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Introduction These slides contain: –Summaries of some of the main contents of European Dictatorships (with page references) –Additional material: Historical.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction These slides contain: –Summaries of some of the main contents of European Dictatorships (with page references) –Additional material: Historical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction These slides contain: –Summaries of some of the main contents of European Dictatorships (with page references) –Additional material: Historical Historiographical Instructions. –Go on to Slide Show > View Show. This will activate: Slide transitions Slide and box animations Hyperlinks within this PowerPoint Links to other websites for: –Illustrations –Text –Other links Title page follows

2 EUROPEAN DICTATORSHIPS THIRD EDITION ROUTLEDGE 2008 STEPHEN J. LEE Supporting PowerPoint 2 Types of Dictatorship

3 Outline of the argument of Chapter 2

4 DICTATORSHIP IS A GENERIC TERM, CONSISTING OF TWO MAIN TYPES: 1.Totalitarian Normally associated with two ideological systems 2. Authoritarian a. Communism b. Fascism/Nazism Introduction to the overall argument of Chapter 2 (Details in European Dictatorships 25-38) Ideology usually absent, unless in traditionalist form

5 Summary of argument of Chapter 2: Types of dictatorship (Details in European Dictatorships 37-8) LEVEL 1 GENERIC TERM: DICTATORSHIP Level 2: generic type Totalitarian Level 2: generic type Authoritarian Level 3: ideological system Communism Level 3: ideological system Fascism/Nazism Examples: Russia Russia Examples: Italy Germany Level 3: ideological system Usually absent Examples: Spain Portugal Austria Hungary Poland Baltic States Albania Yugoslavia Romania Bulgaria Greece Turkey

6 Part 1 What is the meaning of ‘dictatorship’?

7 The meaning of ‘dictatorship?’ (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 25-6) RESTRICTED APPROACHOPEN APPROACH Original definition (Roman): Temporary grant by Senate of exceptional powers to deal with an emergency. Modern definition (BUCCHEIM): Temporary device: short-term suspension of democratic processes when quick and vigorous action necessary. Modern definition (LINZ): Interim crisis government which has not institutionalised Itself, breaking from previous regime – democratic, traditional or authoritarian. Modern definition (CURTIS): Essential ingredient is power; an emergency is not necessarily present. Modern definition (BROOKER): Emergence since World War I of a regime with an official ideology and political party; ideological one-party state

8 Part 2 What types of ‘dictatorship’ were there between 1918 and 1945?

9 Authoritarian and Totalitarian systems: how do they relate to each other? (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 26-7) Authoritarianism is a term to cover all forms of non-democratic regime Totalitarianism is its most extreme manifestation OR AuthoritarianismTotalitarianism are distinct Preferred approach

10 Characteristics of Totalitarian regimes (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 29) Radical programme of change Deliberate mobilization of the masses Possession of a distinctive ideology Under control of a single party, which mobilized mass support Organization of paramilitary groups Subjection to systematic control – and terror Indoctrination, seeking destruction of cultural pluralism Establishment of complete control over the economy

11 Authoritarian and Totalitarian regimes (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 29) conservative approachradical approach Authoritarian regimesTotalitarian regimes had a which immobilised the masses which mobilised the masses and emphasized traditional values and emphasized new ideologies a centralised monopoly of power – often military This was done through a security apparatus and sometimes enforced by a one-party control of all power This was done through a security apparatus and always enforced by

12 Authoritarian and Totalitarian regimes: which were they? TOTALITARIAN REGIMES Germany under Hitler Russia under Lenin Russia under Stalin1924/9-53 Russia after Stalin Italy under Mussolini AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES Austria under Dollfuss etc. Hungary under Horthy etc. Spain under Primo de Rivera and Franco Portugal under Salazar Poland under Pilsudski etc Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Yugoslavia Albania Greece Bulgaria Romania Turkey under Atatürk

13 Authoritarian and Totalitarian regimes: which were they? Alternative view AUTHORITARIAN REGIMESTOTALITARIAN REGIMES Germany under Hitler Russia under Lenin Pre-totalitarian authoritarian? Russia under Stalin1924/9-53 Russia after Stalin Post-totalitarian authoritarian? Italy under Mussolini incomplete totalitarian? Austria under Dollfuss etc. Hungary under Horthy etc. Spain under Primo de Rivera and Franco Portugal under Salazar Poland under Pilsudski etc Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Yugoslavia Albania Greece Bulgaria Romania Turkey under Atatürk

14 Complications of term ‘Totalitarian’ (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 27-9) Were Communist regimes ‘totalitarian’ per se? Or was this simply a ‘Cold War classification’? (Gleeson, Curtis). Possible alternatives: For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3 rd edition) 27-9 Lenin’s Russia: ‘pre-totalitarian authoritarian?’ Stalin’s Russia: fully totalitarian? Post Stalinist Russia: ‘post- totalitarian authoritarian? Was there ever any such thing as ‘totalitarian democracy’? (Talmon) Or were all Totalitarian regimes dictatorships? 1 2 Are there ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ forms of totalitarianism? (Tormey) Or were all Totalitarian regimes dictatorships? 3 Weak systems: regimes have to react to changes rather than being able to control them Strong systems: regimes achieve control by socialization, indoctrination as well as force

