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Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union SCHOOL INVENTORY.

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Presentation on theme: "Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union SCHOOL INVENTORY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union SCHOOL INVENTORY AND CONDITIONS’ SURVEY - ALBANIA 2011 Final results, TA-ALB-10.

2 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union METHODOLOGY

3 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 METHODOLOGY Background 3  A full census of pre-university school facilities in Albania - A total of 56 persons were involved in conducting the census  Main coordination office-6 persons  Fieldwork coordinators-12 persons  Auditors-38 persons  Information collected through a pre-determined questionnaire/form by trained auditors: - Institutional form: Information on the type of school, number of students, teachers, staff, budget, etc. - Building form: Information on building structure, number & type classrooms, water & sanitation, electricity & lighting, heating & ventilation, sport areas, laboratories, history of natural hazards, etc.

4 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 METHODOLOGY Nature of Data 4  Observation component - Data was recorded based on observations and actual measurements performed by the auditors during an on-site visit of the facilities. The type of data observed include:  Number classrooms & their measurement  Number of toilets  Building conditions and structure  Water & electricity  Sport areas  Laboratories  Furniture, etc.  Interview component - Some data was collected through the interview with the Director/Responsible Teacher during the on-site visit. The type of data collected through the interview include:  Type of school  Number of students & teachers  Transport issues  Internet issues  History of the school (natural disaster history, construction history, etc.) Over 410 data variables were collected for each school audit (1 school-1 building). And was much higher for the more complicated scenarios.

5 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 METHODOLOGY Data Quality Assurance 5  Field supervision – provided multiple supervision visits to independently verify the information collected by the field auditors throughout the 3 phases of fieldwork (initial phase, mid phase, final phase).  Online Monitoring Platform – A fieldwork management tool was in place, designed to help monitor the fieldwork and efficiently respond to specific situations. As well, an online database containing personal accounts of all auditors served to:  Measure the progress of the census  Manage school assignments between the various auditors  Report any issues/specific information captured during the fieldwork  Upload the photos from every audit in an organized fashion  Audit Form Checking – Prior to data entry, audit forms arriving in the office were thoroughly checked by trained operators. Checking consisted of finding missing information, checking logical relations between the different sections, assuring the right scenarios and the proper number of audit forms, etc.  Data Entry Validation – a data entry program was designed with several validation rules embedded in it, which minimized the risk of data entry mistakes, as well as alerted the user to any missing information or wrong information as necessary.  Post Validation Process – Several validation rules were programmed for post data entry in order to find discrepancies and to clean the data. Multiple layers of quality assurance mechanisms

6 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 METHODOLOGY Partnership with educational structures (MoES, REDs, Eos) 6  Design of School Inventory and Conditions survey form based on MoES aspirational building standards  REDs representatives participated in School auditor training  MoES facilitated contacts with RED and EO offices  REDs facilitated entry permission to Schools  Random participation in School surveys (MoEs and RED staff)

7 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

8 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION Definitions 8  School Institution – all individual schools in Albania, be it Kindergartens, Year 9 Schools or High Schools, dependent or independent, are referred to as an institution (a set of teachers and students identifiable by an institutional name and level).  School Building – a facility operated by the School Institution(s). One School Building may “house” more than one School Institution and one School Institution may operate more than one building.  School Location – refers to the “compound” where School Building(s) are found. A school compound may have one or more School Buildings in it.  Urban/rural – refers to geographical areas based on the type of the Local Government Unit. If the area is under a Municipality then it is deemed to be an urban area. If it is under a Commune then it is a rural area. In a few cases in Albania, some Municipalities may also include some rural areas.  Year 9 School – refers to all the schools of grades 1 to 9. Primary schools (grades 1-5) that are often found in rural areas and are included in this category as well.  Kindergarten – refers to the pre-School Institutions. There are cases where Year 9 Schools have introduced a “pre-school grade” under their jurisdiction, as a pilot system. For the purposes of our projects they classified as Kindergartens as well.  High School – refers to all pre-university schools of grades beyond the Year 9 School, be it General High Schools/Gymnasia or Vocational High Schools.

9 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 Location-Building-Institution Diagram 9 Locations #3354  Buildings # 3485 Public School Institutions # 4796 Students # 594,339  Public School Buildings Public School Institutions 1.3 %40.3 %2.2 %56.1 % Location     Scenario 1Scenario 2Scenario 3Scenario 4 Relationship

10 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION Urban/Rural Distribution of School Buildings and School Institutions 10  While the number of students is about the same for urban and rural areas (48.2% urban vs. 51.8% rural), the number of School Buildings and School Institutions is about 4 times higher in rural areas compared to urban ones.

