6Europe’s Geography Mountain Regions Alpine Mt. System- go from Spain to the Balkan Penin.Covers most of Switzerland & Austria & parts of France & Italy.
7Europe’s Rivers Important for travel & the movement of goods. 1. Rhine- most important in Western Europe, flows from Switzerland, to France, then North to Germany & the Netherlands & empties in the North Sea
8Europe’s Rivers2. Danube-Eastern Europe’s most important river. Carry goods east to west to the black sea
9Europe’s Rivers3. Thames- Is an important port for London
10Natural ResourcesEurope is considered the birth place of modern industry because of the amounts of Minerals, Iron, & CoalMinerals = most important (gold, silver, copper, iron)Iron & Coal are considered the traditional necessities of an industrialized society cause used together they make steel.
11Energy Sources Home fuels vary greatly Peat moss is burned in western EuropeOther fuel sources include natural gas, oil, coal, nuclear & hydroelectric power.
12Climates Overall, Europe is a mild climate. Regions W Europe- West coast climate: extends from arctic circle to the Alps, Ireland to western parts of Poland, Czech Republic, & Hungary.NW Europe- moist climate that are caused by the Prevailing Westerly Winds- wind currents that bring warm air to Europe. North Atlantic Drift- a current of warm water from the tropics that blows warm air W-ES Europe= Mediterranean climate- hot dry summers & mild rainy winters. Alps keep it from raining too much by blocking the moist Atlantic winds during the summerE & N Europe- humid continental climate- warm summers & cold winters.
13Environmental Probs Pollution= #1 Acid Rain- pollution that condenses into moisture, creating an acidic drop of water.Acid rain has damaged millions of acres of forests, wildlife, & buildings.Air Pollution- covers the land w/ soot, poisons the crops, & creates health issues for the people.Water Pollution- drinking water & wildlife
14Acid RainWhen humans burn fossil fuels, chemical gases react with water, oxygen, & other substances to form mild solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid.Has many ecological effects, but none is greater than aquatic environments.Also damages forests, especially those at higher elevations. It robs the soil of essential nutrients & makes it hard for trees to take up water.Its estimated that Acid Rain does $1billion of damage to the environment each yr.
15Air PollutionStarted when industrial firms in Europe built huge smoke stacks to carry pollution away from their sites.Some of the most polluted areas of Europe are Poland, Czech Republic, & Romania.Its ruined crops, & has raised many health concerns.
18Water PollutionProblem is the dumping of raw or partially treated sewage & just regular trash into the water systems of Europe.The Mediterranean Sea takes about 1 century to completely renew its self.
19Cultural GeographyMany Europeans are Multicultural- having more than 1 culture.Europe has 30 countries & there are 50 different languages.This is good & badTrying to work toward unity but centuries of conflict & competition have made progress slow.Biggest challenge is dealing w/ peoples differences.
20Human Characteristics How did Europe get so multicultural?Through a history of migrating people.BIGGEST conflict happens when different ethnic groups disagree.You could be in the same country & still try to kill each other. (EX: Serbs & Croats)Fought each other in the Balkan Penin, in the early 90s.
21Population Distribution Europe has the 2nd highest population & pop density.They have about 264 people per sq mile.Pop density is closely related to physical geo, cause of things like climate, terrain, & resources.Some countries are so dense cause they are so small.
22Mediterranean EuropeFor folks back in the day, what would be some geographical advantages?1. Mild Climate- made survival easier2. Med. Sea- encouraged trade w/ other places3. Alps- blocked invasions from the North.
23Mediterranean Europe Main civilizations- 1. Greeks They moved into the Balkan Penin around 2000 B.C.Geography played an important role in the development of the Greek civilization.
24Mediterranean Europe80 % of Greece is made up of mountains or hills, making the country one of the most mountainous in Europe.How would this impact human settlement?Mountains made people spread out into independent & isolated communities.
25Mediterranean EuropeBecause most Greeks were isolated, they had to form City-States- a political unit made up of a city & the surrounding lands.Each City-State was independent & had its own economic, political, & cultural system.Largest & most important were Athens & Sparta.Why are the Greeks Important?They developed the 1st form of Democracy.( Helped inspire U.S. form of Democracy)They became very advanced in the areas of math, science, & philosophy.
26Mediterranean Europe What happened to the Greeks? Began having many problems w/ outside countries & w/ each other.1st conflict was the Persian War2nd conflict was Peloponnesian War
27Persian WarPersia was trying to expand their empire under the leadership of Darius.Started in 490 B.C. at the Battle of Marathon, Greeks wonDarius dies & his son Xerxes takes over & starts the 2nd Persian invasion of Greece in 480 B.C.
28Persian War Xerxes had 200,000 men & the Greeks only about 60,000. Athens & Sparta argued the best tactic to win (water or land).Sparta led by Leonidas, took 300 Spartans & forced Xerxes to the battle of Thermopylae.Loss for the Greeks but showed Xerxes Greece was united.Naval Battle of Salamis sunk & killed so many Persian ships Xerxes left Greece & the war ended in 479 B.C.
29Peloponnesian WarThe Spartans weren’t happy w/ the 30 yr peace they had agreed to w/ Athens & they were weary of the power & wealth of the Athenians.Started in 431 B.C.Spartan Strategy:1. Fight a land war (thought they were better on land)2. Out # Athens so thought they could outlast them.3. Starve Athens into surrender.
