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MAP sector of SEE: A general overview by SWOT analysis Prof. dr Zora Dajić Stevanović University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture

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Presentation on theme: "MAP sector of SEE: A general overview by SWOT analysis Prof. dr Zora Dajić Stevanović University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture"— Presentation transcript:

1 MAP sector of SEE: A general overview by SWOT analysis Prof. dr Zora Dajić Stevanović University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture

2 SWOT analysis S TRENGTHS S TRENGTHS W EAKNESSES W EAKNESSES O PPORTUNITIES O PPORTUNITIES T HREATS T HREATS↓ Recommendations Hypericum montbreti

3 STRENGHTS High biodiversity High biodiversity Available stocks of MAP Available stocks of MAP Tradition and knowledge Tradition and knowledge Good product quality Good product quality Favorable conditions for cultivation Favorable conditions for cultivation Settled legislation framework Settled legislation framework Research potential Research potential

4 Biodiversity CountryNo of vascular plant taxa (spec and subspec) No of MAP Croatia BiH Serbia (420) Montenegro Albania Kosovo Macedonia

5 Available stocks of MAP Insufficiently used resources Insufficiently used resources Number of species Number of species Quantities Quantities Areas Areas

6 Country Species ALBBIHCROMACMNGKOSSRB Salvia spp.  Origanum vulgare  Thymus spp.  Satureja montana  Rosa canina  Achillea millefolium  Crataegus monogyna  Juniperus spp.  Urtica spp.  Hypericum perforatum  Vaccinium myrtillus 

7 Tradition and Knowledge Long tradition of use Collector’s plant recognition Traditional production practices Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological knowledge

8 Product quality Good quality of plant drugs/products Climate Soil Environment

9 Favorable conditions for MAP cultivation Climate Soil Unpolluted soil, air and water Available land for farming

10 In situ and Ex situ conservation legal framework In situ In situ Protected areas Protected areas Signed/Ratified International Declarations/Directives Signed/Ratified International Declarations/Directives National legal framework National legal framework Ex situ Ex situ Established national Plant Gene Banks Established national Plant Gene Banks Signed/Ratified International Declarations/Directives Signed/Ratified International Declarations/Directives National legal framework National legal framework

11 International legislation I n situ conservation CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992) Bern Convention (Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural habitats, 1979) CITES convention (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973) EC Habitats, Fauna and Flora Directive (1997) Millennium declaration UN and Plan of Agenda 21 Implementation (UN Developmental Program, 2000)

12 International legislation Ex situ conservation GPA (Global Plan of Action for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and agriculture, FAO 1996) International Treaty for Food and Agriculture (2004) EC Regulation No. 209/91 (1995) Organic production and agricultural goods at EU level

13 National Legislation Albania Law on protected areas, 2002, Law on biodiversity protection, 2006 Law on forests, 1992, Law on pastures and meadows, 1995 Law on the protection of medicinal, tannic acid and oil bearing plants, 1992 BiH Law on forests, 2002, Law on protection of nature, 2000,2008 Law on medicinal products, 2001, Law on national parks, 1996 Serbia Law on nature protection, 2009, Law on environment protection, 2004, Directive on control of use and trade of wild plant and animal species, 1996, 1999, 2005, 2011, Law on national parks, 2005, 2009, 2012, Law on forests, 2010 Croatia Law on environmental protection, 1994, 1999, Law on nature protection, 2005, The ordinance of proclamation of wild taxa as protected and strictly protected, 2009 Montenegro Law on nature protection, 2008, Law on environment, 2008, Law on national parks, 2009, Law on protection of rare, endangered, threatened and endemic species, 2006 Kosovo Law on Kosovo forests, 2004, law on plant protection, 2007 Macedonia Law on nature protection, 2004, Law on environment, 2005 Regulation of permitting the collection of endangered species, 2009