15 Authoritarian regimes and totalitarianism Totalitarian regimes and authoritarianism (ED 37) Before 1939: Authoritarian regimes were generally strong enough to prevent democracy and also resist being taken over by totalitarian ideologies. Totalitarian systems arose in former democracies, not in authoritarian states. After 1939: Totalitarian regimes conquered the authoritarian regimes as part of their process of expansion. They imposed their ideologies by occupation or Influence. Spain, Portugal, Austria, Hungary, Poland, the Baltic States, Yugoslavia, Albania, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece – all prevented a takeover by Communism or Fascism, which took power in Russia (Provisional Government), Liberal Italy, Weimar Germany. Italy occupied Albania. Germany occupied: Austria, W. Poland, Baltic states, Yugoslavia, Greece; influenced Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania Russia occupied: E. Poland and Baltic States BUT

16 Principal European dictators Russia Italy Germany Portugal Spain Austria Hungary Poland Baltic States Yugoslavia Albania Romania Bulgaria Greece Turkey STALIN LENIN MUSSOLINI HITLER SALAZAR HORTHY FRANCO PRIMO DE RIVERA PIŁSUDSKI DOLFUSS SCHUSCHNIGG ZOG METAXAS MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATüRK ANTONESCU PAVELIC BORIS ALEXANDER CAROL SMETONA, ULMANIS, PÄTS TOTALITARIAN AUTHORITARIAN KunSzálasi

17 European dictatorships by 1938 Dictatorships by 1938 D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

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19 Dictatorships dismantled by other dictatorships Totalitarian dictatorships by 1938 Authoritarian dictatorships dismantled by totalitarian dictatorships D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Authoritarian dictatorships in alliance with totalitarian dictatorships after 1940 Authoritarian dictatorships remaining outside control of totalitarian dictatorships D D D

20 Part 3 What ideologies influenced these ‘dictatorships’ between 1918 and 1945?

21 Communism: Marxist origins and Leninist adaptation (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 30-1) ‘The history of all human society, past and present, has been the history of class struggles.’ (Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto, 1848). Future: Revolution by proletariat against bourgeoisie & capitalism Dictatorship of the Proletariat Classless Society Importance of party organization. ‘Just as a blacksmith cannot seize a red-hot iron, so the proletariat cannot directly seize power’. Revolutions most likely where capitalism was strongest and proletariat largest – e.g. Germany and Britain MARX Revolution by proletariat led by party of professional revolutionaries Dictatorship of the Proletariat maintained by party Classless Society Revolutions most likely where capitalism was weakest– e.g. Russia LENIN For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3 rd edition) 27-9

22 Communism: Early spread in Europe (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 31) Communist revolutions Successful Unsuccessful or temporary

23 Communism: Stalinist adaptation (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 31-2) He abandoned the emphasis by Lenin and Trotsky on Permanent Revolution and substituted Socialism in One Country 1 He upgraded the significance of the bureaucratic state2 by Strengthening the ‘Dictatorship of the Proletariat’ Reversing the relationship between ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’ Introducing the central Planning system For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3 rd edition) 31-2

24 Communism: later spread in Europe Communist regimes established after World War II Under Soviet control Independent of Soviet control

25 Origins of fascism (1) (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 32) Marxist interpretations Communist International 1933: in the crisis of capitalism after World War I, fascism was the dying and most extreme phase of bourgeois-capitalist domination. Fascist leaders were the ‘agents’ of capitalist controllers. Gramsci: Fascism represented the political crisis of capitalist states. In its attempt to revive capitalism, fascism was a radical alternative to the fading appeal of the traditional ruling class. For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3 rd edition)

26 Origins of fascism (2) (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 33) Non-Marxist interpretations Meinecke, Ritter: Fascism emerged from a moral crisis of European society. According to Fromm, it was ‘an escape from freedom and a refuge in submission’. Blum: Fascism was a rejection of the ideals of the Enlightenment and French Revolution: rationalism, liberalism, democracy, egalitarianism. For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3 rd edition) Nolte: Fascism was a response to the development of Communism. ‘The origin of the Right lies always in the challenge of the Left.’ Hildebrand: Fascism was a reaction to development, a resistance of ‘residual elites’ to ‘industrial tendencies’ of industrial society. Fascism was a reaction to the unsettling impact of World War I, especially on recently united states such as Italy and Germany. 5

27 The characteristics of fascism (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 34) It carried a belief in radical change and revolution to achieve social transformation and rebirth. It rejected (1) parliamentary democracy and (2) the revolutionary left and class conflict It was presided over by an absolute leader, who had the trappings of personality cult. It was normally totalitarian, controlling all forms of communication. It developed an alternative economic strategy to capitalism and socialism 5 It focused on the survival of the fittest 6 It was militarist, hypernationalist and often racist. 7

