Presentation on theme: "ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF TURKMENISTAN “PROBLEMS OF USE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN TURKMENISTAN” Ashgabat, February 24-25, 2010 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY RESOURCES."— Presentation transcript:
ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF TURKMENISTAN “PROBLEMS OF USE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN TURKMENISTAN” Ashgabat, February 24-25, 2010 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY RESOURCES IN ALBANIA AND THEIR MANAGEMENT FRASHËRI Alfred, BUSHATI Salvatore, PANO Niko Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana, ALBANIA Tirana, January 2010
INTRODUCTION In the paper are presented: n Geothermal regime of the Albanides and n Platform for integrated and cascade management of geothermal energy of low enthalpy in Albania Ninety years have been geothermal studies period in Albania. These studies and modeling are part of geothermal studies in the framework of: n Geothermal Atlas of the Albania, n Geothermal Atlas of Europe, n Atlas of Geothermal Resources in Europe, and n Atlas of Geothermal Resources in Albania.
The studies of the geothermal field in Albania were performed on the basis of temperature logs in the 137 deep oil and gas wells and in 50 shallow boreholes. Have been compiled different maps: n The Temperature Maps at 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 meters depths, n Average Geothermal Gradient Map, n Heat Flow Density Map, n Geothermal Resources Thematic Map, and n Geothermal profiles Thermal water springs and deep wells have been investigated, and geothermal potential of the reservoirs has been evaluated.
GEOTHERMAL REGIMETemperature The geothermal field is characterized by a relatively low value of temperature. At 6000 meters depth, the temperature is o C, in the central part of the Peri-Adriatic Depression. The lowest temperature values have been measured in mountain regions. In these areas, there is intensive circulation of cold underground water, of 5-6 o C temperature. Generally, the isotherms run fit well to the strike of structures of the Albanides.
The temperature at 100 meters depth varies from 8 to 20 o C
The highest temperature at 3000 m is 68 oC
GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT Geothermal Gradient changes from western to the eastern part of the Albania, and in the depth. External Albanides are characterized by low geothermal gradient from 15 to 21.3 mK/m. Deeper than 20 km is observed decreasing of the gradient. This change of the gradient is coincided with the top of the crystal basement.
… Internal Albanides: Are observed that the temperatures in ophiolitic belt are higher than in the sedimentary basin, at the same depth. The geothermal gradient has a value up to 36 mK/m at northeaster and southeastern part of the Albania. Decreasing of the gradient are observed deeper than meters in this side of Albania, at the top of the Triassic salts deposits.
HEAT FLOWW DENSITY MAP OF ALBANIA In the External Albanides is maximal value of the heat flow is equal to 42 mW/m 2. to 42 mW/m 2. In the ophiolitic belt at eastern part of Albania, the heat flow density values are up to 60 mW/m 2..
HEAT FLOW DENSITY Radiogene heat generation of the ophiolites is very low. Increasing of the heat flow in the ophiolitic belt, are linked with heat flow from the depth. According to the Alb-1 line, the granites of the crystal basement, which have the possibilities for the great radiogenic heat generation represents the heat source. In ophiolitic belt, is observed decreasing of the MOHO discontinuity depth.
… Heat flow anomalies are conditioned by intensive heat transmitting through deep fractures. These fractures are conditioned location of the geothermal energy sources. According to the calculation of different geo-thermometers, the aquifer estimated temperatures are 144 up to 270 o C. Based on the geothermal modeling, one can suppose that thermal waters rises from 8-12 km deep, where temperature attains to 220 o C.
GEOTHERMAL SPRINGS AND WELLS MAP OF ALBANIA Thermal wells Thermal springs
GEOTHERMAL AREAS MAP
Postenani steam springs
KRUJA GEOTHERMAL AREA
ARDENICA GEOTHERMAL AREA
DIRECTIONS FOR THE EXPLOITATION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY OF LOW ENTHALPY IN ALBANIA The geothermal situation of low enthalpy in Albania offers three directions for the direct use of geothermal energy, which is unused until now. This exploitation will realized by: n integrated scheme of geothermal energy, heat pumps and solar energy, and n cascade use of thermal waters energy
… Firstly, space-heating system, to use ground heat using shallow borehole heat exchanger (BHE)- Geothermal Heat Pump system. These systems, actually are presented the most popular and technologically advanced. HEAT PUMP
… Compilation of Geothermal heat production (before the heat pumps) by BHE systems in Switzerland.
