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Historical Geography of the Soviet Era. Marxism Class analysis of Germany and Britain proletariatSaid the goal of capitalism is to keep the proletariat.

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Geography of the Soviet Era. Marxism Class analysis of Germany and Britain proletariatSaid the goal of capitalism is to keep the proletariat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Geography of the Soviet Era

2 Marxism Class analysis of Germany and Britain proletariatSaid the goal of capitalism is to keep the proletariat (factory workers, peasants) down Working-class power: –“Dictatorship of Proletariat” –“People’s (Socialist) Democracy” Said the only way to defeat capitalism is through revolution Tsarism equated to capitalism classless society with no single dictatorHowever, his view of communism was of a classless society with no single dictator Karl Marx (1818-1883)

3 Russian Marxism But what to do about it? Bolsheviks (Radicals: Marxists, believed the proletariat should be at the heart of change)Bolsheviks (Radicals: Marxists, believed the proletariat should be at the heart of change) Mensheviks (Moderates ~ democratic, believed bourgeois should be at the heart of change)Mensheviks (Moderates ~ democratic, believed bourgeois should be at the heart of change) Anarchists among many, many other social revolutionaries and political factionsAnarchists among many, many other social revolutionaries and political factions >100 ethnic groups in Russia!>100 ethnic groups in Russia! Estimates place Russia’s peasant population at around80%!

4 WWI: Who wanted war…and why? “War of the Bosses”European socialists vs. “War of the Bosses” (elites tied into tsars in the West) Tsarists (including Nicholas II) voted for war, even though Russia was in no shape to go to war Bolsheviks (non-elites) say no to war Peasants outraged, dying, economy failing, strikes against war, tsar

5 WWI

6 Russia in WWI PetrogradSankt Peterburg (capital) renamed Petrograd –Nicholas II said it sounded too German –Others say he changed it for political / social reasons (“Berkeley”) Losing on Eastern Front Immense ruin, hardship Peasants pay price Bolsheviks looked like prophets (not a good time to go to war) Anti-tsarist protests Tsarist Russia flag

7 So what were the most significant reasons for the Russian Revolution? Labor and land reform –Landless peasants –Factory workers –No rights –Rejection of elites

8 Russian Revolution (1917) Nicholas II: deposed in February Revolution Provisional Gov’t established by “democratic” party (Mensheviks) Soviets (Bolsheviks)Soviets (Councils) of workers, soldiers, peasants (Bolsheviks) do not cooperate with Provisional Government Leads to disorganization, ineffectiveness October Revolution: Vladimir Lenin,October Revolution: Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, said a strong dictatorial government was what Marx required for the revolution to succeed, then took over. First Premier of Soviet UnionLenin: First Premier of Soviet Union Nicholas II (the last tsar) Lenin (the 1st premier)

9 Lenin’s Approach: Criticized Russian (majority) nationalism (he was anti-Russification)Criticized Russian (majority) nationalism (he was anti-Russification) Wanted to modernize Russia:Wanted to modernize Russia: –Provide electricity to make rural areas and cities equal –Women’s rights –National health care –Remove illiteracy –For all ethnicities Wanted no part of WWIWanted no part of WWI

10 Russia after WWI Surrender: 1918Surrender: 1918 Revolutions collapse in Germany, HungaryRevolutions collapse in Germany, Hungary Peasants like breakup of aristocratic land holdings, but want to land for selvesPeasants like breakup of aristocratic land holdings, but want to land for selves Bolsheviks (Communists) in powerBolsheviks (Communists) in power

11 “Pale” Abolished in 1917 Jews had actively participated in anti- Russian / Tsarist resistance for centuriesJews had actively participated in anti- Russian / Tsarist resistance for centuries Provisional Government ends the PaleProvisional Government ends the Pale Many Poles had fled from the Pale to Russia due to the German invasionMany Poles had fled from the Pale to Russia due to the German invasion Bolsheviks largely anti-Semitic (but not Lenin)—linked to GermansBolsheviks largely anti-Semitic (but not Lenin)—linked to Germans Polish-Bolshevik war (1919-1921) beginsPolish-Bolshevik war (1919-1921) begins …but the “Pale” still culturally exists…but the “Pale” still culturally exists

12 1919 Polish-Bolshevik (Russian) War (1919-1921)

13 1919

14 1920

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16 1921 “Second Polish Republic” (1921-1939)

17 But why were there so many Jews in this part of the world? The Pale—but what about before this?The Pale—but what about before this? The Crusades: Ashkenazi Jews The Alhambra Decree: Sephardic Jews Trade