11 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION School Institution Level % of them rural 57.4 % of them rural

12 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION School Types vs. Respective Students 12  About 39% of School Institutions are Kindergartens, serving just 12.6% of the total student population.  53.3% of School Institutions are Year 9 Schools, serving about 67% of the total pre-university student population.  About 18.7% of all Institutions are Primary Schools (grades 1-5) and serve 4% of all students. Many of these schools can be mostly found in rural areas and are quite small.  About 8% of High School serve about 20% of all pre-university students.

13 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION Location Type 13  Schools locations can be broken down into 7 categories/typologies.  The second most frequent typology is of “Year 9 Schools + Kindergarten” (34.9% of locations). This category is much more common in rural (39.4%), rather than urban(18.5%) areas.  About 42% of locations were found to be of joint type, meaning that these locations contained multiple levels of School Institutions.

14 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union SCHOOL ACADEMIC CAPACITY & USAGE The auditors collected capacity information for each school. The calculations in this section are based on the number of students attending various institutions, classroom number and size, as well as the draft norms and specifications provided by the MoES. While the project team recommends that the full analysis on school capacity be performed when the GIS system is in place, this section provides an initial basic aggregate overview of capacity issues in Albanian schools.

15 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 SCHOOL ACADEMIC CAPACITY & USAGE Distribution of Schools by Number of Students 15 Student category% of schools <10 students 9.8 % students 10.3 % students 11.8 % students 24.6 % students 13.7 % % Total100%  Approximately 10% of all School Institutions in Albania have 2 to 10 students; almost all of these are located in rural areas. Overall, 31.9% of all School Institutions have less than 21 students. Another 38.7% of School Institutions have between students.  Note: the kindergartens and depending institutions are also included in the calculations of these results.  29.8% of all School Institutions have more than 100 students.

16 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 SCHOOL ACADEMIC CAPACITY & USAGE Level of Crowding 16  Overall, Albanian School Institutions are operating at 93% of total capacity. However, when the data is disaggregated by school type, it is clear that the level of crowding is much higher.  The level of crowding for High Schools on the national scale is at 120%. In urban areas this level is at about 125.4%, compared to 117.4% in rural areas.  Year 9 Schools in urban areas are also over-crowded (125.6%), however, Year 9 Schools in rural area are under- crowded and operate at 68.8% of the total capacity.  Kindergartens are the most over- crowded School Institutions. Level of crowding for urban Kindergartens is 142.3%, and is even higher for rural Kindergartens at 145.8%.

17 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 SCHOOL ACADEMIC CAPACITY & USAGE Classroom Size – Students per Classroom 17  There are, on average, 27 students per classroom in urban Kindergartens and 19 students in rural Kindergartens.  On average, urban Year 9 Schools have more than twice the number of students per classroom (33) compared to rural schools (15).  The situation in High Schools is similar for both urban and rural schools of this type with (30 and 26 students per classroom respectively). Note: National averages hide the differences that exist in different regions and large municipalities. For illustration purposes, the Tirana case below, shows that the number of students for each of school type is much higher than the national average.

18 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 SCHOOL ACADEMIC CAPACITY & USAGE Student-Teacher Ratio 18  On average, there is one teacher for 21 students in urban Kindergartens and one teacher for 20 students in rural Kindergartens.  There is 1 teacher for 19 students for urban Year 9 Schools and 1 teacher for 12 students in rural ones.  The ratio for High Schools is similar for both urban and rural areas (1 teacher to 16/17 students).

19 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union BUILDING CONDITION The audit teams assessed each School Building on several structural and infrastructural points. The auditors evaluated roof, ceiling, foundation, door and window conditions, as well as provided an overall structural and internal assessment of each School Building. Each indicator was classified into five categories based on the urgency of the required action.

20 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 BUILDING CONDITION Sectional Definitions 20  Each indicator was classified into five categories based on the urgency of the required action. The categories include: - like new – the condition does not have any problems - needs maintenance – the condition requires some routine maintenance - needs repairs – the condition requires some repairs to be done - needs immediate attention – the condition requires heavy investment and extensive repairs - Immediate action– situation is urgent and immediate action is required.

21 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 BUILDING CONDITION Building Renovations 21  On average, more than half (54.1%) of all School Buildings have been renovated during the last years.  Almost three-quarters (73.6%) of urban schools and 48.7% of rural schools have undergone renovations during the last years.

