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Child Disciplinary Practices: Results from the MICS3 John Fluke, Ph.D. Katherine Casillas, Ph.D. Child Protection Research Center American Humane Association.

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Presentation on theme: "Child Disciplinary Practices: Results from the MICS3 John Fluke, Ph.D. Katherine Casillas, Ph.D. Child Protection Research Center American Humane Association."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Disciplinary Practices: Results from the MICS3 John Fluke, Ph.D. Katherine Casillas, Ph.D. Child Protection Research Center American Humane Association Lijun Chen, Ph.D. Fred Wulczyn, Ph.D. Chapin Hall Center for Children Claudia Cappa Statistics and Monitoring Section UNICEF ISCI - York 2011

2 Overview Paper 1: UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) – History – MICS3 child discipline module – Methodology Paper 2: Overview of Results: Items and Subscales – Violent: Psychological, physical, and severe physical – Belief in need for physical punishment – Nonviolent Paper 3: Risk & Protective Factors – SES & Household Characteristics – Child Characteristics – Attitudes about Violence – Caregiver Characteristics – Summary & Program Implications

3 Section 1: UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)

4 UNICEF: History Events leading up to the Convention on the Rights of the Child 1946: Post World War II 1952: Immunizations 1959: Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1961 / 1982 / 1987 – Education / Child survival and development / Poverty 1989 / 1990: Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – Rights of protection – Rights of participation – Rights of provision

5 UNICEF’s efforts in data collection: MICS  Household surveys designed to collect data on children and women and to provide evidence base for improved policy formulation and programme planning  Key data source for monitoring the MDGs, World Fit for Children, and other major international commitments  More than 100 indicators (nutrition, mortality, child protection, HIV, etc.)  Data available by background characteristics (sex, ethnicity, wealth, education, etc.) and at the sub-national level

6 Evolution of MICS over time MICS implemented every 5 years since 1995 (MICS1 in 1995, MICS2 in 2000, MICS3 in 2005) Nearly 200 MICS surveys conducted globally in first three rounds of surveys MICS3 in over 50 countries during MICS frequency increasing from every 5 years to every 3 years (MICS4 in )

7 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) 15 years, 100 countries and 200 surveys

8 Survey tools Developed by UNICEF after consultations with relevant experts from various UN organizations as well as with interagency monitoring groups. Implementation and capacity building Surveys carried out by government organizations, with the support and assistance of UNICEF (HQ, RO and CO) and other partners. Technical assistance and training provided through regional workshops (questionnaire content, sampling and survey implementation, data processing, data quality and data analysis, and report writing and dissemination) MICS methodology

9 MICS questionnaires/methods Three modular questionnaires that can be customized to fit the data needs of a country. -Household questionnaire -Questionnaire for women aged Questionnaire for children under the age of five (administered to the mother or caretaker) Data are collected during face-to-face interviews in nationally representative samples of households Complex cluster sampling design

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12 Child Discipline Module in MICS Aims at measuring prevalence of violent and non- violent discipline methods used at home Uses as framework the CRC (1989): Article 19 of CRC: States Parties shall take all […] measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.

13 Background Based on a Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale Measures how parents (or adults in general) use different tactics to teach children the right behavior or address a behavioral problem A set of questions (CD10-CD21) to calculate the indicator for children aged 2 to 14 years old The last question assesses attitude toward corporal punishment

14 Violent Discipline Indicator: definition Numerator: Children age 2-14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment during the 30 days preceding the survey Denominator: Children age 2-14

15 Definition of violent discipline Psychological aggression: shouting, yelling and screaming at the child, and addressing her or him with offensive names. Physical (or corporal) punishment: actions intended to cause the child physical pain or discomfort but not injuries. This include: shaking the child and slapping or hitting him or her on the hand, arm, leg or bottom, hitting the child on the face, head or ears, or hitting the child hard or repeatedly.

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17 UNICEF MICS3: Countries Analyzed (N = 162,127) Central & Eastern Europe – Albania, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Tajikistan, & Ukraine Latin America & The Caribbean – Belize, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, & Trinidad and Tobago East Asia & The Pacific – Lao & Vietnam Middle East & North Africa – Algeria, Djibouti, Iraq, Syria, & Yemen West & Central Africa – Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, & Togo

18 Method of Analysis MICS is multistage stratified cluster sample – Clustering: households clustered within PSUs – Stratification of PSUs: by urban / rural, and administrative or geographic region – Sample weights: household weights provided Complex Survey Analysis: using SPSS 17 Complex Samples add-on module. Strata: pseudo-strata created based on implicit geographic stratification within region Weights: child-based weights used in analysis

19 Section 2: Overview of Results: Items and Subscales

20 Defining child discipline: Violent discipline subscales & Item prevalences SubscaleMICS ItemsMedian3Q Violent Discipline Subscales Psychological discipline Shouted, yelled at, or screamed at him/her Called him/her dumb, lazy, or another name like that Physical discipline Shook him\her Spanked, hit or slapped him/her on the bottom with a bare hand Hit him/her on the bottom or elsewhere on the body with something like a belt, hairbrush, stick or other hard object Hit or slapped him/her on the hand, arm, or leg Severe physical discipline Hit or slapped him/her on the face, head or ears Beat him/her up with an implement (Hit over and over as hard as one could).04.07