Number of installed heat pumps units is some European countries
… Heating Power, 1375 GWh, 23.8% of the total Average Power without heating, 4400 GWh MW Hours 23.8%23.8% 23.8% Actually, the electric energy consummation for heating is GWh/year, or 23.8 % of the total electric energy production in Albania (National Agency of Energy, Tirana, 2003).
… Two types of shallow heat sources exist: 1. Ground heat, and 2. Underground waters heat. In the Tirana field, the temperature is 15.5 o C, up to logging depth 31 m, in the Quaternary deposits. The layers at the depth from m have a temperature, which is conditioned by solar radiation energy. During the winter, the temperature is lower than during the summer.
… Temperature in subsurface ground at western plane-hilly area: Minimal temperature is ° C Maximal Temperature is ° C Average Temperature is 18.0 ° C Temperature in subsurface ground at hilly- mountains regions: Minimal temperature is 6.70 ° C Maximal temperature is ° C Average temperature is ° C
… Water of the Quaternary gravel layer is o C, Water of the Quaternary sandstone layers is o C Consequently, concluded that water of the Tirana underground basin can be a heat source for the geothermal pumps.
INSTALLATIONS IN ALBANIA: Professional School Professional School, Ersaka
PALACE OF CULTURE, TIRANA Ph=500 kW, COP=4,06
TWIN TOWERS, TIRANA Ph=1200 kW COP=3,5
High School “Peter MAHRINGER”, SHKODER Ph=185 kW COP=4,1
… Secondly, thermal water sources of low enthalpy and of maximal temperature up to 80°C. These are natural sources or wells in a wide territory of Albania, from the South near Albanian- Greek boundary to Northeast districts in Diber Region.
… Thermal waters of springs and wells in Albania may be used in several ways: Modern SPA-WELLNESS with thermal pools for treatment of different diseases, recreation, relax and development of eco-tourism.
Kozani 8 geothermal Llixha Elbasan deep well Water place SPA “NOSI”
… The oldest and important is Elbasani Llixha SPA, which located in the Central part of Albania. These thermal springs from about 2000 years ago are known. According to historic data, in Elbasani Llixha thermal springs there has been a center near of the old road “Via Egnatia" that has passed from Durresi to Constantinople.
… The geothermal situation of low enthalpy in Albania offers different directions for use of geothermal energy, which is unused until now. This exploitation will realized by: - Integrated scheme of geothermal energy, heat pumps and solar energy, and - cascade use of this energy
. Integrated and cascade use of thermal waters of Kozani-8 deep well: 1.Power-generation: Thermal water (80 oC) heated by solar panels up to 100 oC. 2. Direct use: SPA-WELLNESS - Space heating - Sanitary water - Thermal pools - Thermal bath, sauna AGRICULTURE - Green houses ACQUACULTURE - Fish - Spirulina DEGAZING, SALTS EXTRACTION.
… From thermal mineral waters of some spring and wells it is possible to extract very useful chemical microelements as iodine, bromine (Ardenica wells), chlorine etc. and other natural salts, so necessary for preparation of creams for the treatment of many skin diseases as well as for beauty care products. From these waters it is possible to extract sulphidric and carbonic gas. It is possible to built installations for processing of mineral waters.
Economic EVALUATIONSPA-HOTEL Reconstruction of the SPA (25 bed rooms) and construction of a new Hotel (25 bed rooms) with: Reconstruction of the SPA (25 bed rooms) and construction of a new Hotel (25 bed rooms) with: · Outdoor-indoor thermal and swimming pools · Ball sports (tennis, volleyball, basketball) · Recreation (sauna, Turkish bath, solarium) · Fitness center with aerobic · Restaurant, bar · Meeting room · Other (rent a car, coiffeur, boutiques) · Greenhouses S=3000 m 2
… Total cost USD Moderate credit of USD for first phase (total 25 bed rooms) Payback 13 years
… Complex and cascade use of geothermal energy, achieving a economical effectiveness. Such developments are useful also for the creation of new working places and improvement of the level of life for local communities near thermal sources.
