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Did NATO Military Action Against Yugoloslavia Violate Just War Theory? By:YES: Kristi and Jen NO:Jill and Sharon.

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Presentation on theme: "Did NATO Military Action Against Yugoloslavia Violate Just War Theory? By:YES: Kristi and Jen NO:Jill and Sharon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Did NATO Military Action Against Yugoloslavia Violate Just War Theory? By:YES: Kristi and Jen NO:Jill and Sharon

2 The Just War Theory The Just War Theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought The justification can be either theoretical or historical The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and forms of warfare The historical aspect, or the “just war tradition” deals with the historical body of rules or agreements applied (or at least existing) in various wars across the ages

3 Just War Theory, Continued In general terms, the Just War Theory demands: That there must be sufficient and just reason for going to war, There must be legitimate authority to declare war It must be waged by appropriate means There must be prospects of success And all other avenues must have been previously exhausted Levels of violence should not exceed what is necessary to achieve the mission at hand War must end in a peace better than the situation before the war started

4 NATO Stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization Comprised of most of the countries of Western Europe, Canada and United States They agreed to come to the assistance of any member should it be attacked Built against the threat of Warsaw Treaty Organization in 1949 New Strategic Concept: developed after the Cold War, which reduced standing military forces and allowed them to focus on crisis response Had 16 members since In 1999, Poland, Hungary and Czech Republic joined Has achieved a higher level of political and military cooperation among its membership than virtually any other organization in the world

5 Yugoslavia, Location

6 Yugoslavia Yugoslavia was divided into eight provinces after WWII Various religions in the state (influenced by surrounding countries) i.e. Christian in Croatia, Catholic in Serbia, Orthodox in Serbia and Macedonia, and Islam in Kosovo and Albania Serbia/Montenegro were the core of Yugoslavia and had the majority of power in the region Slovenia and Croatia felt isolated and declared their independence in 1991  war started War spread to Bosnia in : Dayton Agreement brought peace War started again in Kosovo in 1999

7 Kosovo Kosovo is in Serbia with mostly Albanian people Until 1989, they had autonomy 1989, President Slobodan Milosevic removes autonomy and placed Kosovo under Serbian control Albanians forced out of political roles, ethnic cleansing and discrimination begins 1998, Serbian police/military versus Kosovo and Albanian forces 1500 deaths and 400,000 refugees May 28, 1998, NATO meets to discuss involvement NATO’s Objectives: Achieve a peaceful resolution Stabilize and secure neighbouring countries (especially Albania and Macedonia) Oct. 13, 1998, NATO orders air strikes but at the last minute, Milosevic agrees to comply and back off so they’re called off UN gets involved UN Security council resolution 1199: Calls for ceasefire Limits number of Serbian troops allowed in Kosovo verification Mission (KUM) to observe compliance NATO agrees to observe with aerial surveillance

8 Kosovo, Continued Violence returns in 1999 Jan. 29, 1999, Nation Contact Group meets and encourages negotiation between parties Jan. 30, 1999, NATO warns Milosevic force will be used if he doesn’t back off Feb. 6-23, 1999, negotiations in Rambouillet, France – NATO makes demands on Serbia March 15-18, another peace negotiation Kosovo and Albania agree to sign a drafted peace proposal Serbia refuses Serbia moves more forces into Kosovo (they’re having no success there because of Serbian opposition) March 23, 1999, Operation Allied Force begins NATO bombing campaign lasts for 78 days (aerial campaign, no ground troops deployed) June 9, 1999, agreement made between NATO and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia June 10, Serbian forces begin pulling out of Kosovo (completely gone by June 20)

9 Kosovo, Continued June 12, 1999: NATO and UN troops begin “clean-up” K-For: 50,000 people under unified control contributed by 12 countries (help with clean-up) By the end of the war, refugees are scattered: Albania  430,000 people Macedonia  230,000 people Montenegro  64,000 people Bosnia  21,500 people Other  61,000 people 58,000 Kosovars are homeless By the end of May, 1999, 1.5 million people (90% of Kosovo’s population) had been expelled from their homes 225,000 Kosovar men missing (5000+executed) Animosity between people still exists There are still many unexploded mines and cluster bombs Economic downturn (civilian infrastructure destroyed), lots of unemployment Milosevic remained in power until his government was overthrown in 2002 by popular uprising New elections brought Vojuslav Kostunica to power

10 Yes Side: Components of Just War Theory That Have Been Violated Legitimate Authority Waged by Appropriate Means All Other Attempts Have Been Made Levels of Violence Should Not Exceed What is Necessary to Achieve the Mission at Hand War Must End in a Peace Better Than the Situation Before The War Started

11 Yes Side: NATO’s Mistake The Double Standard: Fought to free Kosovo but ignored the ethnic cleansing in Chechnya, East Timor, etc. Could this be because Kosovo has some of the richest mineral resources in Europe? Bombing Inaccuracies: Flying high reduced accuracy of bombs hitting targets (as much as 2/3 km off) Densely populated and residential areas became targets Chinese embassy bombed Civilian infrastructure targeted (ie. Hospital, water plants, bridges, apartments) One month of NATO bombing caused more damage than by the Nazis occupation of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945

12 Yes: NATO’s Mistakes, Continued Depleted Uranium: 10 tonnes of DU used in shells by NATO illegally DU causes long term damage to lungs and kidneys and may lead to cancer Cluster Bombs 1392 dropped: not all exploded so they are still causing casualties Broke Geneva Convention: “Equipment deployed in battlefield must not be lethally effective after peace treaty is signed” UN formed MACC (a mine cleaning association) to find cluster bombs: 47+ dead, 97+ wounded and many are still unfound in less frequented areas of the country

13 No Side: Components of Just War Theory That Have Been Obeyed There must be sufficient and just reason for going to war There must be legitimate authority to declare war It must be waged by appropriate means There must be prospects of success All other avenues must have been previously exhausted Levels of violence should not exceed what is necessary to achieve the mission at hand

14 No Side: Milosevic’s Reign Discrimination towards ethnic Albanians Forced deportation by the thousands In 12 weeks, more than 850,00 ethnic Albanians were expelled from Kosovo by Serbian military, police and paramilitaries Houses looted, entire villages burned Refugees robbed and beaten Thousands of women and some children raped- systematic and organized rape Adult males detained and executed by the hundreds Arbitrary arrest and detentions Contamination of water wells Target killings and mass graves Between March 24-June 12, 1999

15 Pictures

16 More Pictures

17 The End…


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