2The Founding Members European Coal and Steel Community Proposed by Schuman for peace in 1950Formally established in 1951 by Treaty of ParisFrance, W. Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, ItalyWent on to sign Treaties of RomeECSCEURATOMEEC
4UK changed policy on joining on EC Came to be known as ECEFTA (Outer seven): Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United KingdomUK changed policy on joining on ECIssued for accession in 1961“Non” to the UK accession by French President de Gaulle (1963 and 1967)Due to fear of US influence
51973 - First Enlargement Accession of UK, Denmark, Ireland, Norway UK French President de Gaulle no longer in office so UK no longer has barriers for entryColonies – the question of GibraltarNorwayQuestion put to referendum – rejectedStill adopts policies – Schengen, Europol etcContributes to budget, member of EEA
71981 and 1986 Mediterranean Enlargements Democracy returns to Greece, Spain and PortugalGreece joins in 1981Spain and Portugal in 19861985 – Greenland leaves the EC1987 – Turkey and Morocco applyMorocco not seen as EuropeanTurkey’s accepted, only received candidate status in 2000, negotiations started in 2004
81981 and 1986 Mediterranean Enlargements With the accession of the countries in 1981 and 1986:Population increased by 10%The area of the EU members increased by 20%The total GDP of the member states increased by 6.8%But the GDP per capita fell by 3.42%
10Fourth Enlargement - EU-15 Prior to enlargement of 1995, East+West Germany reunified in 1990East Germany part of EC, under “Germany”EC becomes EU in MaastrichtAccession of Austria, Finland, SwedenCopenhagen criteria established due to candidacy of numerous post-communist countriesDemocracy / free market / adoption of EU Law
11Fourth Enlargement - EU-15 With the accession of the countries in 1995:Population increased by 6%The area of the EU members increased by 35%The total GDP of the member states increased by 6.5%For the first and only time in any enlargement of the EC/EU, the GDP per capita increased, by 0.20%
132004: The Big BangIn 2004, 10 Eastern, mostly post communist, countries joined the EUCyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Luthuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.Less developed states were fear of Western, more developed membersRestrictions of certain members on travel/working rights of eastern people in their countriesDenmark, Finland, Austria
14The Fifth Enlargement With the accession of the countries in 2004: Population increased by 20%, largest single expansion in terms of number of peopleThe area of the EU members increased by 18%, largest single increase in terms of km2The total GDP of the member states increased only by 8.8%It was the largest fall of GDP per capita in any enlargement. The accession of the less developed Eastern countries caused a 9% fall in GDP per capita
16Sixth Enlargement - 2007 The accession of Bulgaria and Romania Were supposed to join in 2004RomaniaGovernment and judiciary reforms not completedBulgariaMore efforts needed in fight against corruption, human trafficking and reforming judicial sector
17Sixth Enlargement - 2007 With the accession of the countries in 2007: Population increased by 6.5%The area of the EU members increased by 8.5%The total GDP of the member states increased by 2%GDP per capita fell by 4%Eastern enlargement of ended the conventional view “Europe ended where the Iron Curtain divided it”
24According to the 2014 Strategy Paper: Why Enlargement?According to the 2014 Strategy Paper:makes Europe a safer placehelps improve the quality of people’s livesmakes EU more prosperousthree pillars:rule of laweconomic governancepublic administration reform.