18 Type: AshkenaziSephardic Initial Settlement: Germany (Rhine)Iberia / Maghreb Where to: The PaleN. Africa / SE Europe / New Spain Diaspora Cause: CrusadesReconquest Dates: 1100-18001492 Currently: Israel / U.S. Israel / France/ U.S. % of Jewish Pop: 80%*20%* Jewish Diasporas

19 Ashkenazi Diaspora: Crusades

20 Sephardic Diaspora

21 Spanish Synagogue (Prague)

22 Jewish Ghetto (Venice, Italy)

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29 20 th Century Jewish Diaspora

30 Civil War (Reds vs. Whites), 1918-21 Brits, French, Poles, Yanks, Japanese intervene for Whites Russia under siege Lenin shot, nearly killed. “Red Terror” (torture, killings, executions)Lenin invoked “Red Terror” (torture, killings, executions)

31 vs. Imperialism vs. Communism formal control by foreign parties to maintain empire (the golden rule)Imperialism: formal control by foreign parties to maintain empire (the golden rule) establishment of classless societyCommunism: establishment of classless society Therefore: oppositeTherefore: C opposite I Lenin was an adamant anti- imperialist: Would never take over a country, merely “extend an invitation.”Lenin was an adamant anti- imperialist: Would never take over a country, merely “extend an invitation.” USSR had history of supporting “anti-imperialist” movements in Latin America, Asia; but what about in Eastern Europe?USSR had history of supporting “anti-imperialist” movements in Latin America, Asia; but what about in Eastern Europe?

32 Changes? “Decree on Land”“Decree on Land” –Complete land redistribution (from ownership of elite to peasants’ hands) –But no more private ownership of land –So is this really a change for the peasants?? Due to political activity in Petrograd, Lenin moves capital to MoscowDue to political activity in Petrograd, Lenin moves capital to Moscow Russia cedes territory,Russia cedes territory, new independent countries arise from the ashes of WWI And…And… Kremlin

33 …a new map!

34 Divided largely along ethnic lines: Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Poland Czechoslovakia Austria Hungary Yugoslavia Romania gains Bessarabia (Moldova) Rise of Nationalism! (the nation-state)

35 1924: Lenin Dies Petrograd renamed Leningrad due to the October Revolution (end of the tsars)Petrograd renamed Leningrad due to the October Revolution (end of the tsars) But, because capital relocated, Leningrad lost much population :But, because capital relocated, Leningrad lost much population : 19131920 19131920 2,000,000700,000 But! you can still say “hi” to Lenin! The Soviets, and now the Russians, have preserved his body and kept it on display since 1924The Soviets, and now the Russians, have preserved his body and kept it on display since 1924

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37 http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26306737

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43 The Josef Stalin Era, 1922-53 Reemploys centralism of Czarist RussiaReemploys centralism of Czarist Russia Ruthless murders of dissidents; purges of leadersRuthless murders of dissidents; purges of leaders Millions killedMillions killed Stalin takes Lenin’s / Marx’s ideas further:Stalin takes Lenin’s / Marx’s ideas further: –total state control –more central power –invade other lands for labor Back to Imperial Russia (tsarism) or worse?Back to Imperial Russia (tsarism) or worse? Then, one day, a new sheriff comes to town…

44 Stalin and Nationalism Ethnic Georgian (Ossetian), therefore pro-Russian Feared, repressed ethnic minorities & religions Russification of minorities (Cyrillic) Ruled republics through Russified elites, money (everyone should be the same) Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili Stalin = Steel

45 Stalinist “State Socialism” “Command Economy”Central planning of “Command Economy” Heavy industrialization to catch up to West Forced collectivization of private farmlands Undermined Marxist and Leninist socialism as being led by “The People” (“people” now means the state)

46 These ethnic separations became “S.S.R.s” _________ Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) : Russian*UkrainianKazakh Estonian ByelorussianKirghiz Latvian GeorgianTurkmen LithuanianArmenian Tadzhik Moldovan Azerbaijan Uzbek (Transcaucasian*) (__SFSR): * Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (__SFSR): more than one ethnic group / political territory within SSR

47 Transcaucasian SFSR United as one SFSR: 1922-1936United as one SFSR: 1922-1936 Civil war induced by RedsCivil war induced by Reds “Divide and Conquer”“Divide and Conquer” “Invited” separately into USSR in 1936“Invited” separately into USSR in 1936