28 Should ‘Fascism’ include ‘Nazism’? (Details and comments in European Dictatorships35) Sternhell: Fascism originated in France as the conjunction of the syndicalism and ultra-nationalism. It was developed further in Italy. Nazism was distinct and should not be included in the term fascism. The consensus is that Nazism should be included in fascism. Kershaw: Nazism and Italian Fascism were ‘separate species within the same genus’. Nolte: Nazism was ‘radical fascism’. Linz: Nazism was a ‘distinctive branch grafted on the fascist tree’. But: Nazism placed more emphasis than fascism on the racial community and anti- Semitism. NO YES For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3 rd edition) 35

29 Where did fascism derive its support? (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 34) The lumpenproletariat: some of the unemployed and socially displaced Rural populations: peasantry and estate owners Many former army officers, demobilized soldiers and veterans of the First World War The middle classes, affected by economic crises in the 1920s and 1930s Capital and big business – as a means of finding security against the threat of communism 5 Overall, fascism benefited from the instability of the inter-war period. 6 For comments on these, see European Dictatorships (3 rd edition) 34

30 Which regimes and movements were ‘Fascist’ before 1939? (ED 30) Fascist totalitarian regimes NAZI GERMANY FASCIST ITALY 1 Falange (Spain) 2 Falanga (Poland) 3 Heimwehr (Austria) 4 Arrow Cross (Hungary) 5 Iron Guard (Romania) 6 Iron Wolf (Lithuania) 7 Estonian Freedom Fighters 8 Thunder Cross (Latvia) 9 Ustasha (Croatia) Fascist movements in non-Fascist authoritarian regimes Action Francaise (France) 11 Rex (Belgium) 12 British Union of Fascists 13 Lapua (Finland) 14 Dutch National Socialists Fascist movements in democratic regimes

31 Other influences in inter-war Europe (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 36) NATIONALISM CLERICALISM CONSERVATISM MILITARISM

32 Nationalism: an ideology? (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 36) YESNO SUGAR: One of the three ‘dominant ideologies of the twentieth century’ (along with Communism and Fascism/ Nazism). MINOGUE: ‘a set of ideas’ but these ‘add up less to a theory than to a rhetoric’, the communication of ‘political excitement’ from an elite to the masses’. Possible support for this: - The only set of ideas which consistently means what it says. - Its capacity to generate huge levels of commitment and enthusiasm. - Its association with aggression against other identities. Possible support for this: - Basic principles of nationalism present in most ideologies (e.g. Fascism, Nazism, Stalinist Communism). - Large number of different variations.

33 Types of Nationalism in inter-war Europe (ED 36-7) NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION Search by indigenous groups for their own statehood IRREDENTIST NATIONALISM HISTORIC NATIONALISM ‘INFLAMED’ NATIONALISM Czechs, Poles, Serbs, Croats, Lithuanians, Estonians, Latvians TYPEEXAMPLESEXPLANATION Attempts by nation states to claim or reclaim their co-nationals living in other states Revival of national pride in longer- established nations Extreme, repressive or eliminationist manifestations – usually racist and anti-Semitic Italy vs Yugoslavia; Hungary vs Romania, Czech. Germany vs Poland, Czech. Spain: Francoism; Portugal: Empire; Hungary: Szálasi’s Hungarism Instances in most dictatorships, especially Germany; anti- Semitism widespread INTEGRATIONIST NATIONALISM Attempts by dominant nationality to impose its domination over others to achieve national unity Poland vs Lithuanians, Belo- russians, Ukrainians; Romania vs Hungarians

34 Clericalism (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 36) Normally Catholicism or the Catholic Church, expressing itself as a Conservative influence and cooperating with conservative forms of authoritarianism against Communism especially in Spain under Franco, Austria under Dollfuss, Portugal under Salazar, Poland under Pilsudski Less apparent in Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Baltic states The reverse (measures to restrict the political influence of the religious power) applied in Turkey under Atatürk

35 Conservatism: the two roles (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 37) To maintain the status quo and remove destabilising influences such as communism, socialism or fascism REDUCTIONIST CONSERVATISM Examples: Hungary under Horthy; Poland under Pilsudski; Portugal under Salazar BONDING CONSERVATISM To rally the centre and right against the Left and far left Examples: later Weimar Germany; Spain under Franco

36 Types of Militarism (Details and comments in European Dictatorships 37) Military action as a force against authoritarianism as a force for change and reform Militarism as the ally of conservative authoritarianism Examples: Pre- World War I Spain, Portugal, Turkey Examples: Inter- War regimes: Poland (Pilsudski), Spain Franco), Hungary (Horthy), Greece (Metaxas)

37 Conclusion

38 Classification of dictatorships Authoritarian Totalitarian Left Right Russia: Stalin Russia: Lenin Russia: post- Stalin Germany: Hitler Italy: Mussolini Spain: Franco Austria, Portugal, Hungary (Horthy), Yugoslavia, Romania, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland Turkey: Atatürk Hungary (Bela Kun) This classification is open to debate

39 Classification of dictatorships Authoritarian Totalitarian Left Right Suggest alternative classifications on this chart …

40 Classification of dictatorships … or on this blank chart

41 End of PowerPoint 2

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