2 Overview Video Clip/Beyond the Wild Blue Operation PROVIDE COMFORT/NORTHERN WATCHBackground to conflict and lessons learnedOperation SOUTHERN WATCHOperation PROVIDE RELIEF/RESTORE HOPEHistory of the BalkansBackgroundEthnic Groups
3 Overview Operation DENY FLIGHT Operation ALLIED FORCE CFD Review Background to conflict and lessons learnedOperation ALLIED FORCEBackgroundNATO ActionsOperation ALLIED FORCE BeginsLessons learned by U.S. MilitaryPolitical Lessons LearnedImpact of Lessons Learned on Future DOD BudgetCFD Review
6 The Crisis in IraqUN Security Council established a “no-fly zone” over northern Iraq to protect the Kurdish people from attacks by Saddam HusseinOperation Provide Comfort began on 5 Apr 91 as a humanitarian relief effort to deliver food, clothing, and supplies to Iraq’s Kurdish refugeesC-130s began airdropping supplies on 7 Apr 91Lasted approximately eight years and was then replaced by Operation Northern Watch
7 The Crisis in Iraq Lessons Learned - ONW The need to avoid “Fratricide”The limitations of airdropsHost-country tensionsThe need for alternate basesLack of an “exit strategy”
8 The Crisis in IraqOperation Southern Watch (OSW) was a Combined Task Force enforcing the “no-fly zone” below the 36th parallel in southern IraqNot an aggression against Iraq – executed as a self-defense measureCoalition partners included the U.S., UK, France, Saudi Arabia, and KuwaitMore than 850 Iraqi SAM and AAA fire directed at coalition aircraftIraq violated the “no-fly zone” more than 160 timesMore than 150,000 USAF sorties by 1998
9 “What we’ve effectively done since 1992 is conduct an air occupation of a country…” Gen Fogleman, Jul 1995
10 The Crisis in Iraq Lessons Learned - OSW Became a test for USAF AEF concept in Oct 1995Quality of life changes needed due to high “Ops-Tempo”Reorganized Security Forces
11 The Crisis in SomaliaIn-mid 1992, drought and civil war devastated SomaliaFood supplies became a weapon of warOperation Provide Relief began on 22 Aug 1992 by the U.S. to deliver food to Somali refugeesMilitary and civilian aircraft usedOver 2,000 sorties, carrying 48,162 metric tons of food
12 The Crisis in Somalia Although a humanitarian effort: 44 American soldiers lost their lives175 were injured or woundedDanger of failure due to warlord interferenceOperation Restore HopeCoalition peacekeeping operation from 9 Dec 92 – 4 May 93First test of Rapid Global Mobility from the CONUS
13 The Crisis in Somalia Lessons Learned First large scale test of newly formed AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC)Difficulties evolved in the planning, coordinating and managing of the operationAustere infrastructure of Somalia added to the lack of adequate bases for strategic airlift aircraft
14 A Brief History - After World War II, monarchy abolished Communist Party leader Tito proclaimedthe country the Federal People's Republicof Yugoslavia, with himself as primeminister- Eliminating opposition, the Tito government executed Mihajlovic in 1946- Tito died in 1980, and the fragility of thefederation he ruled quickly becameapparentTito
15 Three ethnic groups fell into conflict Serbs - dominant in Yugoslavia's politicsand army, orthodox Christianity makes themnatural allies of Russia.Croats - Roman Catholics, closer to theWest than Serbs and exposed to WesterninfluencesMuslims - living mainly in ethnically mixedtowns and cities in Bosnia -Herzegovina.
17 The Crisis in BosniaOct 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 781, established a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.Operation Deny FlightEnforced the no-fly zoneProvided close air support to UN troopsConducted approved air strikes under a "dual-key” command arrangement with the U.N.28 Feb 94, NATO aircraft shot down four warplanes violating the no-fly zone over Bosnia-HerzegovinaThis was the first military engagement ever undertaken by the Alliance.
18 The Crisis in Bosnia NATO objectives Bosnian Serb compliance to cease attacks on Sarajevo and other safe areasWithdrawal of Bosnian Serb heavy weapons from the total exclusion zone around SarajevoComplete freedom of movement for UN Forces and personnel, and non-government officialsUnrestricted use of Sarajevo airport
19 The Crisis in Bosnia NATO missions of Operation Deny Flight To conduct aerial monitoring and enforce compliance with UN Security Council Resolution 816To provide close air support to UN troops on the ground at the request of, and controlled by, UN forces.To conduct approved air strikes against designated targets threatening the security of the UN-declared safe areas.
20 The Crisis in BosniaOperation Deny Flight lasted from 12 Apr 1993 to 20 Dec 1995Almost 100,000 sorties flownA formal closure ceremony was held in Vicenza, Italy on 21 Dec 1995Forces associated with Operation Deny Flight were then transferred to Operation Decisive Endeavor -- as part of the overall NATO operation Joint Endeavor.
21 The Crisis in Bosnia Lessons Learned Lack of doctrineTactical air and space power problemsBases weren’t large enough to accept the contingency surgesCoalition/Joint problemsTechnological problems
23 Kosovo CrisisKosovo lies in southern Serbia and has a mixed population of which the majority are ethnic Albanians (Muslims)Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic altered the status of the region, removing its autonomy and bringing it under the direct control of Belgrade, the Serbian capitalThe Kosovar Albanians strenuously opposed the move
24 U.S. and NATO Interests at stake Serb aggression threatened peace throughout the Balkans and the stability of NATO’s SE regionBelgrade’s repression in Kosovo created a humanitarian crisis of staggering proportionsPresident Milosevic’s conduct directly challenged the credibility of NATO
25 NATO ActionAfter the failure of repeated international diplomatic efforts since the Spring of 1998 to peacefully resolve the conflict in KosovoNorth Atlantic Council decided on 23 March to authorize NATO air strikesAimed at strategic targets in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, to end the repression of Kosovar Albanians by the Yugoslav government.
