyond narrow demographic focus on the spousal age difference (Cain 1988; also Cain, Khanam and Nahar 1979). o System of social relations among the European peasantry that did not start to weaken until the 19 th c. o the rule of the father, the eldest, or the husband + MUCH MORE! E.g. various formalized rules that carry a patriarchal concept (Kaser 2008, 33). AVENUES for comparative research: the various family systems were differently patriarchal to start with EASILY DERIVABLE from information contained in historical listings QUANTIFIABLE and SCALABLE: o for every dataset a list of variables can be computed (see further); o based on them, an index of patriarchy can be proposed, allowing to identify regions with different degrees of patriarchy
MPIDR Quantifying patriarchy ‘Non-elderly’ variables’ Patrilinearity: the proportion of wife’s relatives within household Neolocality: ever married heads as % of ever married (men 20-29) Nuptiality: male SMAM Female autonomy: age- specific share of unrelated secondary individuals among women 15-34 Elderly (65+) focused variables Patrilocality: the ratio of elderly with married daughters to those with married sons within household Lateral extension: the proportion of the elderly coresiding with at least one lateral relative Joint residence: proportion of the elderly living with at least two married children Male domination: proportion of household heads among elderly women Seniority: percent elderly in households headed by a man of a younger generation Density of kin: the number of co-resident kin of an elderly person Old age loneliness: share of elderly living either alone, with spouse only, or with non-kin
MPIDR Data to be used (ideally) 7 MOSAIC data points locations (www.censusmosaic.org)www.censusmosaic.org
MPIDR 9 A testbed for this excercise: 18th-century Poland- Lithuania and Albania in 1918 RegionsHouseholdsPopulation No. of parishes (estates) No. of settlements Eastern Poland- Lithuania, 1791-95 13,88583,727143511 Albania 191827,795140,611n/a309 Albania 1918 (weighted)77,160435,832n/a
MPIDR Serfs, Greek-Catholics, ‘proto- Ukrainians’ and ‘proto-Belarussians’ male ancestral kinship, common ownership of land, joint production, ancestral worship resemblence to “the well-known South Slavic institution of zadruga” (Kovalevskii 1885, 36-37, 54-55; Leontovich 1896; Efimenko 1892) In the 19 th c. still „(…) mentally not adapted to the rules of individualized property” (Efimenko 1892, 400-401) Predominantly Muslin and dominated by agriculture patrilocal-household cycle complexity (Kaser 1996, 383; Gruber 2012). Transmission of property not related to death or marriage and took place after generations Balkan patriarchy: strong blood ties, ancestral worship, patrilocality, patrilineal kinship structures, bride price, and blood feuds (Kaser 2008) Two societies: the joint family societies
MPIDR 11 Regions wife's relatives ratio married daughters % with 2 married children % lateral % fem heads (65+) % heads among ever- married (20-29) % elderly in hh headed by younger man percent women 15-34 as non-kin male SMAM mean kin for 65+ percent lonely elderly Pol-Lith (Minsk area) 81819351828152363 Pol-Lith (Polessya) 41434531718222073 Pol-Lith (Volhynia) 9141525734151123511 Pol-Lith (Kiev area) 720344125186112377 Alb rural (Puka) 1020711411732680 Alb rural (Kruja) 1123641421572672 Alb rural (Zhuri) 1117643421742783 Alb rural (Shkodra) 2222645251362793 Alb rural (Gora) 161952538412874 Alb rural (Berati) 22195442665 66 Alb rural (Tirana N) 232055437352477 Alb rural (Tirana S) 122323702229411 Alb urban (Durrësi) 1291341968222857 Alb urban (Elbasani) 1011 381754253049 Alb urban (Kavaja) 7121737653122659 Alb urban (Tirana) 561138115041027510 Alb urban (Shkodra) 6963712708834411 Alb urban (Kruja) 2323448530029511 Descriptive statistics (almost unbearable... :)
MPIDR 12 Regions wife's relatives ratio married daughters % with 2 married children % lateral % fem heads (65+) % heads among ever- married (20-29) % elderly in hh headed by younger man percent women 15-34 as non-kin male SMAM mean kin for 65+ percent lonely elderly Pol-Lith (Minsk area) 10100221202 Pol-Lith (Polessya) 10210222212 Pol-Lith (Volhynia) 10101100201 Pol-Lith (Kiev area) 10200210210 Converting variable values into index points
MPIDR Relationships between ‘elderly’ variables Variables for the elderly are generally well correlated with each other 14 VARIABLES daughters to sons elderly with at least 2 married children elderly in lateral extension household heads among elderly females elderly men in households of younger generation mean coresident kin of the elderly lonely elderly daughters to sons 1 elderly with at least 2 married children,2941 elderly in lateral extension -,616 **,4281 household heads among elderly females,873 **,323-,483 * 1 elderly men in households of younger generation -,360,086,533 * -,4461 mean coresident kin of the elderly -,310,613 **,874 ** -,278,587 * 1 lonely elderly,199-,519 * -,815 **,196-,426-,821 ** 1
MPIDR Relationships between two kinds of variables 15 Patrilinearity Married males headship (20-29) Unrelated women 15-34 years SMAM men Patrilocality,732 ** -,285,371-,436 Living with at least 2 married children -,154-,815 **,049-,739 ** Lateral extension -,678 ** -,361-,274-,097 Female headship,621 ** -,257,376-,267 Seniority principle -,338-,223,350-,025 Mean kin of elderly -,545 * -,627 ** -,070-,368 Share lonely,389,530 *,219,373
MPIDR 16 Conclusions: PROMISES it is possible to construct variables for measuring patriarchy the Index of Patriarchy may foster further elaboration of the elements of patriarchal structure in different settings It may help clarifying some pending issues related to typologisation of family systems across Europe Explaining factors for different levels of patriarchy are still to be accounted for
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