3Italian unification 1848 liberal uprisings (Garibaldi –Mazzini) 1859 France supports Piedmont in gaining most of Italy from Austria and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies1866 Veneto added to Italy from Austria1870 Papal state (Rome) added to Italy after defeat of Napoleon III to Prussia.
4The new state Parliamentary government Voting based on property and literacy8% of adult males 1870South down to 2-3%The king commands land and naval forcesWeak political parties “ministers velded different coalitions” lead to transformism (see tb)
5All kinds of problemsHigh illiteracy from 90% to 10% in the south (emmigration)Slow industrial growth, agricultural backwardness in the south,Landowners and mafia strongGrowing socialist partyCatholic church enemy of stateEncouraged catholics to boycott elections to 1904Growing nationalism --- irredentism
6Industrialization picked up around 1900 Unification not built on economic unityUnification left great debtIn the north some benefit of contact with Western Europe and enough water-powerRailroad building did not have immediate effect1887 tariff walls, some improvementBy 1914 Italy was a developing industrial power but not among the great industrial powers.
7Agriculture 1870 60% of working population employed on land Latifundia in south –extreme poverty and wealth40% consumed by farmers themselves,Was Italy fit for war?
8Foreign policyNationalist wanted to gain South-Tyrol, Istria, Dalmatia from AustriaDeclining relationship with France made this impossibleConsequently Italy turned to colonialism:Crispi struggle for Abyssinia led to disaster in Adowa 1896In Northern Africa Italy got Libya from falling Turkey 1912 (Balkan wars)
9Italy during war. Italy Drives a Hard Bargain Italy was divided. One group favored neutrality.And felt that Italy should be paid for its neutrality.Like obtaining Trentino and Trieste from Austria.The Church feared that Italy would find itself at war with another Catholic State – Austria.Those around the King Victor Emanuel III.Then there was Mussolini.
10Pro-War ItaliansInitially Benito Mussolini, who was a Socialist editor, opposed the Tripolitanian war in 1911.But swung over to support World War I.This was done in his paper Popolo d’Italia.More influential than Mussolini was Gabriele D’Annunzio.He appealed to anyone who was disillusioned with the Italian political system.He felt war would regenerate Italy.He would develop a mass movement that the fascists would adopt.
11The Treaty of London (1915)The Italian Government was negotiating with both sides.The Allies agreed that if Italy went to war Italy would receive:South Tyrol to the Brenner Pass.Trieste.Part of Albania.Turkish territory.As well as an indemnity from the defeated.
12The Last Sane ManThe Italians signed the Treaty of London in April 1915.And agreed to enter the war a month later.The last voice opposed to war was Giovanni Giolitti.Before the Italian government would introduce a resolution for war on May 18, 1915.Mobs roamed the streets of Rome called for the “death of Giolitti.”Those opposed to Italy’s entry into the war were assaulted in the streets. Italians wanted war – how mistaken only time will tell.
13Rise of fascist partySocial frustration after ww1 because of peace treaty and economic crisesItaly didn’t get DalmatiaD’Annunzio occupied Fiumeinflation and strikes1919 first Fasci de combattimento by Mussolini (populist-socialist program)after election failure 1919 the party turned to right with emphasis on nationalism and anti-bolshevism: Mussolini thought that easier path to power
14March on RomeIn 1921 fascist get 31 seat in parliament out of 535 as part of government allianceacted as saviors of nation from general strike in August 22coup d’etat 27.oct 1922 when fascist marched on Rome.King Victor Emmanuel refused to sign martial law and appointed Mussolini prime minister.Why? What was going on?