21 Discipline item: Attitude about need for physical punishment Median3 rd Quartile Do you believe that in order to bring up (raise/educate) (target child) properly, you need to physically punish him/her?.27.37

22 Discipline subscales: Discipline subscales & Subscale prevalences Median3Q VIOLENT: Psychological ONLY Physical ONLY BOTH Psychological and Physical Severe Physical TOTAL who use ANY form of violent discipline NONVIOLENT: ONLY use nonviolent Use nonviolent (as well as violent) NONE: Use neither violent nor nonviolent discipline methods.04.06

23 Overall Percentage of Children Receiving Any Violent Discipline

24 Trinidad & Tobago

25 Overall Percentage of Children Receiving Severe Violent (Physical) Discipline

26 Overall Percentage of Children Receiving ONLY or ANY Nonviolent Discipline

27 Distributions of Major Discipline Categories

28 CD13: Do you believe need to physically punish in order to raise child properly?

29 Section 3: Risk & Protective Factors

30 Factors Analyzed with Non-Significant or Mixed Results Place of residence (Urban / Rural) Living arrangement (Neither biological parent, mother only, father only, both) Caregiver age (Under 30 / / 40+) Marital status Polygyny

31 Risk & Protective Factors: Significant & consistent within-country differences SES & HOUSEHOLD RESOURCES – Family wealth – Family & Primary caregiver education – Child labor – Number of household members CHILD CHARACTERISTICS – Child gender – Child age ATTITUDES ABOUT VIOLENCE – Belief in need for physical discipline – Maternal attitudes towards domestic violence CAREGIVER BEHAVIORS – Children’s & non- children’s books – Educational & play activities – Non-adult care

32 SES & Household Resources Family wealth Family education Child Labor Number of household members

33 Family Wealth Definition – Wealthiest 40 percent & Poorest 60 percent – Relative not absolute wealth is measured More violent discipline in poorest 60% (N=30 countries)

34 Family wealth (N=30): More violent discipline in poorest 60%

35 Family Wealth Definition – Wealthiest 40 percent & Poorest 60 percent – Relative not absolute wealth is measured More violent discipline in poorest 60% (N=30 countries) N = 12 Poorest 60%Wealthiest 40% Median rd Quartile

36 Family Education Definition: None or Primary; Secondary; Higher Least violent discipline in households with “higher” education (N=26)

37 Family Education: Average (N = 26): Least violent discipline in households with “higher” education

38 Family Education Definition: None or Primary; Secondary; Higher Least violent discipline in households with “higher” education (N=26) N = 11 None or Primary SecondaryHigher Median rd Quartile

39 Child Labor Definition: 5-11 years: 1 hour of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week years: 14 hours of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week More violent discipline when child involved in labor (N=29)

40 Child labor (N = 29): More violent discipline when child involved in labor

41 Child Labor Definition: 5-11 years: 1 hour of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week years: 14 hours of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week More violent discipline when child involved in labor (N=29) N = 6 No LaborChild Labor Median rd Quartile

42 Number of Household Members Definition: 2-3, 4-5, 6 + More violent discipline in largest households (N=33)

43 Number of household members (N = 33): More violent discipline among larger households

44 Number of Household Members Definition: 2-3, 4-5, 6 + More violent discipline in largest households (N=33) N = Median rd Quartile

45 Child characteristics Child gender Child age

46 Child Gender More violent discipline against boys (N=33)

47 Child gender (N = 33): More violent discipline against boys

48 Child Gender More violent discipline against boys (N=33) N = 16 MaleFemale Median rd Quartile

49 Child Age Definition: 2-4, 5-9, More violent discipline against 5-9 year olds (N=33)

50 Child age (N = 33): More violent discipline against 5-9 year olds

51 Child Age Definition: 2-4, 5-9, More violent discipline against 5-9 year olds (N=33) N = Median rd Quartile

52 Attitudes about violence Belief in need for violent discipline Maternal attitudes towards domestic violence

53 Endorsement of Belief that Physical Punishment is Necessary and Any Physical Discipline Definition: Belief in need for physical punishment More physical discipline in households that endorse use of physical discipline (N=33)

54 Endorsement of Belief that Physical Punishment is Necessary and Any Physical Discipline

55 Definition: Belief in need for physical punishment More physical discipline in households that endorse use of physical discipline (N=33) N = 31 NoYes Median rd Quartile.66.91

56 Maternal justification of domestic violence and Any Physical Discipline Definition: Justification of use of domestic violence (Yes/no: endorsed 1+ items) More physical discipline when mother justifies use of domestic violence (N=27)

57 Maternal justification of domestic violence and Any Physical Discipline

58 Definition: Justification of use of domestic violence (Yes/no: endorsed 1+ items) More physical discipline when mother justifies use of domestic violence (N=27) N = 18 None 1+ Endorsements Median rd Quartile

59 Caregiver behaviors Children’s & non-children’s books Educational & play activities Non-adult care

60 Summary & Program implications Widespread use of violent discipline Need to combat simultaneously against all forms of violent discipline (Physical and psychological) A lack of knowledge of alternative parenting methods? Planning for future prevention approaches


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