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Application of Social Accountability Mechanisms in Community Driven Development and Decentralization Programs in South Asia: Experiences from Pilot Projects.

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Presentation on theme: "Application of Social Accountability Mechanisms in Community Driven Development and Decentralization Programs in South Asia: Experiences from Pilot Projects."— Presentation transcript:

1 Application of Social Accountability Mechanisms in Community Driven Development and Decentralization Programs in South Asia: Experiences from Pilot Projects Hyderabad, India  March 13-14, 2007

2 Stocktaking of Social Accountability Initiatives Karen Sirker  World Bank Institute March 13, 2007

3 Objectives of Stocktaking  Extend the knowledge base on social accountability tools and mechanisms for possible strategies for Bank and non- Bank operations because in the past ten years, CSOs capacity to undertake social accountability initiatives has been strengthened dramatically, particularly in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In Asia and Latin America, there is an increased capacity and willingness of government to undertake SAc initiatives.  Create a network of practitioners  Document initiatives  Create a platform for disseminating information on social accountability (SAc) initiatives

4 Where RegionCountriesNo. of Initiatives Central Asia Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan 36 The Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia 21 Western Balkans Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia 18 Asia Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka 53 Anglophone Africa Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe 40 OECD Australia, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, EU, Greece, Hungary, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, UK 40 Latin America Ecuador, Peru 30

5 The Asia Region Tool No of Initiatives Budget Analysis  National: access social expenditures and pro-poor policies; need for CS participation, transparency in relation to implications of budget proposals on different sectors.  State; transparency of budget, circulate budget before presentation, and publish information about subsidies.  Sectoral: impact of education and health allocations at district level; housing policy, on poor living in slums, women  Demystification: information on budget structure and cycle, timing and sequencing of the budget process, and institutional roles and responsibilities. 12 Participatory Budget Expenditure Tracking - Sectoral expenditure tracking – allocations and expenditures on the health, education, food security, drinking water and tribal development. - -Lifestyle checks – unexplained bank deposits, excessive spending, grand displays of wealth, travel abroad. 9 Participatory Performance Monitoring - -Citizen Report Cards and Community Score Cards, Project Monitoring 15 Other Types of SAc - Integrity Pacts – no taking of bribes, make decision making simple and transparent, have realistic construction budgets, be open and responsive to complaints by citizens - - Citizen’s Charters- spell out and monitor the responsibilities of local governments, hospitals, etc. - Monitoring Procurement - deploys observers with checklists to official bidding sessions. When anomalies discovered, CSOs them to agency management’s attention. Those who continue to rig bids are reported to civil society watchdogs. 10 Information and Communication Technology 7

6 Asia Region


8 The Asia Region

9 Asia Region- Information and Communication Technology  Text messaging database – using cell phones to report graft (Philippines)  News Databases – scans news articles about corruption cases and valuable tool for investigative work on expenditure tracking (Bangladesh)  Website for Congress – monitor pork barrel spending by legislators and reprints in-depth articles (Philippines)  Dept of Budget and Management website - posts blacklisted contractors (Philippines)  E-procurement – makes public procurement transparent by providing information on bids, compare prices by different suppliers (South Korea)  On-Line Grievance Redressal Tracking System – facilitate the lodging and monitoring of grievances online, provide information to municipal corporation, to enforce time frame and quality for service delivery. (India)  E-Seva – computerized kiosk to handle 100 services, ranging from utilities such as electricity, transport, water, hospitals, municipal corporations, getting birth certificates, paying examination fees (India)

10 Central Asia, the Caucasus, and the Western Balkans: Types of SAc tools Applied  At the local level participatory, budgeting and broad participatory initiatives are more common.  There are also examples (although rare) of independent budget analysis and participatory performance monitoring. Independent budget analysis is prevalant at the national level. Why? The challenge of building the capacity of local CSOs to perform more demanding tasks of independent budget analysis and citizen reports cards.  Local NGOs and public associations are clearly leading the process of institutionalizing citizens’voice and promoting good governance in the region.  While local NGOs are the primary implementing agencies; international NGOs and international development organizations have a sizable share in overall program implementation.