26 NATO’s ObjectivesA stop to all military action and the immediate ending of violence and repression;The withdrawal from Kosovo of the military, police and paramilitary forces;The stationing in Kosovo of an international military presence
27 NATO’s Objectives cont’d The unconditional and safe return of all refugees and displaced personsEstablish political framework agreement for Kosovo in conformity with international law
28 Military Objective“Degrade and damage the military and security structure President Milosevic has used to depopulate and destroy the Albanian majority in Kosovo”William Cohen, SECDEF15 April 99
29 NATO Strategic Objectives Demonstrate seriousness of their opposition to Belgrade’s aggression in BalkansDeter Milosevic’s attacks on helpless civilians and reverse ethnic cleansingDamage Serbia’s capacity to wage war against Kosovo
30 Lessons Learned on Kosovo War Objectives U.S. Grand StrategyMaintain a peaceful, prosperous U.S.-led EuropeConvince NATO to transition from old Cold War common defense against external threats to new Continental security coalitionPersuade NATO to acquire means and will to conduct “out of area” military opsEuropean StrategyMaintain a peaceful, prosperous & independent EuropePrevent spillover into Albania & Macedonia,thence to Greece & TurkeyMaintain NATO relationship with Russia and give it a role in helping end the crisisDemonstrate European unityKosovo War AimsStop the Serbian slaughter & expulsion of ethnic AlbaniansRemove Milosevic from powerAccomplish the above with minimal collateral damage and NATO casualtiesCommon Effort Concealed Widely Differing Objectives
31 Lessons Learned by U.S. Military U.S. air refuelers were stretched thin during the operationForce structure “numbers” & resources are inadequate for current level of commitments (all services); Support and training as important to victory as strikeOlder platforms with smart weapons may be seen as good enough, smart weapons may be better than smart platformsNeed the right force structure for the futureC4ISR is currently the weakest link in joint & coalition opsOn the brink of another hollow force
32 Political Lessons Learned by Europeans Militarily, Europe remains dependent on AmericansBest technology, weapons & platforms “Made in U.S.A.”Pols unwilling to pay the cost of matching unique U.S. capabilitiesU.S. cannot always be counted on to serve the Alliance’s interestsU.S. focus shifted with opinion pollsFear U.S. commitment could falter if U.S. forces take heavy casualtiesEU can provide diplomatic muscle (Martti Ahtisaari saves the day) Many foreign policy interests are similar among EU NationsRefugee issueHumanitarian (ethnic cleansing)Threat of rising Islamic fundamentalismNeed to build external identityEurope can overcome internal diversity to maintain cohesionGerman Luftwaffe conducted first combat missions since 1945Greece provided logistical support despite popular oppositionItaly and France (which have Communist ministers) offered air bases
33 Impact of Kosovo Lessons Learned on Future DOD Budget Trends No DOD/Allied spending surge like post Desert StormInternational defense market continues to shrinkReadiness & Retention will increasingly consume $$$$ for ModernizationInevitable Tax Cut legislation will further erode DOD budgetsServices must eventually deal with the bow waveOld platforms with smart weapons were good enoughCongress may balk at big bills for new platforms(JSF, F-22, CVX, DD-21)Support Forces will need big $$$$ too“We have to make a trade between smart weapons and platforms...We need to encourage the services to concentrate more on smart weapons.”Jacques Gansler
34 Review of CFD ModelDistinctive Capabilities-Air and space expertise, capabilities, and technological know-howFunctions- Broad, fundamental, and continuing activities of air and space powerDoctrine- fundamental principles which military forces guide their actions in support of national objectives
35 CFD Model Time Period Distinctive Capabilities Functions (missions) Doctrinal EmphasisDESERT STORMAir SuperiorityPrecision EngagementGlobal AttackInformation SuperiorityAgile Combat SupportRapid Global MobilityStrategic AttackAir RefuelingCommand and Control (C2)CounterairSurveillance and ReconnaissanceStrategic air attack (precision weapons/stealth)Suppress enemy air defensesPROVIDE COMFORT/ NORTHERN WATCHAirliftCounter AirStrategic attackProtect northern Iraqi no fly zoneHumanitarian airdrops for refugeesSOUTHERN WATCHTheater attack, of military targetsPROVIDE RELIEF/RESTORE HOPESurveillance & ReconnaissanceCounter Air/LandAirlift/Special OperationsAEF concept
36 CFD Model Time Period Distinctive Capabilities Functions (missions) Doctrinal EmphasisDENY FLIGHTAir SuperiorityInformation SuperiorityAgile Combat SupportCounterairSurveillance and ReconnaissanceCounterlandNo defined doctrineALLIED FORCEPrecision EngagementStrategic AttackIntelligenceStrategic attacks on ethnic cleansing Serbs and military capabilities
37 Summary Background to the Conflict Iraqi threats Air Defense Threat The Plan of AttackConcept of OperationsFive Strategic RingsTargetsCampaign OverviewVideo Clip/Beyond the Wild Blue
38 Summary Operation PROVIDE COMFORT/NORTHERN WATCH Background to conflict and lessons learnedOperation SOUTHERN WATCHOperation PROVIDE RELIEF/RESTORE HOPEHistory of the BalkansBackgroundEthnic Groups
39 Summary Operation DENY FLIGHT Operation ALLIED FORCE CFD Review Background to conflict and lessons learnedOperation ALLIED FORCEBackgroundNATO ActionsOperation ALLIED FORCE BeginsLessons learned by U.S. MilitaryPolitical Lessons LearnedImpact of Lessons Learned on Future DOD BudgetCFD Review