22 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 BUILDING CONDITION 22

23 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 BUILDING CONDITION Structural and Internal Assessment 23 Notes  Overall structural assessment was derived by taking the lowest value of the following building indicators: - External walls - Internal walls - Foundation - Roof  Overall internal assessment was derived by taking the lowest value of the following internal indicators: - Windows - Doors - Ceiling

24 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 BUILDING CONDITION Other Findings 24  The survey indicates that 6.6% of Albanian School Buildings require an immediate action by qualified engineers.  Around 16% of walls, roofs and ceilings require immediate attention. And a further 3-4% are in a dangerous condition and require immediate action.  21% of doors and 16% of windows require immediate attention. A further 4% of doors and windows are in a dangerous condition and require immediate action.  The least problematic structural area is the foundation. Only 2% require immediate action and a further 5% require immediate attention.

25 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union WATER AND SANITATION The auditors collected building information pertaining to water and sanitation facilities. The information included the primary and secondary water systems used by the building, number of toilet facilities, and the reliability of the water supply. Definitions for improved water and sanitation facilities are adapted from UNICEF and WHO norms. Calculations were also made to determine the present and future capacity issues in terms of WC (toilet) availability and use.

26 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 WATER AND SANITATION Definition and Standards 26  Improved Water Supply System - Water is piped; or - Water is supplied from a borehole with a pump; or - Water is supplied from a well with a cover that can be closed; or - Water is supplied from rainwater harvesting tanks  Improved Sanitation System - Excreta is separated from people  Standards required by UNICEF and the WHO - For every 100 male students there should be 2 WC - For every 100 female students there should be 4 WC - For every 20 female teachers there should be 2 WC - For every 20 male teachers there should be 2 WC Note: definitions supplied by UNICEF and the WHO

27 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 WATER AND SANITATION Water supply system 27  98.2% of urban school locations have an improved water supply system, whereas only 57.5% of rural school locations have access to an improved water supply system.  81% of the water supply systems in urban areas are reliable for at least 75% of the time. 16% of the water supply systems are unreliable, working 50% of the time or less.  In rural areas only a third (31%) of the water supply systems work all of the time. Water is never available in 42.2% of rural locations.

28 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 WATER AND SANITATION Sanitation System 28  95% of urban school locations have an improved sanitation system, whereas only 58.3% of rural locations have access to such a system.  Almost all (99%) urban school locations have at least 1 toilet.  More than a quarter (29.6%) of the rural school locations do not have a single functioning toilet. This breaks down as: 18% do not have a physical toilet, while 11% are unusable due to poor maintenance and lack of water.

29 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 WATER AND SANITATION Toilets Supply vs. Needed 29  Currently, 84% of the required supply of toilets exist. However, when the unusable toilets are excluded, the current supply meets only 75% of the demand.  Currently, existing and usable toilets meet 66% of the required rural supply.  The current supply supports 61% of the demand for male toilet facilities, and 40% of the demand for female toilet facilities.  Females in rural areas are supplied with only 17% of toilets relative to demand.  Male and female teachers in urban areas are supplied with approximately 40% of toilets relative to demand.

30 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union NON-ACADEMIC SPACES The audit surveyed the existence and size of key non-academic spaces, as described in the draft norms and specifications report, provided by the MoES. Both the requirement for spaces and their sizes are dependent on the type of school and the number of students. This report refers to the existence of the space, not resources available within them. For example, conditions for having the library are satisfied if the physical space for the library exists, even though the books may be stored in the Director’s office. Information on the number of library books is available for later analysis. It is assumed that when a space is available in a school compound/location that all school types in that compound have access to it. A breakdown of this information could be further explored in later analysis.

31 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 NON-ACADEMIC SPACES Assembly, Library and Meeting/Conference room 31  About 9% of school locations have an assembly space.  33% of school locations have a working library.  54% of school locations have a meeting/conference room.  Projecting the results on School Institutions: - About 25% of High Schools have an assembly space. - 73% of High Schools have a library, - 92% have a meeting/conference room.  Only 7% of Year 9 Schools have an assembly space, while 30% have a library. About 50% of them have a meeting/conference room. _______________________________________ Note: The smaller proportion of Year 9 Schools that have non-academic facilities can be partly explained by that fact that many of them are dependent schools. (i.e. smaller facilities with fewer classes/students).