30Peloponnesian War Athenian Strategy: 1. Fight a naval war. 2. Take the fight to the Spartan Allies3. Had enough money to hold outThey fought for 10 yrs w/out anything being solved so they signed a peace treaty where both City-States got to keep all they had before the war.Peace lasted 50 yrs when Athens tried to attack the island of Sicily.Athens’ army was captured so the Spartans decided to attack.404 B.C. Athens surrendered to Sparta.
31Romans#2.Rome was a Republic- a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name.
32Romans How did their empire get so big & why did it fall? 1. Conquered many territories over seas2. Political Unrest- People became unhappy w/ the republic form of gov & wanted a strong leader. So they chose to have an Emperor.3. A divided nation- Empire became too big for just 1 gov so it split into E & W halves.
33Romans What caused the fall of Rome? 1. Conquered- cause of the split, each emperor of each section wanted to rule the whole Empire.Because of the fighting btw each other, the Empire was weakened & Rome was overrun by people that didn’t have a strong central gov.2. Dark Ages (A.D )- W/ Rome out of pwr the ideas of philosophy, gov, lit, & architecture were gone.
34Med. EuropeRenaissance- a time of renewed interest in learning & art that lasted from the 1300’s-1500’sEconomics of Med Europe:Agricultural to industrial:For centuries, the economy of Mediterranean countries was based on Ag & fishing.Now w/ growing manufacturing Med. Europe is slowly industrializing.Problems w/ Med Europe:1. Some regions are more developed than others (N & S Italy2. The whole Mediterranean region is poor in energy resources & relies on a lot of imported energy resources.
35Western European History 3 main/dominant countriesEngland, Germany, & FranceWhy1 largest2 Access to ports, resources, & trade routes to help them to build productive economies.Cultural divisions:1. Language- Since Rome conquered France, French was a Romanic Language2. Rome NEVER conquered Germanic tribes so that’s why its still spoken today.
36Western European History Reformation- period when many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church & started Protestant Churches.3 Main Reformers.Martin LutherJohn CalvinHenry VIII
37Martin Luther German Priest that started the P R He taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God through belief in Jesus.Before his teachings, the only way to God was through a Roman Catholic Priest & donating $$$$ to the church.Best known for his 95 Theses which were 95 ways that he disagreed w/ the teachings of the Catholic Church on the topics of forgiveness, the Pope’s authority, & the usefulness of indulgences.
38John Calvin Began Calvinism which believed that 1 Imperfect Man is predestined to their fate. Some for eternal salvation while the others would fall short of heaven.2. If you were predestined for heaven or hell there was nothing that you could do to change that.
39Henry VIIIKnown for his role in the separation of the Church of England & the Roman Catholic Church.Famously remembered for having six wives—2 he had beheaded
40Nation-State & Nationalism Nation-State- a independent nation of people w/ a common culture.Nationalism- the belief that people should be loyal to the nationThis often causes groups that want their own countries so it helped with the rise of nation-states.Modern Conflicts:WWI & WWIIHolocaust- the mass murder of the Jews during WWII.Berlin Wall- divided Germany into Communist & Democratic sides.
41Economy of W EuropeAg to High Tech- there has been a shift from farming (dairy, wheat, grapes, & vegetables) to producing high tech equipment ( electronics, scientific instruments, passenger trains, & nuclear energy.)
42Economy/TourismW Europe is very popular w/ tourists cause of mild climate, scenery, & historical sites.It exports luxury goods like German cars, Swiss Watches, & French clothing & food.
43Econ ProblemsEastern Germany’s factories are outdated & may have been/have to be shut down.Because of the availability of jobs, Western Germany has a higher standard of living.Its going to take about $80 billion & until the yr 2019 for E Germany to catch up to W Germany’s Economy.
44W Europe & the ArtsEach Country has a certain identity, shaped by language, religion, & culture.W Europe has a strong artistic legacy.Music: Known for classical music from composers like Beethoven, Mozart, & Bach
45W Europe & the ArtsArt France & the Netherlands were important for artists like Rembrandt & Monet
46Eastern Europe 3 issues in E Europe 1. Conflict 2. Pollution 3. European Union
47Eastern Europe Cause of Conflict Effect of Conflict Comes from the fact that many different groups want to control the same land.In 1897 Serbia broke away from the Ottoman EmpireMarch of 1992 Bosnia declares independenceSerbia tried to take over KosovoEffect of ConflictPeople started forming their own kingdoms.Yugoslavia was formedSerbia went to war to stop Bosnia from getting their independenceKosovo went to war w/ Serbia to gain its independence.
48Pollution Cause of Pollution Effect of Pollution Mines & factories create much of Europe’s water pollutionSewage, Chemical Fertilizers, & Oil Spills also pollute the water.Burning of Fossil fuels, & discharge from factories contributes to the air pollutionEffect of PollutionEuropean Environmental Agency- provides Europe w/ info about the environment & helps set up laws that the factories must go by.This creates smog & can cause many breathing diseases like asthma, & can even cause lung cancer.
50European UnionCause1. Many differences to settle like; political, economic, & currency.2. The members of the EU use the same currency called the Euro3. If affects politics by supporting certain governments on certain issues4. The EU is wanting to include all countries in EuropeEffect1. The EU was formed to solve the differences tween countries.2. Some countries believe that switching to the Euro will mean losing control of some economic factors.3. Not all of the EU’s governments agree w/ all of the issues brought up by the EU, creating tension.4.Running a big alliance isn’t easy.5. Not all countries have the experience w/ democracy or a successful economy.