Presentation on theme: "You will need laptops Today’s Class Objectives: 1.Describe the issue of human rights identified with the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. 2.Using your."— Presentation transcript:
You will need laptops Today’s Class Objectives: 1.Describe the issue of human rights identified with the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. 2.Using your knowledge of the EU, hypothesize the potential for future admittance of the nations of the Balkan area. 3-04-13
Yugoslavia UNTIL the fall of the U.S.S.R. in 1989 Poland East Germany Czechoslovakia Bulgaria Romania Albania Hungary Satellite Nations? U.S.S.R. YUGOSLAVIA: Serbia * Belgrade Slovenia Croatia Bosnia & Herzegovina Montenegro Serbia Macedonia
Josip Broz Tito [1944-1980] Leader of Yugoslavia Sarajevo: A Once Olympic Site
The BREAK-UP of YUGOSLAVIA
Major ethnic groups: Serbian Serbian – mainly Eastern Orthodox Christians Croats Croats - mainly Roman Catholic Christians Muslims – t Muslims – found throughout the area
Slovene/Catholic Slovene/Catholic 91% Croat/Catholic 3% Serb/E Ortho 2% Croat/Catholic Croat/Catholic 78% Serb/E Ortho 12% Serb/ E Ortho Serb/ E Ortho 63% Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6% Albanian/Muslim 14% Hungarian/Catholic 4% Muslims (43.7%) Croats/Catholic (17.3%) Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %) 66% Macedonian/E Ortho 23% Albanian/Muslim 2% Serb/E Ortho 4% Turk/Muslim Patterns of Ethnic Settlement Facilitated the Conflict and Break-up Bosnia: 40% of urban couples ethnically mixed
Where would ethnic problems be strongest after Tito’s death? Back Next slide Back #2
Key to the conflict Solobadan MilosevicSolobadan Milosevic – Able to gain control of Serbia, after Tito’s death, and then – Attempted to gain “Serbian” control over all other ethnic areas [Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia] – How – How? non Serbs by forcing all non Serbs to flee or be killed. –When Slovenia and Croatia declared independence, he used armed force to stop them, but was unable. Serbian E. Orthodox Independent Of Serbia Macedonia
What about Bosnia? Geographically it’s in the middle Territory was desirable for its access to the Adriatic Sea and for strategic reasons It was an example of a truly multi-ethnic society with no majority Muslims (43.7%) Croats (17.3%) Serbs (31.4 %) The population consisted of large ethnic groups andLinked to both Serbia and Croatia SerbiaSerbia and Croatia both wanted these people and their lands to join their nation - Serbia and Croatia- respectively, rather than be in a multi-ethnic Bosnia Map
BOSNIA Serbs in Bosnia declare independence, too Serbs Bosnian Serbs [E. Orthodox] declare an independent Serb state and attack Sarajevo, claiming the city as its capital Yugoslav ethnic cleansingYugoslav artillery shell Bosnia/Sarajevo—providing support to Serb irregulars who engage in ethnic cleansing of Bosnia 1000 Serbian shells a day hitting Sarajveo 3,777 hit in 16 hours on July 23, 1993 Who helps the Bosnian Serbs? Which ethnic groups had to go? Croats & Muslims 1992 - 1995 Map
Was this a “human rights” issue ? What organizations SHOULD have responded to the issue? ….but they did nothing. Why not? The United Nations
UN was focused on the first Persian Gulf War the US also focused on first Persian Gulf WEST not prepared to deal with the issue of the old Yugoslavian “self determination” THEY FAILED TO RESPOND! Why not?
ETHNIC MIX BEFORE THE WAR
After Dayton AccordsBefore the War
VUKOVAR Multi-ethnic city bordering Croatia and Serbia: city reduced from 50,000 to 15,000
United Nations: Safe Areas: what were they supposed to be? Srebrenica, Tuzla, Zepa, Sarajevo, Gorazde
SARAJEVO BEFORE THE WAR Opening of the 1984 Olympic Games
Bosnian War: 1991-1995
The Sarajevo Shuffle
Market Bombings that Finally Touch the World
Women and Elderly Fleeing Srebrenica with UN watching
What about the men?
Mass Graves Uncovered Where the Men From Srebrenica Ended Up
Fall of Gorazde the Last Safe Area
CAMPS at Omarska
At least 200,000 people killed and over two million displaced.
International Role Sept 1991 UN arms embargo on Yugoslavia Oct 1991 UN Sec’y General sends special envoy (Vance) negotiate a short cease-fire negotiate a short cease-fire Feb 1992 Deploy UNPROFOR (14,000 soldiers) assist humanitarian agenciesassist humanitarian agencies assist displaced persons in getting homeassist displaced persons in getting home Three actions the UN could take? trade sanctions trade sanctions diplomatic [broker talks] diplomatic [broker talks] send in troops send in troops Not to stop Serbia with armed with armedStrength!
F October 1992- UN declares no-fly zones for Serbian planes over Bosnia and send monitors F November 1992 Send UN troops to Macedonia (1 st preventive action ever] F February 1993 Establish International Criminal Tribunal F May 1993 –declare Sarajevo and 5 other areas as “safe areas” areas free of armed attacks...
F June 1993 –authorize use of force (including air strikes) IN REPLY to attacks on any “safe area” IN REPLY to attacks on any “safe area” F Feb. 1994 –NATO authorizes air strikes to deter attacks on civilians in Sarajevo F April 1994 –Set up a special group to draw up peaceful settlement u US, UK, Germany, France, Russia
“Dayton Peace Accord”- 1995 Single Bosnia state (one nation) divided into [a] Bosnia Croat-Muslim Federation and [b] Bosnian Serb Republic joint presidency (one president) free elections How did it END up after electionsHow did it END up after elections? Bosnian ethnic areas each elect strong nationalist governments I NATO Implementation FORce (IFOR) to enforce provisions and ensure elections War crime tribunal
IRONY OF ETHNIC CLEANSING Ethnic cleansing and mass murder produced ethnically pure territorial units ultimately produces NEATER maps on which peace settlement could be worked –
After Dayton AccordsBefore the War
Kosovo Since the Dayton Accords?
Massacre at Recak
Massacre at Rogove Village
U.N. has formally recognizes the Independence of Kosovo Kosovo Montenegro Montenegro
U.N. also: Took Legal actions against… UN Security Council agree to :
Take Legal actions against… genocide crimes against humanity Slobodan Milosevic faced charges of genocide and "crimes against humanity" for his part in three separate but closely related wars that tore apart the former Yugoslavia. UN Security Council agree to :
Outcome of legal action Milosevic was charged with genocide in the 1992- 95 Bosnian war Milosevic has refused to recognize the legitimacy of the court and insists on representing himself, rather than seek the assistance of defense lawyers. He was found dead in his cell on March 11, 2006 in the UN war crimes tribunal's detention centre.
EU Members Prospective Members Non-members? Non-members?
War War : April 1, 1992 – December 14, 1995 Result Result : Dayton Accords: Internal partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina according to the Dayton Accords Deployment of NATO-led forces to oversee the peace agreement. Massive civilian casualties for the Bosniak ethnic group. At least 200,000 people killed and over two million displaced. RECAP:
TASK: Objectives: Compare different perspectives during the Bosnian war. Analyze how globalization is also a force of disunity. Hypothesize what should be done in future situations like Bosnia.