32 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 NON-ACADEMIC SPACES Library and Meeting/Conference room 32  When MoES’ aspirational standards are applied, there is a gap between the available and required facility sizes. While 72.8% of High Schools have a library, only 53.3% meet the size standard. In the case of Year 9 Schools, 30.4% have a library but only 20.5% meet the size standard.  The gap between available and required size is even more evident in the case of meeting/conference rooms. 91.8% of High Schools have a meeting/conference room, but only 54.9% meet the size standard. 50.2% of Year 9 School have one, but only 26.5% meet the size standard. 42.1% of Kindergartens have a meeting/conference room but only 19.8% meet the size standard. MoES Aspirational Standards Library - At least 18 m2, OR - 0,1 m2 X nr. students for Year 9 Schools - 0,15 m2 X nr. students for High Schools Meeting Room At least 30 m2 or bigger, OR 2,5 m2 X nr. of teachers

33 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 NON-ACADEMIC SPACES Non Academic Spaces – Urban vs. Rural 33 Impact of Dependent Schools

34 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 NON-ACADEMIC SPACES Availability of non-academic supplies 34  Only 28% of Kindergartens, 21% of Year 9 Schools and 38% of High Schools have a first aid medical kit.  The majority of High Schools (87%) have an overhead projector while this number is 28.6% for Year 9 Schools and 25.9% for Kindergartens.  80% of High Schools have an archive cupboard and 19% have filing cabinets.

35 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union SPORT AREA The audit teams inspected indoor and outdoor sporting facilities to determine the number, as well as the condition of these facilities. In addition, the teams also inspected the change room facilities, yard space and the condition of the perimeter fences. The types of sports which can be played are analysed in the gender section.

36 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 SPORT AREA Sport Area Access 36  The majority of Kindergartens (60.7%) and Year 9 Schools (55%) do not have access to any sport areas, be it indoor or outdoor.  15.7% of Albanian High Schools do not have access to any sport areas.  Most of the sporting areas are located outdoors. Only 8% of Kindergartens and 10% of Year 9 Schools have access to an indoor sport area. 36% of High Schools have access to an indoor sport area.

37 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 SPORT AREA Sport Area Access – Urban vs. Rural 37  The majority (60%) of Year 9 Schools in rural areas do not have any access to sports areas, be it outdoor or indoor.  9% of High Schools in urban areas and 20% in rural areas do not have access to a sport area.

38 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 SPORT AREA Indoor Sport Areas % of all 26.5 % of all Note: The standard for determining the adequate size of the sports area is: in Year 9 Schools, the gym should be 15X27m and for High Schools the standard is 18X31m.

39 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 SPORT AREA Outdoor Sport Areas & Yard Space 39  18.4% of all sports areas are either completely unusable or “it is very difficult” to play sports on them.  Yard space for recreational purpose - About 27% of Year 9 Schools and 17% of High Schools either do not have any yard space or have a very small one where children cannot easily meet or move % 76.9% 42.9%

40 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union BUILDING ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTS The audit teams evaluated the effectiveness of the electrical and non- emergency power systems of School Buildings. Some questions dealt directly with the effectiveness of the lighting system, while others asked for a detailed breakdown in terms of the reliability of the power supply.

41 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 BUILDING ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTS Protection of the Electrical System 41  53.4% of all School Buildings have an electric system that is well protected from the students (65% of urban and 50% of rural buildings).  28.4% of urban and 26.7% of rural schools have parts of the electric system that are only partially protected, with some parts exposed to the students.  7% of urban and 19% of rural schools have electrical wiring that is fully exposed to the students, presenting a risk of electrocution.

42 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 BUILDING ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTS Fuse Box, Switches and Plugs 42

43 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 BUILDING ELECTRICITY AND LIGHTS Artificial Light State 43  77% of School Buildings have enough natural light to read the blackboard from the back of the room for at least 95% of the school days.  60% of urban and 35% of rural schools have artificial lights that are bright enough to read by during dark days.  About 35% of rural School Buildings do not have artificial light, due to the lack of electricity, no electrical system or lack of bulbs.

44 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union ENERGY EFFICIENCY The audit team collected information regarding energy systems, sources and capabilities. This information was used to assess energy efficiency of the school buildings. No energy-specific audit was performed, rather, the information has been taken from a variety of the audit questions and represents a compilation of the relevant material.

45 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Heating Systems in School Buildings 45  About 10% of rural and 14% of urban School Buildings do not have any heating systems. In aggregate, about 11% of all School Buildings in Albania do not have a heating system.  On average, School Buildings have individual heating systems for each classroom (81% of rural School Buildings and 55% of urban ones). However, about 22% of urban School Buildings have a central heating system.

46 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Fuel Sources 46  Schools often use more than one source of fuel at a time. Fuel sources most often mentioned in urban School Buildings are gas (13%), petrol or diesel (23.4%), electricity (38.9%), and wood (39.1%).  Wood is the most often cited source of fuel in rural areas, where 81.3% of rural buildings use it.  Gas is used as a heating fuel source in 12.5% of rural and urban School Buildings.