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49 Ethnic Regions in the USSR

50 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Only Autonomous Oblast in USSROnly Autonomous Oblast in USSR 1934: Alternative to Israel?1934: Alternative to Israel? ~1% Jewish today~1% Jewish today

51 Constitutions of the USSR Soviets are rulersSoviets are rulers (dictatorship of the proletariat) Officially recognized acceptance of Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian republics as part of USSROfficially recognized acceptance of Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian republics as part of USSR 1917 1924 Several versions: 1917, 1924, 1936, 1977Several versions: 1917, 1924, 1936, 1977

52 “Stalin” Constitution 1936: “Stalin” Constitution –ARTICLE 1. The USSR is a socialist state of workers and peasants. –ARTICLE 2. The Soviet Council, which grew and attained strength as a result of the overthrow of the landlords and capitalists and the achievement of the dictatorship of the proletariat, constitute the political foundation of the USSR. –ARTICLE 5. Property in the USSR exists either in the form of state property or in the form of cooperative and collective-farm property. –ARTICLE 6. The land, its natural deposits, waters, forests, mills, factories, mines, rail, water and air transport, banks, post, telegraph and telephones, large state-organized agricultural enterprises (state farms, machine and tractor stations and the like) as well as municipal enterprises and the bulk of the dwelling houses in the cities and industrial localities, are state property, that is, belong to the whole people. –ARTICLE 8. The land occupied by collective farms is secured to the (people) for their use free of charge and for an unlimited time, that is, in perpetuity. –ARTICLE 13. The USSR is a federal state, formed on the basis of the voluntary association of Soviet Socialist Republics having equal rights, namely: The Russian SFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Byelorussian SSR, The Azerbaidjan SSR, Georgian SSR, Armenian SSR, Turkmen SSR, Uzbek SSR, Tadjik SSR, Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Moldavian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR

53 USSR: Self-Portrayal

54 Stalinist Architecture Stalinist Architecture (1933-1955) Glorify, promote CommunismGlorify, promote Communism –instrument of propaganda 1933: Soviet Academy of Architecture1933: Soviet Academy of Architecture –Censorship of Western ideas –Rejection of contemporary (Western) “bourgeois art / architecture” No modernism, impressionism, cubism; however…No modernism, impressionism, cubism; however… Reflected older styles (Baroque, Gothic, etc.)Reflected older styles (Baroque, Gothic, etc.) –“Socialist Realism:” art reflects Socialist ideals—the struggle of the proletariat (a.k.a. “every day life:” Work = Happiness)

55 “Seven Sisters” (7 Stalinist Skyscrapers in Moscow)

56 So…which is which? Terminal Tower (Cleveland, OH) 1928 Ministry of Heavy Industry (Moscow) 1953 La Giralda (Seville, Spain) 1568

57 Riga, Latvia

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59 Triumph Palace Built in 2003Built in 2003 Apartments for wealthy RussiansApartments for wealthy Russians “Retro-Stalinist” Was tallest building in Europe (866 ft.), until…“Retro-Stalinist” Was tallest building in Europe (866 ft.), until…

60 Naberezhnaya Tower (2007) 881 feet “City of Capitals” (completed 2009)“City of Capitals” (completed 2009) Part of “Mercury City:” (Moscow International Business Center)Part of “Mercury City:” (Moscow International Business Center) –a city within a city Business = Western ArchitectureBusiness = Western Architecture 1,004 feet: Was tallest in Europe until…1,004 feet: Was tallest in Europe until…

61 Mercury City Tower Became tallest building in Europe in 2012Became tallest building in Europe in 2012 1,112 feet tall1,112 feet tall http://www.mercury-city.com/en/galleries/ However…

62 Federation Tower Perhaps to be completed this year?Perhaps to be completed this year? 1,660 FEET TALL!!1,660 FEET TALL!! –Willis (Sears) Tower: 1450 feet However…However…

63 The Russia Tower? 2,009 feet! CANCELED! For now…

64 Communist Architecture Square-shapedSquare-shaped No adornmentsNo adornments Functional / “Equal”Functional / “Equal”

65 Berlin

66 Budapest

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68 Shkoder, Albania

69 Legacy of Communism

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72 Example of “Western” architecture rejected by Stalin: Cubism (Prague)

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78 Prague

79 Was Stalinist Architecture “Stalinist?” Reflective of “every day life?”Reflective of “every day life?” Did it reject Western thought?Did it reject Western thought? Is it “Stalinist” by definition?Is it “Stalinist” by definition? Socialist Realism Art

80 Anti- Capitalist Political Cartoons

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83 World War II, 1939-41 Hitler-Stalin Pact: Treaty of Non-AggressionHitler-Stalin Pact: (Ribbentrop-Molotov) and / or Treaty of Non-Aggression USSR annexed eastern Poland, Baltics, Bessarabia (Moldavia) Invaded Finland Nazis invade USSR, June 1941 Stalin allies with Brits, U.S.

