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Warm Up: Why would the Soviet Union focus so heavily on maintaining its control over the nations of Eastern Europe?

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: Why would the Soviet Union focus so heavily on maintaining its control over the nations of Eastern Europe?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up: Why would the Soviet Union focus so heavily on maintaining its control over the nations of Eastern Europe?

2 Chapter 30 Collapse of the Communist Bloc

3 Tensions Berlin Wall Life was so grim in communist East Germany that many fled to the West, which led the Soviets to construct the Berlin Wall

4 Tensions Hungary Failed attempts at liberalization by Imre Nagy in 1956 Czechoslovakia Prague Spring Liberalization movement led by Alexander Dubcek crushed by Soviets

5 Tensions Brezhnev Doctrine – Soviet Union would support with all means at its disposal any communist nation in Eastern Europe facing internal strife

6 Tensions Poland Polish Cardinal, Karol Wojtyla, elected Pope John Paul II in 1978 Lech Walesa, an electrician, led a massive strike demanding the right to form an independent trade union Solidarity Movement Martial law declared, union outlawed Union went underground with aid of the Catholic Church

7 Tensions Poland By 1989, Polish economy in shambles Government forced to negotiate with Walesa and Solidarity Government promised multiparty elections All communist candidates defeated

8 Collapse of the Soviet Bloc Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in Moscow in 1985 Reform minded: Glasnost -openness in debate Perestroika -economic restructuring of the state -Focus more on consumer goods -Ultimately unsuccessfully Opposed the Brezhnev doctrine

9 Collapse of the Soviet Bloc 1989 Communist regimes peacefully collapsed in Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Albania, and East Germany In 1990, the Berlin Wall was torn down, and East and West Germany were unified. In Romania, dictator Nicolea Ceausescu violently tried to hold onto power His government collapsed, he and his wife were executed on Christmas day, 1989

10 The Collapse of the Soviet Union Dissatisfaction in the USSR Failed invasion of Afghanistan 1979-1988 Nuclear disaster in Chernobyl 1989

11 The Collapse of the Soviet Union In the Soviet Union nationalist movements gained strength after the dissolution of the Soviet Bloc In 1990, non-communist parties were allowed to participate in government

12 The Collapse of the Soviet Union 1990 Lithuania declared its independence Russia declared its laws superseded the laws of the USSR In 1991, hard line Communist staged a coup while Gorbachev was on vacation, arresting him in his Crimean home Boris Yeltsin, chairman of the Russian Parliament defied the coup

13 The Collapse of the Soviet Union One by one the Soviet Republics declared independence and left the USSR In 1991 the USSR was dissolved soon after, Gorbachev resigned

14 Collapse of the Soviet Union

15 Russian Republic In 1991, Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian Federation with 57% of vote Moved economy toward free-market capitalism Created economic turmoil -Hyperinflation -Corruption -Organized crime -Oligarchs

16 Russian Republic Transformation to political democracy Conflict over economic policy led parliament to impeach Yeltsin - 1993 Yeltsin responded by ordering tanks shell Parliament Parliament dissolved new Constitution with increased powers of president new legislative body, the Duma

17 Russian Republic In 1999, Vladimir Putin chosen Prime Minister -Former KGB agent Won presidential election of 2000 Beslan Massacre - Terrorist attack by Chechen separatist 2004 Used as an excuse to end practice of popular elections for governors Took increasing control over state media

18 Russian Republic Putin’s popularity grew as oil prices rose Provided a huge boost to Russian economy Won reelection in 2004 Increased spending on military spending Sought to dominate region In 2008, supported Russian separatist in South Ossetia, Georgia

19 Russian Republic Replaced as President by Dimitri Medvedev in 2008 Seen as a puppet to Putin Putin became Prime Minister

20 Ethnic Warfare in Yugoslavia After the death of Tito in 1980, Slovenia and Croatia broke away from Yugoslavia and formed their own states Bosnia declared independence in 1992 -Majority Muslim and Croats Serb minority, with help of Yugoslavian president Slobodan Milosevic carried out “ethnic cleansing” Forced removal, genocidal murder of Muslins and ethnic Croats Serbs shelled the capital, Sarajevo on market days American brokered peace, the Dayton Accords in 1995

21 Ethnic Warfare in Yugoslavia Yugoslavia province of Kosovo began to seek greater autonomy Mostly ethnic Albanians, province was important to Serbian nationalist identity Milosevic ordered assault on Kosovo in 1998 NATO in 1999 began a aerial bombardment of Serbia After 3 months, Serbs withdrew First offensive action taken by NATO

22 Ethnic Warfare in Yugoslavia In 2000 Milosevic lost elections In 2001was turned over to the War Crimes Tribunal for “Crimes Against Humanity” Died of heart attack during trial in 2006

23 Nationalist Movements France -Brittany and Corsica Great Britain -Scotland and Wales Italy -Sardinia and Tyrol Spain -Basque and Catalonia

24 Ethnic Conflicts Armenia and Azerbaijan Georgia and South Ossetia Georgia and Abkhazia Moldova North Ireland Iraq Israel-Palestine Kurdish-Turkish-Iraqi Chechnya

25 Break Up of Czechoslovakia Velvet Divorce 1993 Peaceful separation of Czech Republic and Slovakia

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