25Steps towards joiningWhen a country is ready it becomes an official candidate for membershipThe candidate moves on to formal membership negotiations following unanimous decision by the EU CouncilWhen the negotiations and accompanying reforms have been completed to the satisfaction of both sides, the country can join the EU
26Steps towards joiningThe conditions and timing of the candidate's adoption, implementation and enforcement of all current EU rules (the "acquis communautaire").35 chapters negotiated separatelyfinancial arrangements transitional arrangements
27Chapters of the acquisChapter 1: Free movement of goods Chapter 2: Freedom of movement for workers Chapter 3: Right of establishment and freedom to provide services Chapter 4: Free movement of capital Chapter 5: Public procurement Chapter 6: Company law Chapter 7: Intellectual property law Chapter 8: Competition policy Chapter 9: Financial services Chapter 10: Information society and media Chapter 11: Agriculture and rural development Chapter 12: Food safety, veterinary and phytosanitary policy Chapter 13: Fisheries
28Chapters of the acquisChapter 14: Transport policy Chapter 15: Energy Chapter 16: Taxation Chapter 17: Economic and monetary policy Chapter 18: Statistics Chapter 19: Social policy and employment Chapter 20: Enterprise and industrial policy Chapter 21: Trans-European networks Chapter 22: Regional policy and coordination of structural instruments Chapter 23: Judiciary and fundamental rights Chapter 24: Justice, freedom and security Chapter 25: Science and research Chapter 26: Education and culture
29Chapters of the acquisChapter 27: Environment Chapter 28: Consumer and health protection Chapter 29: Customs union Chapter 30: External relations Chapter 31: Foreign, security and defence policy Chapter 32: Financial control Chapter 33: Financial and budgetary provisions Chapter 34 - Institutions Chapter 35 - Other issues
30ScreeningCommission carries out a detailed examination, together with the candidate country, of each chapter.The findings by chapter are presented by the Commission to the Member States in the form of a screening report.open negotiations directly or require that certain conditions – opening benchmarks - should first be met
31Negotiating positions before negotiations can start, the candidate country must submit its position and the EU must adopt a common positionEU sets closing benchmarks in chapters which need to be met by the Candidate Country before negotiations in the policy field concerned can be closed.If criteria fulfilled, chapter “provisionally closed”
32Concluding the negotiations Closing the chaptersNo negotiations on any individual chapter are closed until every EU government is satisfied with the candidate's progress in that policy fieldwhole negotiation process is only concluded definitively once every chapter has been closed.
33Accession treatythe document that cements the country's membership of the EUTo be binding, it has to;win the support of the EU Council, the Commission, and the European Parliamentbe signed by the candidate country and representatives of all existing EU countriesbe ratified by the candidate country and every individual EU country, according to their constitutional rules (parliamentary vote, referendum, etc.).
35Importance of Western Balkans Enlargement Security: disputes on territories, sovereignty and ethnic minorities still persist in the regionCredibility of the EU as an international actor“use the power of its enlargement process to transform the Western Balkans, opening a new chapter after a shameful decade of failure in the region”
36Integration ProcessStabilisation and Association Process (SAP) policy framework in 1999Stabilisation and Association Agreements (SAA) with Croatia, Macedonia (2000), Albania (2003), Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia (2005), Kosovo (2013)Thessaloniki Summit (2003): a clear membership perspective granted to the Western Balkans, subject to fulfilment of the conditions determined by the SAP and the Copenhagen criteria
37Progress so farCroatia met all conditions and become a member of the EU on 1 July 2013.Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia recognised as candidate countries, where the formal accession negotiations started with Montenegro in June 2012 and with Serbia in January 2014.Albania applied for EU membership in 2009, and in October 2012 the European Commission recommended that Council should grant Albania candidate status. Granted candidate status in June 2014Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo has not applied for membership yet, but the EU recognises these countries as potential candidates.
38Financial Assistance Instruments for the Western Balkans PHARE, ECHO (1990)Obnova (1996)CARDS (2000)IPA (2007)IPA II (2014)
39PHARE, ECHO, ObnovaPoland and Hungary Assistance for Restructuring their Economies (PHARE) programme (1990)initially targeting assistance to Poland and Hungary,expanded to the pre-accession assistance of the 2004 and 2007 entrant countries and three countries from the Western Balkans, Albania, Macedonia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina
40PHARE, ECHO, ObnovaEuropean Consensus on Humanitarian Aid (ECHO) (1990)included support to refugees, internally displaced persons and vulnerable groups and aimed at restoring livelihood conditions and fostering post-war infrastructure reconstruction.Obnova (reconstruction) (1996)In the 1990s, around €4.4 billion was allocated to the projects aiming at the physical, social and political reconstruction of the Western Balkans.
41CARDS (2000)PHARE, ECHO and Obnova were limited to post-conflict reconstruction of the region.Community Assistance for Reconstruction, Development and Stabilisation (CARDS) programme“building up an institutional, legislative, economic and social framework directed at the values and models subscribed to by the EU”
42CARDS (2000)Financial assistance (€4.6 billion in total) concentrated at a wide range of issuesintegrated border management,public administration reform,taxation,local infrastructure development,civil society development,media reform,strengthened environment policies andeconomic reforms.