84 Nazi Invasions, 1941-45 Germans besieged Leningrad through winter Failed to seize Moscow (gov’t relocated in east) Halted at Stalingrad, before Caspian Sea 20 million Soviets dead, country devastated “Pale” virtually destroyed by both sides

85 Nazi Occupation

86 Moscow, 1941: Survival Moscow Metro1930: Stalin commissioned an underground subway system to be built: Moscow Metro Lazar Kaganovich: Minister of Propaganda Metro as functional propaganda piece Used as underground bunker in WWII

87 Moscow Metro Stations

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89 USSR after WWII (Re)annexed territories Baltics, Moldavia, E. Poland. Took E. Prussia (Kaliningrad) Troops stay East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria Independent Communist “partisan” states Yugoslavia, Albania, China (1949) Yalta Conference

90 Poland, 1945 USSR annexes eastern Poland Poland gets Eastern Germany Lands of the old “Pale” totally devastated: caught between Germany and USSR Few Jews left in the region

91 A Geographic Dilemma: A Geographic Dilemma: “Ivan’s” border changes: What ethnicity? Where is he from? Born in Austro-Hungarian Empire (before WWI)Born in Austro-Hungarian Empire (before WWI) Grew up in Czechoslovakia (after WWI)Grew up in Czechoslovakia (after WWI) Annexed into Hungary (1938)Annexed into Hungary (1938) Back into Czechoslovakia (1944)Back into Czechoslovakia (1944) Grew old in the USSR (after WWII)Grew old in the USSR (after WWII) Died in Ukraine (after 1991)Died in Ukraine (after 1991) All without leaving his hometown of Mukachevo!All without leaving his hometown of Mukachevo! Mukachevo, Ukraine

92 The “Iron Curtain” 1946-89 Churchill speech, 1946 Divided West from all Communist states Lines drawn where troops ended up “Buffer States:”“Buffer States:” –“Soviet Satellites” Not Yugoslavia or Albania

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94 Eastern Bloc USSR East GermanyEast Germany PolandPoland CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia HungaryHungary RomaniaRomania BulgariaBulgaria Yugoslavia Albania

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96 Resistance to Soviets Yugoslavia and Albania: Although Communist, rejected USSR’s controlYugoslavia and Albania: Although Communist, rejected USSR’s control Poland and Czechoslovakia wanted to participate in Marshall Plan reconstructionPoland and Czechoslovakia wanted to participate in Marshall Plan reconstruction Joseph Tito, Yugoslavia (1943*-1980) Enver Hoxha, Albania (1941-1985)

97 Berlin: 1945 Divided up into sectors (major distrust of everyone) British U.S. French Russian “Trizone”

98 Troubles… Berlin Airlift: 1948 Soviets block access to Berlin, won’t ship food to West BerlinSoviets block access to Berlin, won’t ship food to West Berlin Checkpoint Charlie

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100 NATO vs. Warsaw Pact West vs. East West Germany: East Germany: West Germany: East Germany: NATO Warsaw Pact NATO Warsaw Pact (1949)(1955)

101 Warsaw Pact: 1955 Agreement between Communist states that if one was attacked, the others would come to its defense !!ALSO an agreement that no Warsaw Pact member would attack another member!! Not Yugoslavia!Not Yugoslavia! Beginning of US- USSR arms race and…

102 Cold War Geopolitically-basedGeopolitically-based Marshall Plan for recovery in West, but who fixes the East?Marshall Plan for recovery in West, but who fixes the East? Massive refugee crisis, povertyMassive refugee crisis, poverty Western (and Eastern?) military “containment”Western (and Eastern?) military “containment” “Hot Wars” (for / against communism), in Greece, Turkey, Latin America, all over“Hot Wars” (for / against communism), in Greece, Turkey, Latin America, all over

103 Revolts in Eastern Europe East Germany, 1953East Germany, 1953 Poznan (Poland) demonstrations, 1956Poznan (Poland) demonstrations, 1956 Hungarian Revolution, 1956Hungarian Revolution, 1956 Wide opposition to Stalinism, but efforts futile in short termWide opposition to Stalinism, but efforts futile in short term http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVdQ9PK9Q5o

