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A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Research Ethics Halina M. Zaleski College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources,

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Presentation on theme: "A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Research Ethics Halina M. Zaleski College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources,"— Presentation transcript:

1 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Research Ethics Halina M. Zaleski College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa

2 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Two Questions and a Story Is the research ethically conducted? Are collaborators/others treated fairly?

3 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Ethical Principles Write on the card the guidelines or principles that you use to make ethical decisions List the actual principles and not the sources of the principles State your principles so that a stranger could understand them

4 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Form a Society The number on your card identifies the group you are in Each group will decide on ethical principles that all can agree on

5 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Apply Your Principles Four studies 1.Outliers 2.Credit 3.Authors 4.The Consultant

6 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 1: Outliers “An agricultural economist developed a new and promising theoretical model representing economic phenomena of interest, but needed empirical evidence to support the formulation. The data set needed to do this may exist. However, upon initial estimation of model parameters, the researcher discovers that the data do not provide parameter estimates consistent with a thorough and rigorously developed model specification. Further analysis traces the problem to one or two outliers in the data set, and removal of these outliers provides parameter estimates that, while perhaps not perfect, are largely consistent with the theoretical arguments.” Debertin, Luzar and Chambers, J of Ag and Resource Econ. 20(1):82-95.

7 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 1: Outliers The economist needs to publish some results in order to be considered for promotion. 1.What are the researcher’s options? 2.What should the researcher publish and why?

8 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 2: Credit “Ben, a third year graduate student, had been working on a research project that involved an important new experimental technique. For a national meeting in his discipline, Ben wrote an abstract and gave a brief presentation that mentioned the new technique. After his presentation, he was surprised and pleased when Dr. Freeman, a leading researcher from another university, engaged him in an extended conversation. Dr. Freeman asked Ben extensively about the new technique, and Ben described it fully. Ben’s own faculty advisor often encouraged his students not to keep secrets from other researchers, and Ben was flattered that Dr. Freeman would be so interested in his work.

9 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 2: Credit Six months later Ben was leafing through a journal when he noticed an article by Dr. Freeman. The article described an experiment that clearly depended on the technique that Ben had developed. He didn’t mind; in fact, he was again somewhat flattered that his technique had so strongly influenced Dr. Freeman’s work. But when he turned to the citations, expecting to see a reference to his abstract or presentation, his name was nowhere to be found.” National academy of Sciences On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research.

10 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 2: Credit 1.What are Ben’s options? 2.What should Ben do and why? 3.What should Ben’s faculty advisor do?

11 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 3. Authorship “Paula, a young assistant professor, and two graduate students have been working on a series of related experiments for the past several years. During that time, the experiments have been written up in various posters, abstracts, and meeting presentations. Now it is time to write up the experiments for publication, but the students and Paula must first make an important decision. They could write a single paper with one first author that would describe the experiments in a comprehensive manner, or they could write a series of shorter, less complete papers so that each student could be a first author.

12 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 3. Authorship Paula favors the first option, arguing that a single publication in a more visible journal would better suit all their purposes. Paula’s students, on the other hand, strongly suggest that a series of papers be prepared. They argue that one paper encompassing all the results would be too long and complex and might damage their career opportunities because the would not be able to point to a paper on which they were first authors.” National academy of Sciences On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research.

13 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 3. Authorship 1.Should the experiments be published together in a single paper? 2.If they publish a single paper, how should the authors be listed? 3.If a single paper is published, how can they emphasize to the review committees and funding agencies their various roles and the importance of the paper?

14 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 4. The Consultant You have just been hired as a market consultant by a fast-growing company that grows and processes tomatoes. The hours are ideal and the pay is excellent. Additional benefits include use of the company’s hotel suite at a holiday resort.

15 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 4. The Consultant It has come to your attention that the tomatoes on part of the company’s land have been infected with a virus for which there is no treatment other than destruction of the plants. You call this to the attention of the assistant manager. The assistant manager tells you that none of the customers have complained or gotten sick, and the company will be economically ruined if their crops are destroyed. He tells you that he will not take any action at this time. There is concern, however, that the damage could be much worse if the virus should spread to other farms.

16 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Case 4. The Consultant 1.What are the consultant’s options? 2.What should the consultant do and why?

17 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Journal of Agricultural Economics Why do people pay attention to the results of your or other research?

18 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Journal of Agricultural Economics How does your field ensure that the results of research are reliable? What are the consequences of publishing questionable results?

19 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project What are your obligations? To the university? To the research community? To the funding agency? To collaborators?

20 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project What are your expectations? From the university? From the research community? From the funding agency? From collaborators?

21 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project What are your obligations? To students? To extension? To farmers?

22 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project What are your expectations? From students? From extension? From farmers?

23 A lbania-Hawaii H igher E ducation and E conomic D evelopment Project Workshop Evaluation Did the workshop make you think? Are your own principles clearer to you? Are you better prepared to think through professional dilemmas?


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