15Consolidation of power Acerbo law 1923In 1923 Mussolini is still only a prime minister with small backing in a democratic state.The Acerbo laws: biggest party in elections gets two thirds of deputies. (Liberals supported) Elections in 1924.In 1928 all candidates for elections choosen by fascistsAventine seccession in June 24After the murder of socialist Matteottisocialists left the parliamentand Victor Emmannuel still supported Mussolini when he banned the socialist party
16Towards dictatorship 1925 - Strenghening of party organization Ban on other parties than fascists 1926Reign of terror -harrassing opponents and newspapersFoundation of secret police OVRA1926 parliament looses its lawmaking power.1928 King looses power to appoint prime ministerLabor uninons removed 1926 and 22 corporations replace them in
17The corporate stateIn name the corporates should replace the parliament as the power base of the new state put in practice the were “an elaborate piece of imposing humbug.Corporates: associations of workers and employers in each branch of the economy but in fact controlled from Rome.Corporates should decentralize government but the opposite happened. In the same vain local government was appointed from Rome and even local party officials were appointed from Rome.The Fascist grand council another limb governing body controlled by the dictator himself.
18Mussolinis ruleItaly was governed by the personal dictatorship of MussoliniControlled state and party.No Himmler or GöringMussolini was more of a propaganda man and selfaggrandiser.Concordat with the church.Propaganda. Battle for births. (in an overpopulated country) Emphasized the greatness of Italy.
19The Economy Self-sufficiency and protectionism increase in electricity and car productionThe battle for grain (Italian grain at 50% higher prices than American grain.More damage than advantage say economic historians.Unemployment rose and living standards declined
20Fascist theoryHow did this originally small party gain power? What is the social and political backgroundWhat was the political theory of the fascists?What was the role of MussoliniFor answers look at the historical debate
21Facist education Fascist culture a compulsory subject Party censorship of textbooksHistory suffered especially (317 to 1)Balilla – youth organizationDopolavoro – umbrella for workers leisurekraft durch freude
22Foreign policy I want to make Italy great, respected and feared Nationalistic policyAims open and hidden:Security from Germany and FranceInfluence in the BalkansWhen this achieved:mediterranean and African empire
23Action Corfu – incident 1923 1924 Italy got Fiume Influence in Albania from 1926Alliance with Austria and Hungary...Mussolini supported Austria after the murder of Dolfuss 1934Participated in Locarno and Kellog-Briand and Stresa
24Riding with Hitler Oct. 1935 invasion of Abyssinia League imposed limited sanctionsOil, coal, iron, steel excluded and Suez-canal openAnger towards West –shifted to GermanyVery limited gain – corrupt and profitless colonial empire1936 supporting Franco in Spain1936 Berlin – Rome axis
25Munich and war Mussolini planned the Munich meeting Invasion of Albania 1939Pact of steel with Germany – military allianceStill Italians were not ready for war
26Historical interpretations of Mussolini's foreign policy Mussolini had no basic principle of foreign policy He was out to gain prestige for himself and Italy, and expand (Balkans and Africa). He had an opportunistic attitude towards other countries in Europe. Basically, he seized opportunities as they came.
27Historical interpretations of Mussolini's foreign policy II) Mussolini was Britain's "Lost Ally" Mussolini tried to be Britain and France's ally, but after the conquest of Abyssinia (1935-6), relations became difficult and cold. As Italy was economically and militarily weak, it needed a powerful ally abroad in order to have weight and achieve gains. Therefore Mussolini turned to Hitler.
28Mussolini and war Italy in no way prepared for war Campaign against Greece (oct 1940) a disasterJuly 1943 allied troops land in Sicily and th efascist grand councel voted for the end of Mussolinis governmentMussolini had lost support of church, army and aristocrats.Victor Emmanuel took over and appointed Badoglio prime minister
29Italy in war Badoglio starts negotiation with allies Germans occupy Italy and battle with the alliesStill German troops in Italy at the end of war
30Historical interpretations of Mussolini's foreign policy III) Mussolini: the traditional Italian There is no Fascist foreign policy as such. Mussolini simply carried on with his predecessors' priorities of expanding in the Balkans (Mediterranean) and Africa.IV) Mussolini had domestic problems Mussolini was a prisoner of Italy's internal problems. Public opinion expected foreign expansion from Mussolini. This was also seen as a way out of economic problems (new market for Italian goods).