11 ToolCountriesNo of Initiatives Participatory Budgeting (PB)Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Albania, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina 24 PB and Performance MonitoringGeorgia, Azerbaijan3 Independent Budget AnalysisKazakhstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Albania, Macedonia 16 Participatory Performance MonitoringAlbania, Macedonia3 Budget hearings, use of internet for obtaining citizens feedback, public forums, consultation workshops and policy roundtables, TV and radio broadcasts Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Albania, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kazakhstan 26 Central Asia, the Caucasus, and the Western Balkans

12 Central Asia, the Caucasus, and the Western Balkans:  City Budget Monitoring (Kazakhstan)  Extractive Agency Transparency Initiative, EITI (Kazakhstan) and Comparative budget analysis: Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan  Kazakhstan Revenue Watch (Kazakhstan)  Open Budget Kazakhstan  Public Expenditure Monitoring: Economic Governance and Public Finance (Georgia)  Increasing Budget for Education (Albania)  Revenue & Expenditure Analysis (Albania)  Financing of NGOs by the Government (Macedonia)  Assessing the Implementation of the Decentralization Process in Albania: The case of Elbasan Municipality (Albania)  Tirana Municipality Transparency Program (Albania)  Monitoring of Local Authorities (Macedonia)

13 Central Asia, the Caucasus, and the Western Balkans Given the prominence of administrative, political and fiscal decentralization, the majority of civic engagement aimed at strengthening government accountability happens at the sub-national or local level. Among the 75 initiatives, 49 are implemented at the sub-national/local level, and 20 – at national level. About half of the local level initiatives are carried out at the city/town level.

14 Organization of Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD)  OECD and World Bank take complimentary approaches: World Bank – accountability relies on civic engagement OECD/GOV – approach to building “open” government  Classification: Scrutiny: enhance assessment, analysis and review of government actions Proximity: aims to reduce the distance between citizen and government by identifying citizens needs and preferences Engagement: incorporates citizens in the decision making process  Results: Strengthens government transparency, accessibility and responsiveness

15 Charter of Budget Honesty - legislation to increase acct. through improved disclosure of fiscal policy intentions and fiscal development allowing public better access to conduct of govt. Australia Ombudsman Board – citizen bring complaints in connection with the public administration system, results in wrong decision being corrected and problem in question being resolved. Austria, Norway Municipal Check List – generates a profile of useful information obtained through direction interaction with municipal officials, employees, business and CSOs. The Checklist is a questionnaire on areas of municipal life most subject to abuse and corruption such as municipal ethical framework, dissemination of public complaints, leadership, HR, budget, procurement and audit procedures Greece Community Cabinet – minister visit towns to discuss issues with citizens, take action and publicize action in newsletter. Australia European Citizens Panel: Engaging Citizens in European policy making. To encourage bottom up contribution from citizens to discuss the future of European policies affecting rural areas. EU Interactive City Council – improve communication and transparency of local govt. Citizens propose budget proposals and allocation of resources to city council meeting 15 days prior. Spain Participatory Budgeting in Municipalities, Education, Young Citizens, On-Line Dialogue – 1) public officials elected, gather info on priorities of citizens through questionnaires, prioritize propositions, and present demands to the executive branch. 2) Funding given to youth (14-19 years) to develop, fund, and implement projects with municipalities. Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland Istanbul Choosing New Ferries – improve service delivery by allowing those taking ferries to debate on local expenditures for ferries. Increased dialogue and decision making between citizens and municipal govt Turkey OECD SA INITIATIVESCOUNTRY

16 Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development - Initiator  The majority of the initiatives reviewed are driven by government institutions, and aim at obtaining feedback from the citizens.  This is the case of the National Consultation on Education Policies in Czech Republic, or the e-Games in Hungary, a government Internet platform where citizens can interact with public officials.  Most of the CSO-led initiatives aim to subject governments to direct public scrutiny, as is the case of the Quarterly Bulletin of Public Finances in Poland.