….. SPACE HEATING AND COOLING Total surfaces of 3 floors 610 m 2, 20 rooms, 3 halls, 7 restrooms. 7 restrooms. n Heating: by heat conveying-radiators Heating Capacity 68.5 KW Heating Capacity 68.5 KW n Installation cost Total, Specific, (in Euro) (in Euro/m 2 ) (in Euro) (in Euro/m 2 ) Borehole-Geothermal Heat Pump ,66 Gas boiler ,00 Air-Air conditioners, type “General” ,00
… Yearly of the electrical energy or gas consumption and costs: Borehole-G. Heat Pump KW Euro Gas boiler Liter gas Air-Air condition KW Elect.heat radiat KW
… Yearly cost of heating energy: First year Second year First year Second year In Euro/KW in Euro/m 2 in Euro/KW in Euro/m 2 Borehole-Geothermal Heat Pump 691,4 7,5 62,7 4,07 Gas boiler 513,2 57,5 205, Air-Air conditioners 403,2 45,2 175,2 19,64
… Payback period for installation of the “Borehole-Geothermal Heat Pump” System investment: 2.2 years, only by yearly savings of the expenses for boiler gas
… According to this graphic results that geothermal heating and cooling system is more economic system.
Greenhouses n Greenhouse construction costs: Total costs for construction of the heating system, excluded lines inside greenhouse Heating System Thermal Capacity Cost kW € kW € n Geothermal n Boiler n Diference Investment difference for geothermal cost of Euro will be covered in the short time period by expenses savings for gasoil that consume boiler.
2. Expenses for the electric energy and gasoil for heating systems Horary cost for consumed of electric energy and gasoil for heating systems HeatingSystem Horary consuption Cost Hour’s cost n Geothermal 99,5 kWh 12,5 Lek Lek/h n Boiler 35 littre/h n Horary supplement of the expenses for the boiler compared to heating pump for the boiler compared to heating pump Geothermal heating system savings 2.906,25 lekë or 21,29 Euro (136,5 Lekë/Euro) for every hour of the works compared to boiler system.
… Daily savings are 510,96 Euro. During a time period of 115 work’s days of the greenhouse heating will be covered Euro, which necessary as supplement for geothermal heating system construction. For the areas with different climate conditions, where the average daily temperature <10 o C during the year varies as following: Tirana 82 days, Elbasan 83 days, Shkodër 145 days, and Korçë 176 days, payback period of investment for the geothermal heating system is 1,4 years for Albanian plain areas and 0,6 year for mountains regions with continental climate.
… Thirdly, the use of deep doublet abandoned oil and gas wells and single wells for geothermal energy, in the form of a “Vertical Earth Heat Probe- Geothermal heat pumps+Solar Pannels”. Temp. = 48 oC at 2000 m depth
… In these single abandoned wells a closed circuit water system can be installed. Near of these wells, can be build greenhouses.
… The platform for the use of geothermal energy in Albania is prepared. Based on the complex analysis for the best area selected, a Feasibility Study have been performed to analyze four components: F F Energy supply, F F Market analysis F F Feasibility study & Financial evaluations, F F Environmental impact to suggest the best scenarios for the innovative geothermal energy technology applications.
… Environmental Impact
… Albania has the resources of geothermal energy for direct use as alternative energy: ) 1)Natural springs and deep wells with thermal water, of a temperature up to 65.5°C at the Earth surface. ) 2)Heat of subsurface ground, with an average temperature of 16.4 o C and depth Earth Heat Flow. CONCLUSIONS
… Direction of the applications: a) Application of the space-heating system, using ground heat is the shallow borehole heat exchanger (BHE)-Geothermal Heat Pump systems, present the most important direction. b) Deep doublet abandoned oil and gas wells and single wells are possible to use for geothermal energy exploitation, in the form of a “Vertical Earth Heat Probe” for space heating, greenhouses etc.
… c. Integrate and cascade direct use of the thermal waters of low enthalpy: - SPA-Wellness - Heating & sanitary waters - Aquaculture and agriculture cultivations - Natural salts extraction - Mineral water processing d. Electricity generation from low enthalpy waters, using binary systems.