Presentation on theme: "Human Security as a New Education Field: the Case of Albania Dr. Enri Hide European University of Tirana Tirana, Albania."— Presentation transcript:
Human Security as a New Education Field: the Case of Albania Dr. Enri Hide European University of Tirana Tirana, Albania
Object This paper will focus on human security, as a new and very important tool of measuring development, stability and the level of democratic consolidation, especially in developing countries. During the last two decades the concept security has broaden, from a state-centric to a more human-centric approach: from state security to road security (safety), economic security, environmental security, food security, respect for human rights etc. Therefore, this dramatic change needs to be reflected also in a new educational approach towards this phenomenon.
Focus This paper will focus on human security as a tool of development, especially if employed in some specific fields and levels of education. The analysis of Albania’s strategic documents highlights the need to fully assess human components of security as a neglected approach in the security sector strategies and the public dialogue as well.
Structure (I) 1.The first part of this paper will deal with the challenges and opportunities of the post-Cold War period for the concept of human security, providing a theoretical overview of the changing approach from a state-centered to a human- centered approach of security. 2.In the second part it will argue for the necessity of developing such and approach in the case of Albania, by analyzing the security indicators of the country.
Structure (II) For this purpose will be very useful the report of a poll on human security, implemented in 2011-2012 in four Albanian cities. 3. In the third part, the paper will investigate the conditions and/or the necessity to introduce human security in the Albanian education system, by assessing the possible degree of integrating it in some levels of pre-university education and in the university education as well.
Argumentation Developing a human security approach might be useful in building development and political strategies, as demonstrated in many western countries. In order to provide a geographical focus for our analysis, we have chosen the case of Albania and the way to promote this new concept into the educational system at the secondary educational level as well as in a more advanced university level. It is our argument that it will be a crucial base for a sound development of every strategy involving all actors.
Argumentation Albanian democracy should fundamentally be oriented towards serving the welfare and wellbeing of its citizens. Our scientific attention will be directed towards assisting and promoting a system proactive and not reactive of the human security concerns of its population. We propose a bottom-up approach of security, on that will focus on human security, trying to build more tangible results on the main pillar, recipient, and consumer of security in a contemporary democracy, which is the citizen.
Argumentation One of its main aspects will be to properly explain the parties involved the concept and practice of human security. It will build in the future a more demanding social community on this regard, creating more pressure on policymakers and educational institutions to properly evaluate all respective strategies from their human security perspective.
Conclusions/Findings If individual security –defined as protection of the individuals from physical violence such as violence from state or non-state actors, violent individuals or various domestic abuses, attacks with political background, etc.– is projected in the Albanian socio-political environment, then the issue resulting would be very concrete, delicate and less explored. Crime –including property conflicts, blood feud, robberies, and violations– makes the Albanian population largely sensitive towards the threat to life models from outside human agents. The actual stage of development shows that under the pressure of transformation, a society dealing with the threats of war in the region, political instability within its borders, and a fierce struggle for power during at least the past two decades, might produce a lot of insecurities for their citizens.
Conclusions/Findings From a geographical viewpoint, Albania is a relatively new market economy, which under many aspects remains an economy in transition, thus unable to fulfill the key criteria of state and individual economic security demanded for the country’s course towards full membership into the European Union. Another aspect of the economic (in)security of a state is the level of unemployment and the correlation between unemployed and employed people. It affects the structural integrity of the economy and society of a nation, its developing capacities and competitiveness in regional and global markets, as well as food security of its citizens. If these data are enriched with the large trade deficit of the country, then it is possible to raise the argument that the main economic security problems of Albania affect the socio-economic paradigm of security.
Conclusions/Findings In Albania the National Security Strategy approved in 2004 doesn’t pay any special attention to human security, even though many aspects of it are closely connected to various fields of human security, such as health, environmental or economic security. Environment was one of the fields of government that suffered most from bad-governance and its disregard. According to recent studies, Albania has shown a clear weakness in building institutional capacities to manage the political decisions in environmental issues.
Conclusions/Findings As with all the other aspects of development, the Albanian education system has undergone during the last years a deep reformation process. One of the main pillars of educational reform, especially of the pre-university education, has been the integration of new educational issues and problems into the school textbooks. Environmental education can be gradually integrated in the higher educational levels encouraging students (and teachers) to take a more proactive approach towards environmental challenges. We can apply a top-down approach, integrating training courses on environmental education in key Education Departments of Albanian universities.