47 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Conditions of Doors and Windows 47  About 50% of doors require maintenance or immediate attention. 4% of them are considered dangerous. This likely increases the heat loss.  About 42% of windows need maintenance or immediate attention, which is likely to increase heat loss. Only 14% of School Buildings have double glazed windows. 41.7%

48 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Other Findings 48  77% of all schools have enough natural light to read the blackboard from the back of the room for at least 95% of the school days, without the need for artificial lighting. In about 16% of cases, artificial light is needed for more than half of winter days.  No School Building was noted as having low energy light bulbs installed.

49 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TRANSPORT The transport section will be further elaborated when the GIS application has been finalised. Information for this section was collected from interviews with School Directors and was not independently verified. Survey questions focused on accessibility, transport for disabled and availability of public or private transport for students and teachers. The question regarding the number of students and teachers benefiting from free transport was asked only in rural areas.

50 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TRANSPORT Road Accessibility 50  About 3% of Kindergartens, 7% of Year 9 Schools and 5% of High Schools declare having roads leading to the school closed, due to poor conditions or weather, for more than 2 weeks per school year.

51 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TRANSPORT Transport Needs in Rural Areas 51  About 8% of students in rural Kindergartens need transport. About 18% of students in rural Year 9 Schools and 44% of rural students in High Schools need transport as well.  Only 2.6% of rural Kindergarten teachers need transport. About 6% of rural Year 9 and 5% in High School teachers need it as well.

52 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TRANSPORT Need of Transport vs. Receiving Transport 52  Only 32.8% of all Kindergarten students who need transport receive it. Similarly, 36.2% of Year 9 School students in need of transport receive it. Only 6.1% of High School students needing transport receive it.  The majority of teachers in need of transport receive it. 87.6% of Kindergarten teachers, 73.9% of Year 9 School and 83.2% of High School teachers in need of transport receive it.

53 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union ACCESS FOR DISABLED The audit team assessed each school building for availability of ramp access for disabled students, toilets adapted for handicap use and the availability of transport for disabled students.

54 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 ACCESS FOR DISABLED Ramp Access for Disabled and Toilet Adapted for Handicap Use 54

55 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 TA-ALB-10 ACCESS FOR DISABLED Other findings 55  4.1% of School Buildings in Albania are wheelchair accessible. 2.4% are accessible to the ground floor only. Only 1.7% of buildings have classrooms that are easily accessible without a ramp.  About 10% of urban schools are wheelchair accessible, at least to the ground floor. Whereas, in rural areas only 3% of all School Buildings are wheelchair accessible.  Only 5% of School Buildings in Albania have at least one toilet adapted for handicap use, most of these are in urban areas

56 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union NATURAL HAZARDS The audit team collected historical information from the schools in terms of their experience with natural hazards. Questions were asked about earthquakes, landslides, fires and flooding were asked to gather an accurate picture about past experiences, as well as any retrofitting measures that may have been taken.

57 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 NATURAL HAZARDS Findings 57  In the last 20 years, 3% of School Buildings were affected by flooding causing school days to be lost. About a half (50%) of these buildings were affected more than once.  0.5% or 16 School Buildings were affected by landslides. None of the buildings have been affected by landslides twice.  3% of School Buildings were affected by earthquakes causing school days to be lost. About 33% of these buildings were affected more than once. Almost 32% of all schools have been assessed for earthquake risk. 5% or 129 schools need retrofitting, 2% were retrofitted and 61% were deemed to not require further retrofitting.  2.3% of School Buildings were affected by storms in the last 20 years causing school days to be lost. About 65% of these were affected more than once.  1.5% of School Buildings were affected by fire causing schools days to be lost, only 2 of these buildings were affected more than once. Urban Rural Overall Flooding5.0% 2.5% 3.0% Landslides0.3% 1.3% 1.1% Earthquakes2.0% 4.0% 3.6% Storms0.5% 2.7% 2.3% Fire1.6% 1.5% Natural hazards causing schools days to be lost

58 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union FURNITURE The audit teams collected information on the number of desks and chairs in each School Building. School Directors were also asked how many desks and chairs were currently in use in their respective School Institution. While this method does not disaggregate the furniture usage by shifts, it provides an estimation of what the situation is the classrooms.

59 Infrastructure Projects Facility in the Western Balkans Part of the Western Balkans Investment Framework Facility funded by the European Union TA-ALB-1002/12/2011 FURNITURE Chairs and Desks 59  There are about 4% more students than chairs in Albania. NOTE: taking classes in the afternoon and operation in shifts should be reported.  In urban areas there are 9.1 chairs for every 10 students, whereas, rural areas have more chairs than students.  97% of all student and teacher furniture is in a usable condition.


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