14 Research potential Serbia Serbia Institute for Medicinal Plant Research “Dr Josif Pancic”, Belgrade Institute for Medicinal Plant Research “Dr Josif Pancic”, Belgrade Department for sorghum, hops and MAP, Backi Petrovac Department for sorghum, hops and MAP, Backi Petrovac Faculties of Pharmacy, Biology, Agriculture, Technology, Forestry and Chemistry of Universities of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis Faculties of Pharmacy, Biology, Agriculture, Technology, Forestry and Chemistry of Universities of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis Croatia Croatia University of Zagreb: Faculty of Agriculture and Faculty of Biology University of Zagreb: Faculty of Agriculture and Faculty of Biology Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split

15 WEAKNESSES Collector problem Collector problem Structure, Number, Motivation (fair trade) Structure, Number, Motivation (fair trade) Improper management of plant resources Improper management of plant resources Insufficient added value Insufficient added value Slow sector development (underutilized opportunities) Slow sector development (underutilized opportunities) Access information and public awareness Access information and public awareness

16 Profile of MAP collector in SEE Old people in rural areas Old people in rural areas Woman and man Woman and man Unemployed Unemployed Undereducated Undereducated Other marginal groups Other marginal groups (Roma, refugees) (Roma, refugees)

17 Collectors loss CountryCurrent No of collectors No of collectors in 1999s Albania BiH Croatia ? Serbia MAP Montenegro ? (50.000) Kosovo 9000? (50.000) Macedonia ? ( – )

18 Impacts on biodiversity Habitat alteration Habitat alteration Loss of grasslands Loss of grasslands Deforestation Deforestation Habitat fragmentation Habitat fragmentation Over-harvesting Over-harvesting Endangered species Endangered species

19 Key Endangered MAP species in SEE SpeciesCountryCause Gentiana lutea All SEEOverharvesting Arctostaphyllos uva ursi BiH, SRB, MAC, KOS Overharvesting Sideritis raeseri MAC, KOS, ALB Overharvesting Salvia officinalis ALB, MAC, BiH Overharvesting Paeonia officinalis CRO, MAC, SRB Various OrchidaceaeAll SEE Various

20 Main threats to biodiversity Habitat loss and degradation Habitat fragmentation Over-collecting Improper harvest practices Pollution

21 Management of plant resources Underdeveloped legislation Quotas Taxes and fees Weak enforcement Weak enforcement Lack of capacities (control and inspection) Problems in PA management Problems in PA management Centralized management Control of income from MAP collecting Regimes for MAP harvesting No relations with tourism and MAP harvesting Monitoring and resources assessment Monitoring and resources assessment

22 Insufficient added value Lack of facilities for primary processing/primitive practices Lack of facilities for diversification of products Storage, packaging, labeling Quality control, standardization, certification Marketing and promotion

23 Slow sector development underutilized opportunities Access to foreign markets Access to foreign markets Small areas under cultivated MAP Small areas under cultivated MAP Weak professional associations Weak professional associations Weak relations with research Weak relations with research Poor regional collaboration Poor regional collaboration

24 COUNTRYEXPORT (million US $) Cultivated area (ha) ALBANIA18? more than 300 BiH? About CROATIA? About SERBIA19 (with spicy) 5,8 MAP 2000 KOSOVO?? small MONTENEGRO? 1-2 (NWFP)? small MACEDONIA ? 5-7 (NWFP: 15)? more than 300

25 On average: t of MAP exported Serbia: 5000 t out of MAP 2000 t Albania: over 7000 t STRUCTURE Raw material (All SEE countries) Essential oils (Albania, about 40 t) Teas (Serbia, Croatia) – regional markets

26 OPPORTUNITIES Increasing demand for MAP Increasing demand for MAP Biodiversity conservation in relation to sustainable use of MAP Biodiversity conservation in relation to sustainable use of MAP Value-adding Value-adding Cultivation Cultivation Education, training, research Education, training, research Collaboration Collaboration Increase of export Increase of export