17 Anglophone Africa

18 Latin America: Ecuador InitiativeObjectiveSector Transparent Municipal Management CARE To promote transparency in the use of public resources and in public processes, and to establish mechanisms for citizen auditing of municipal management. Multisectoral Monitoring of Fiscal PolicyTo monitor fiscal policy and track spending and income of public agencies, and to demystify public finances. Public budgets Observatory of Public Policies of Azuay To prevent corruption and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government interventions. Public works Transparent and Participatory Municipalities: Cotacachi To increase the coverage of basic services, promote economic development and create the notion of solidarity among citizens. Multisectoral Congressional MonitoringTo increase the exchange of information between citizens and legislators about Congress’ activities. Legislative sector Local Youth CommissionsTo train youth in designing and implementing projects in benefit of their communities. Social welfare (youth) Control of the Use of Highly Toxic Pesticides To reduce the use of highly hazardous pesticides and train farmers in alternative and safer agricultural mechanisms. Environment

19 Latin America: Ecuador InitiativeObjectiveSector A Supreme Court with Citizen Participation To hold the Selection Committee appointed by Congress accountable for choosing Supreme Court judges transparently & based on merit. Judiciary Oil in the Ecuadorian Amazon and the Right of Its People To protect the Amazon’s natural resources and the rights of its inhabitants against the impact of oil company operations. Environment Municipal Treatment and Recycling of Garbag, Municipality of Puyango To monitor the delivery of public services and ensure efficiency, effectiveness, equity, and quality. Basic services Participatory Budgeting, Municipality of Pindal To make public expenditures more efficient by allowing citizens to prioritize projects based on their own needs. Multisectoral Coalition AccessTo ensure access to public information, and to motivate citizens to demand their rights and utilize the available information Access to public information Monitoring of Public Services in Guayaquil To ensure provision of clean water and a quality sewage system. Basic services

20 Considerations from Stocktaking ASIA  Encourage regional networking  Continue adaptation and contextualization.  Continue innovation in Information and Communication Technology  Importance of communication and advocacy strategies AFRICA and LATIN AMERICA  Ensure capacity building  Ensure financial resources and equipment for sustainability  Build partnership with government, private sector and CSOs. EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA  Ensure local ownership  Ensure access to information OECD  Choose a topic, clarify objectives, and communicate them effectively to raise public awareness include relevant and reliable information  Ensure feedback and follow-up  Learn to evaluate and evaluate to learn

21 Stocktaking Template Name of intervention Basic information  Location  Primary agency running intervention  Sector or level of focus  Type of engagement (one time or long term) Context and scope  What is the driving force behind the SA initiative?  What are the main objectives and what key accountability problems does it seek to address?  Who is the target audience or demographic focus?  What is the political culture or environment? SA tool used  What specific SA tools and methodologies are being used?  Briefly describe the methodology(ies) or tools used.  What advocacy and media activities support the initiative?  How inclusive was the intervention?  Other important information or comments

22 Stocktaking Template Problems and challenges  What has impeded progress or what obstacles and hindrances were encountered? Results and outcome  What (if any) has been the impact of the initiative? What have been the incentives?  What (if any) has been the outcome of the initiative? What have been the incentives?  Is the methodology or initiative institutionalized? Are there any institutional linkages and have partnerships been established with the government, parliaments, media, nongovernmental organizations, communities, etc.? Describe.  (If applicable) Has the initiative been scaled up? Repeated? Further references  Documents and reports  Web sources  Resource persons/contacts

23 Key Websites  SASANET SASANET Tools Knowledge Base (Articles, Presentations, Videos) Case Studies Pilot Projects  Social Accountability Sourcebook Social Accountability Sourcebook Quick Access by region, tools and methods, and thematic applications Quick Access World Bank and External Websites Manuals/Toolkits/Guides  World Bank Institute SAc Site ACCDEMSIDEGOV/0,,contentMDK:21100247~pagePK:6416 8445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:2872075,00.html

24 For any queries please contact Sanjay Agarwal or Karen Sirker

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