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Drug Trafficking and Abuse - Impediments to development - Akira Fujino United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

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Presentation on theme: "Drug Trafficking and Abuse - Impediments to development - Akira Fujino United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Drug Trafficking and Abuse - Impediments to development - Akira Fujino United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

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4 Shanghai, 1909

5 Early days 1920s-30s

6 Century of Drug Control BACKGROUND 19th century: Opium epidemic in Asia, notably China; morphine abuse problem in USA; emergence of heroin :Massive increases in coca leaf exports from the Andean region (later from Java); emerging cocaine epidemic in the USA RESPONSE 1909: Shanghai Conference – International Opium Commission 1912: The Hague: First International Opium Convention : International Drug Control under auspices of League of Nations 3 drug conventions (1925, 1931, 1936) International Drug Control under auspices of United Nations 1948:Protocol (synthetic opioids) 1953:Opium Protocol 1961: Single Convention (amended by Protocol in 1972) 1971: Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1988: UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1998: UNGASS: Political Declaration and Guiding Principles on Demand Reduction

7 Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Related UN Agencies

8 Opium Morphine Heroin Opiates

9 CANNABIS Cannabis

10 Coca/Cocaine

11 Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) Methamphetamine Amphetamine Ecstacy

12 Precursor chemicals

13 Opiates

14 Golden Triangle

15 Myanmar – Thailand border

16 Global opium production,

17 Global heroin flows of Asian origins

18 Heroin trafficking from Afghanistan

19 Balkan Route and Northern Route Source: UNODC, 2010 World Drug Report, June 2010.

20 Cocaine

21 Coca in the Andean region Coca cultivation, 2008 (167,600 ha) Potential cocaine production, 2008 (845 tons) 81,000 ha -18% 56,100 ha +4% 30,500 ha +6%

22 Source: UNODC, 2010 World Drug Report, June Major trans-regional cocaine flows, 1998 and 2008

23 Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS)

24 Sources: UNODC, Annual Reports Questionnaire Data, UNODC, Individual Drug Seizure Database, other government sources. Locations of amphetamines manufacture and main trafficking routes

25 Major methamphetamine trafficking routes out of Myanmar

26 Illicit methamphetamine laboratory Fiji 2004

27 Chimneys Chemical Storage Area Main Road Gates Undercover Agents live here for 6 months Factory Barracks Break Area Factory Office Prayer and Break Area N Illicit methamphetamine laboratory Indonesia

28 New Trends in West Africa: Methamphetamine

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30 Precursor chemicals

31 Preventing diversion of precursor chemicals into illicit drug manufacture

32 Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine P P and 3,4 - MDP P UNITEDKINGDOM CANADA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA MEXICO GUATEMALA RUSSIAN FEDERATION GERMANY YUGOSLAVIA ALBANIA NETHERLANDS CHIINA INDIA MYANMAR HONG KONG SAR OF China INDONESIA AUSTRALIA Early cases of precursors used in illicit manufacture of amphetamine-type stimulants

33 Acetic Anhydride: Diversity of trade flow

34 Acetic anhydride Seizures of precursor chemicals

35 Way forward

36 Cultivation of opium poppyInsurgency in the South of the country 2008 Major activities of the Taliban Cultivation and Insurgency

37 Sustainable Alternative Development

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39 Problem drug use reflected in treatment demand by region: late 1990s and 2008

40 For more information, please visit


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