Presentation on theme: "By: Helen Hibbs NICARAGUA. Nicaragua is a Latin America country located south of Honduras and north of Costa Rica. To the east: the Caribbean Sea."— Presentation transcript:
Nicaragua is a Latin America country located south of Honduras and north of Costa Rica. To the east: the Caribbean Sea To the west: the Pacific Ocean Managua is the capitol, located on Managua Lake near the western coast. Lago de Nicaragua, largest lake in Central America, contains the only freshwater sharks in the world. Within Lago de Nicaragua is Ometepe Island made from two volcanoes which together form a figure 8. It is the largest island on a freshwater lake in the world. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
Nicaragua has a warm, tropical climate with cooler weather in its mountains. The Northern Region: Mountainous land covered by cedar, mahogany, and pine forests. The Pacific Region contains inactive volcanoes that run along the western part of the country parallel to the Pacific coastline. The capital and most cities are in this region. The San Juan Region: area surrounding the San Juan River. The Caribbean Region: area on the eastern part of the country which has many beautiful beaches along the 280 miles of coastal land. Due to its location, Nicaragua is susceptible to hurricanes. MORE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
Nicaraguan history can be divided into its pre- Columbian, colonial, and modern eras. HISTORY OF NICARAGUA
THE PRE-COLUMBIAN ERA The Pre-Columbian era is before Columbus landed on the Caribbean coast in 1502. The land was populated by 3 major tribes of indigenous peoples living in three separate areas of the country, who had been in the country for centuries before the arrival of the Spanish in the 1500’s. Each tribe was organized as a monarchy; each with its own chief. The original inhabitants of Nicaragua had migrated there from what is now Colombia.
Begins with the Spanish Conquest in the 1500’s Nicaragua was part of a Spanish district with control centered in Guatemala. Two major cities during this time were Leon and Granada. 1600’s: The eastern coast came under British control. Numerous earthquakes had severe effects on the Pacific coast, but Spain ignored their problems. 1700’s: Spain’s struggle with France weakened it’s grip on the colonies. In 1821, Guatemala (and Nicaragua) declared independence from Spain. They became part of the United Provinces of Central America. In 1838, Nicaragua declared itself an independent republic. THE COLONIAL ERA
From the mid-1800’s to modern times Nicaragua has been influenced by the U.S.A. U.S. military was in the country from 1909 until 1933. From the 1930’s, the country was ruled by the Somoza family until overthrown in the 1979 Sandinista revolution. The Sandinistas were a communist movement. The U.S. supported anti-government group, the Nicaraguan Contras. In 1990, free elections were held. Violet Barrios de Chamorro was elected president. She had a successful 7 year term. More free elections have since been held. However, Nicaragua continues to be a poor country. MODERN OR POST-COLONIAL ERA
Nicaragua is a constitutional republic having a representative government ruled by law (the Constitution). GOVERNMENT & ECONOMY
GOVERNMENT Nicaragua has three branches of government: 1.Executive: Chief of State and head of government: President and VP are elected by popular vote for a 5-year term. The current President is Daniel Ortega, and the Vice President is Moises Omar Halleslevens. 2.Legislative Branch: National Assembly with 92 seats elected by proportional representation to serve 5-year terms. 3.Judicial Branch: Supreme Court with 16 judges elected for 5- year terms by the National Assembly. President Ortega was re-elected in late 2011. He is a Socialist and has ignored the country’s constitutional law, which limits presidents to no more than 2 terms and does not allow presidents to serve consecutive terms.
ECONOMY Poverty remains a problem in Nicaragua which is the second poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, behind Haiti. Nicaragua continues to be dependent on international aid. Coffee, cotton, bananas and sugar are the main agricultural products. Natural resources include gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, and fish. National average annual income is $2,200. The currency unit is the Cordoba. It is currently worth 4 U.S. Cents. Cordobas
CULTURE The national language is Spanish. Two provincial languages are spoken, Mayangna and Miskito. Ethnic Groups: Mestizo (Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%. Religion: The people have freedom of religion. 90% are Christian. There are other religious groups including Mormon, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Bahai, Muslim, Buddhists and Jews. Transportation: Good roads, but few can afford private cars. Most people travel by bus or tram. The bicycle is a common form of private transport.
CULTURE Sport: Baseball is the most popular sport, ahead of even soccer (futbol). Surfing and snorkeling is popular off the Pacific Coast on Nicaraguan Beaches. A strong theatrical heritage exists in the country. Shows are often performed during local festivals. One such drama is “El Gigante” (The Giant), which deals with the natives’ conflict with the conquering Spaniards. Music: Marimba (national percussion instrument) is made of wooden or metal keys and different length tubes. It is often accompanied by guitars and other percussion instruments.
NICARAGUAN FOOD Nactamales: a very affordable traditional dish made from smashed corn and potatoes covered in a banana leaf. It is eaten along with pork, tomato, garlic and salt. Corn and beans are staples of the diet. Garlic and onions season many dishes. Tortillas are eaten with most meals. Nicaragua’s version is large, thin and made of white corn. It is used as an edible utensil to wrap meat and beans. Pinol: national nonalcoholic drink made from corn flour with water. Another favorite nonalcoholic drink is coffee. Tres Leches cake is a popular dessert in Nicaragua. Nactamales Pinol Tres Leches cake