27 Increasing demand for MAP (all in US $) Global world trade: 60 billion EU – the biggest world market import t  300 million – annual rate increases for 10% US – average trade of about 31 million SEE export of near US $ 80 million Former Yugoslavia was key supplier of MAP into EU Serbia today only 2 % of EU market Period : increase of international trade of 22 %

28 Global concepts in MAP conservation In situ Protected areas Habitat directive IPA HNVF Ecological networks Emerald Natura 2000 Ex situ Gene Banks Botanical Gardens and Arboretums Cultivation and Reintroduction

29 Importance of Natura 2000 Protection of species and their habitats in EU independently on borders and politics Priorities of conservation based upon uniformed scientific methodology Strict state control Collaboration with land owners and farmers Supporting sustainable development

30 Standards in MAP production (collection and cultivation) Guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinal plants (WHO, 2003) Improvement of distribution, abundance, sustainable management and use of MAP International Standard for Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP, 2007 by BfN, WWF, TRAFFIC, IUCN) Fair Wild Standards (FairWild Foundation of WWF and Traffic, 2011)

31 MAP CULTIVATION Many advantages Land use and rural development Acquiring of cultivation technologies Endangered and economically important species Standards implementation Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, 2003) Good Agriculture Practices (GAP, 2003) Good Agriculture and Collection Practices for MAP (GACP, 2003) Organic production standards

32 THREATS Further depopulation of rural areas High fluctuations in demands and prices Loss of biodiversity Political instability Low investments Excessive credit indebtedness of SMEs

33 Recommendations NATIONAL LEVELREGIONAL LEVEL Legal framework improvement, enforcement Regional business association Sustainable management and use of MAP Regional certification Capacity building (PA management, processing) Regional branding Standardization and certification Trade missions, fairs, exhibitions Promotion of sector, increase of export Research Programs

34 Project ideas for MAP in SEE Ethnobotany and traditional knowledge on MAP preservation MAP resources assessment in target areas Conservation of endangered MAP MAP endemics Development of cultivation technologies New products/processing technologies creation and promotion

35 Good examples National level SERBIAN FLORA EPCA Regional level SEEDNet and ECPGR AMAPSEEC

36 Contribution of international PGR programs to MAP conservation in SEE ECPGR MAP WG (2001) Biodiversity conservation of MAP resources In situ, ex situ, on farm, sustainable use In situ, ex situ, on farm, sustainable use Target species (10) Target species (10) Development of descriptors and data bases Development of descriptors and data bases Collecting, characterization, documentation, evaluation of MAP PGR, research (oregano project) Collecting, characterization, documentation, evaluation of MAP PGR, research (oregano project) SEEDNet MAP WG (2003) WG strategy on conservation of MAP in SEE WG strategy on conservation of MAP in SEE Descriptors development, target and mandate species Descriptors development, target and mandate species Research projects (yellow gentian and Dalmatian sage) Research projects (yellow gentian and Dalmatian sage)

37 Gentiana sp. Gentiana sp. Hypericum perforatum Hypericum perforatum Origanum vulgare Origanum vulgare Tanacetum cinerariifolium Tanacetum cinerariifolium Salvia ssp. Salvia ssp. Sideritis ssp. Sideritis ssp. Achillea millefolium Achillea millefolium Arctostaphllos uva ursi Arctostaphllos uva ursi Helichrysum ssp. Helichrysum ssp. Ocimum ssp. Ocimum ssp. Satureja ssp. Satureja ssp. Vaccinium ssp. Vaccinium ssp. Foeniculum vulgare Foeniculum vulgare Carum carvi Carum carvi Thymus ssp. Thymus ssp. Primula sp. Primula sp. Mentha ssp. Mentha ssp. Melissa officinalis Melissa officinalis TARGET species of ECPGR and SEEDNet

38 Association for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of South East European Countries Established in 2000, registered in Belgrade 500 members, 400 participants from 50 countries in Turkey 6 Scientific Conferences (Serbia, Greece, Slovakia, Romania, Czech, Turkey) 7 th Conference: May, Subotica, Serbia


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