43CARDS Programme allocation for 2002–2006 (EUR million) 20022003200420052006Albania44.946.563.544.245.5Bosnia-Herzegovina71.9637249.451Croatia596281105140Macedonia41.543.54540Serbia189.7240218154.5179Montenegro15192224.5Kosovo154.976.2875.45489.5Source: European Commission, DG Enlargement. Financial statistics per country
44IPA (2007) Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) programme Replaced all previous instruments for both official candidate (Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Turkey, and Iceland) and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Kosovo)Aims at providing assistance to these countries in harmonization and implementation of the EU acquis and preparation for use of the cohesion and structural funds after EU accession.
45COMPONENTS OF IPAComponent I: “Assistance for transition and institution-building”Component II: “Cross-border cooperation”Component III: “Regional development”Component IV: “Human resources development”Component V: “Rural development”
46Allocation of IPA Funds allocation of the IPA funds for each component and beneficiary country was defined in the Multiannual Indicative Financial Framework (MIFF), which reflects the priorities identified by the Enlargement Strategy of the European CommissionFirst MIFF:Second MIFF:
47Breakdown of the IPA Assistance (MIFF 1) CountryComponent2007200820092010TURKEYTransition Assistance and Institution Building256.7256.1239.6231.3Cross-border Cooperation22.214.171.124.1Regional Development167.5173.8182.7238.1Human Resources Development50.252.955.663.4Rural Development20.75385.5131.3Total497.2538.7566.4653.7CROATIA49.645.445.639.59.714.715.915.645.147.649.756.211.412.714.215.725.525.625.826141.2146151.2153.6MACEDONIA41.641.139.3126.96.36.199.34.57.412.320.829.43.2188.8.131.520.212.558.570.281.891.7
48Breakdown of the IPA Assistance (MIFF 1) SERBIATransition Assistance and Institution Building181.5179.4182.6186.2Cross-border Cooperation8.211.512.211.8Total189.7190.9194.8198MONTENEGRO27.5184.108.40.206.54.73.731.432.634.533.5KOSOVO68.3184.7220.127.116.117.3BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA58.169.983.9100.744.95.262.174.889.1105.4ALBANIA54.365.271.418.104.22.168.8106173.881.294.2Total Country Programmes1109.41311.71305.11397.3Multi-Beneficiary Programmes29.6137.7188.9141.7Support Expenditure44.85247.647.4GRAND TOTAL1263.21501.41541.61591.3
49Breakdown of the IPA Assistance (MIFF 2) CountryComponent201120122013TURKEYTransition Assistance and Institution Building231.3227.5238.5Cross-border Cooperation5.12.2Regional Development293.4356.1366.9Human Resources Development77.683.291.2Rural Development172.5187.4204.2Total779.9856.3902.9CROATIA4017.415.916.49.758.257.530.1168.526.525.827.7156.5155.693.5MACEDONIA29.428.722.214.171.1249.340.950.38.810.310.61820.298101.5113.2SERBIA190.6196.711.311.511.6201.9202.1208.3MONTENEGROTransition Assistance and Institution Building29.816.35.1Cross-border Cooperation126.96.36.199Regional Development814.8Human Resources Development2.8Rural Development3.37.3Total34.23534.6KOSOVO66.96768.51.8368.768.871.5BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA102.7188.8.131.5207.4107.9108.8ALBANIA84.385.184.710.19.410.794.494.695.3Total Country Programmes15531633.71634.1Multi-Beneficiary Programmes193.2212.7177.3Support Expenditure52.252.753.3GRAND TOTAL1798.41899.11864.6
51Per capita IPA Allocations to the Western Balkans and Turkey
52From IPA to IPA II:IPA II: “more closely linked to the enlargement priorities, and based on a more results-oriented and strategic approach targeting key reforms in the enlargement countries”access to all areas of the IPA II for all countries, regardless their official candidate status;Easy management of financial assistance with fewer processes for accreditation and conferral of management to beneficiaries.Generalisation of a sector approach with the increased use of sectoral budget support
53IPA II Budget (provisional allocation) (EUR millions) 20142015201620172018201920201573.81605.21637.41670.11703.51737.61771.1