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105 Shoes on the Danube

106 Nikita Khrushchev, 1953-64 Stalin dies 1953 “Destalinization:”“Destalinization:” less repressive –Punished Stalin’s cronies Gulags –Released political prisoners from Gulags remote (forced labor camps) Populations reduced (13m to 5m) Existed from 1918 to 1987 Over 80% fatality rates in some Remote areas Once released, many not allowed to return Visited, confronted U.S., but backed down in Berlin, Cuba But, still, more of the same… Consumer goods emphasis

107 Prague: Monument to Stalin (1955) Khrushchev destroyed it in 1962 as part of destalinization; in 1992 it was replaced with a metronome: symbol of changing times.

108 1954: “Virgin Lands” Campaign “Encouraged” settlement in remote areas of USSR for farming WHEAT: Kazakhstan“Encouraged” settlement in remote areas of USSR for farming WHEAT: Kazakhstan Ukrainians, Germans, othersUkrainians, Germans, others BIG success at firstBIG success at first However, kept growing only wheat + pesticidesHowever, kept growing only wheat + pesticides Soils depleted of nutrients by 1960Soils depleted of nutrients by 1960 Few silos, grains rottedFew silos, grains rotted

109 Berlin Wall (1961-1989) Conceived by East German government, approved by KhrushchevConceived by East German government, approved by Khrushchev 28 miles long28 miles long Limit defections: “Brain Drain”Limit defections: “Brain Drain” Limit Western influenceLimit Western influence Became symbol of West and East:Became symbol of West and East: –U.S. ability to defend free West Berlin vs. controlling power of USSR

110 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r0I7FvPk5YQ

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114 Prewar Streetcar Line

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116 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZCwlKiiZrs&feature=fvw

117 JFK: 1963 Famous “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech I am a jelly donut. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NaZ3onbUrew

118 Leonid Brezhnev, 1964-82 Similar policies of Stalin & Khrushchev –Economic stagnancy –Military superpower Brezhnev Doctrine (1968): –If capitalist country tries to convert socialist country, becomes a problem for all socialist countries –Therefore, no country could ever become capitalist (or leave Warsaw Pact) “Prague Spring”, 1968“Prague Spring”, 1968 –Liberalization of markets for a few months –MAJOR crackdown by Brezhnev –Cited Doctrine to justify actions –1979: Invaded Afghanistan on same premise Alexander Dubček

119 1968 “Prague Spring” Wenceslas Square 2015

120 St. Wenceslas: The day the world turned upside down

121 Polish Movement toward self- governance,1980-81 Strikes, revolts: 1956, 1968, 1970Strikes, revolts: 1956, 1968, 1970 Looser than others during the 1970s: Similar to Hungary’s “Goulash Communism:” mixture of both free market and state-controlled economic forcesLooser than others during the 1970s: Similar to Hungary’s “Goulash Communism:” mixture of both free market and state-controlled economic forces 1980: Workers’ strikes (Lenin) spread from Gdansk shipyards1980: Workers’ strikes (Lenin) spread from Gdansk shipyards Military crackdown in 1981, but not defeated!Military crackdown in 1981, but not defeated! Gdansk (a.k.a. Danzig)

122 Polish Solidarity: 1980 Non-violent resistance to USSR controlNon-violent resistance to USSR control Strong support of Catholics— (Polish) Pope John Paul II (1978) and labor unions (Lech Walesa)Strong support of Catholics— (Polish) Pope John Paul II (1978) and labor unions (Lech Walesa) Government invoked martial law, stiff penalties, but eventually had to negotiate with unionGovernment invoked martial law, stiff penalties, but eventually had to negotiate with union First “tear” in the Iron CurtainFirst “tear” in the Iron Curtain Led to free elections in 1989Led to free elections in 1989

123 Last days of USSR (1982-91) Yuri Andropov (ex-KGB), 1982-84 Konstantin Chernenko, 1984-85 Mikhail Gorbachev (glasnost), (glasnost), 1985-91 War fears, spending on “Euromissile” arms race More rejection of USSR: -Poland, Czech, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, East Germany, etc. Andropov Gorby Chernenko (“openness”)

124 Brandenburg Gate, 1987 Reagan in front of Brandenburg Gate, 1987 “Tear down this wall, Mr. Gorbachev!” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtYdjbpBk6A


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