Mapping Exercise - AMapping Exercise - Albania Mapping Exercise - A Albana Zotaj GEOGRAPHIC STUDIES CENTER
Mapping Exercise - Albania SITUATION OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SYSTEM SITUATION OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SYSTEM I.1. Existing Structure and Legal Regulation Main institutional elements of the scientific research system in Albania include : - Academy of Sciences with its research institutes/centers; - Research institutes and centers of ministries; - Universities Legal framework: The scientific research system is administrated on the basis of legal and sub-legal frame work that includes: - The Law on Science and Technological Development of the year 1994; - The Law on Higher Education of the year 1999; - The Law on the Academy of Sciences of the year 2004; - DCM, regulations and instructions of Ministries; - Statutes of AS and universities. Administration: The diagram of vertical administration of the scientific research system includes the following institutions: - Council of Ministries; - Council of Scientific Policy and Technological Development (CSPTD); - Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Education and Science, and line Ministries
I.2 Financing of the R&D activity with: 1. Institutional financing, given by the Government for the research institutions inside the Academy of Sciences and Ministries independently from the Ministry of Education and Sciences, 2. Program Financing on the framework of NRDP through MoES according the procedures on the European standards, 3. Program Financing on the framework of the Bilateral Programs realized from the MoES through European standards, 4. Other financing beside State Budget include : - International collaboration - Other collaboration with foreign or home organizations inside the country - International programs (UN, EU, etc), 5. Financing from the activities for the other public or private sectors. The fund for scientific research and Development in Albania does not exceed 0,18 of GDP, which marks the lowest level in Europe.
Mapping Exercise - Albania I.3. Research Institutes of the Academy of Sciences There are 7 institutes under the Section of Social and Albanological Sciences : 1. Institute of History 2. Institute of Linguistics and Literatures 3. Institute of Popular Culture 4. Institute of Archeology 5. Institute of Economy 6. Center of Arts Studies 7. Center of Albania Encyclopedia of inter-disciplinary character There are 7 institutes under the Section of Natural and Technical Sciences : 1. Institute of Nuclear Physics 2. Institute of Informatics and Applied Mathematics 3. Institute of Hydrometeorology 4. Institute of Seismology 5. Institute of Biological Research 6. Center of Geographical Studies 7. Center of Hydraulic Research
Mapping Exercise - Albania I.4 Institutes of Ministries of Branches In addition to the Institutes of AS, there are also 24 other research-study institutes which fall under the following Ministries: Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer’s Protection 9 institutes 1. Institute of Field Crops Research, Fushe-Kruje 2. Institute of Food Research, Tirana 3. Institute of Veterinary Research, Tirana 4. Institute of Zootechnical Research, Tirana 5. Institute of Plant Protection, Durres 6. Institute of Corn and Rice, Shkoder 7. Institute of Fruit-Growing, Vlore 8. Institute of Vegetables and Potatoes, Tirana 9. Institute of Soil Study, Tirana Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration 3 institutes 10. Institute of Forest and Pastures Research, Tirana 11. Institute of Research of Fishing, Durres 12. Institute of Environment, Tirana
Mapping Exercise - Albania Ministry of Economy, Commerce and Energy 6 institutes 13. Albanian Geological Service, Tirana 14. Institute of Technology of Extraction and Processing of Minerals, Tirana 15. National Scientific Center of Hydrocarbons, Fier 16. Institute of Studies and Designs of Light Industry, Tirana 17. Institute of Mechanics and Wood, Tirana 18. Institute of Metallurgy, Elbasan Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication 3 institutes 19. Institute of Transport, Tirana 20. Institute of Studies of Construction, Tirana 21. Institute of Studies of Town-Planning, Tirana Ministry of Tourism, Culture, Youth and Sports 2 institutes 22. Institute of Culture Monuments, Tirana 23. Center of Sports Studies, Tirana Ministry of Health (MH)1 institute 24. Institute of Public Health, Tirana
Mapping Exercise - Albania 1.5 Universities Currently there are 13 public higher schools in Albania : 1. University of Tirana (UT) 2. Polytechnic University of Tirana (PUT) 3. Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT) 4. Military University, Tirana (MU) 5. Academy of Physical Education and Sports, Tirana (APHES) 6. Academy of Arts, Tirana (AA) 7. Academy of Police, Tirana (AP) 8. University of Shkoder (USH) 9. University of Elbasan (UE) 10. Agricultural University of Korce (AUK) 11. University of Gjirokaster (UGJ) 12. Technological University of Vlore (UV) 13. University of Durres Higher schools function on the basis of the Law on “Higher Education” of the year 1999, changed. There are also 10 private higher schools as well as other R&D Public and private agencies
Mapping Exercise - Albania Administrative bodies Political authorities Intermediary Organizations & Funding agencies Parliament Government Ministry of Education & Science ç 13 National universities: 48 Faculties Agency of Hydrocarbures Incubators of Agricultural Technology Centre for Efficiency Energy Agency of Accreditation of High Education General Directorate of Standards Directorate of the Marks & Patents Office of Author Rights Chamber of Commerce & Industry Foreign Agencies for support of Technological & Economical Development: UNDP, World Bank, USAID, UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, GTZ,…… Agency of Calibration Council of Scientific Policy and Technology Development Academy of Sciences: 14 institutes Ministerial R&D institutes: 24 Agricultural Experimental Research Centers R&D infrastructure: - 8 Internet Providers and Academic Network - Gene Bank - S&T Libraries - Scientific Natural Museum - Botanic Park Center for the Energy Private sector- R&D Performers: Multinational Companies Small & Medium Enterprises 10 private universities
Mapping Exercise - Albania 1.6. Human Resources From 1990 human resources in sciences and technology have drastically decreased. Various surveys show that during 1990-1999, approximately 40% of the professors and research scientists of the universities and science institutions in the country have emigrated. This exodus is growing and according to a survey run in 1998 a greater number of highly educated people want to emigrate. They are mainly young people who wish to emigrate for a long time or forever. It is clear that if the economic and social situation in the country does not improve, the Albanian brain drain will continue as intensively as before. However, the continuous brain drain poses a severe threat to this system. Driving forces for the brain drain are found in the deteriorated economic living conditions, the lack of state – of – the – art infrastructure and funds that constitute serious obstacles for research. The restrictive visa regulations also hinder scientific exchange and temporary employment abroad. Some of the highly educated people do return after their studies and others may also consider it. During this year the new government has planned many ways to provide the facilities to have the new situation changed into : the brain gain.
Mapping Exercise - Albania There is a total 578 scientific workers in our country: 274 in Academy of Sciences and 304 in R & D institutions of Ministries. The number of personnel in R & D in Albania are about 0,2 for 1000 habitants R&D Personnel by Scientific Disciplines, 2005 Nat.Sc. 15% Tech. Sc. 26% Med. Sc. 14% Agric. Sc 8% Soc. Sc. 13% Humanities 24% R&D Personnel by Sectors 2005 R&D Institutes of ASA 304 Higher Education Sector 1639 Institutes of Ministries 274 R&D Personnel by Scientific Disciplines & Sectors of Employment (2005) Source: Academy of Sciences (ASA), Ministry of Education & Sciences (MOES), Agency of Accreditation of the High Education