What do you already know about DOK? What do you want to learn?
“Clearly a better method for developing and scoring assessments is needed – one that ensures that the scale (the size of an inch) stays the same from one assessment to the next and that a teacher applies the same logic to scoring of each assessment.” Marzano, Robert J. Formative Assessment and Standards-Based Grading 2010
What do we mean by “Depth of Knowledge” (DOK) as defined by Norman Webb How is the “Depth of Knowledge” learning progression a tool in using the construction of a proficiency scale to “unpack” clusters/ standards? How can a deeper understanding of DOK help design Success Time tutorials and enrichment activities?
Adapted from the model used by Norm Webb, University of Wisconsin, to align standards with assessments The degree of depth or complexity of knowledge reflected in the content standards and assessments How deeply a student needs to understand the content for a given response/assessment.
Is a scale of cognitive demand which aligns standards with assessments. DOK addresses the content being assessed and the depth to which we expect students to demonstrate understanding of that content. DOK is a reference to the complexity of mental processing that must occur to answer a question, perform a task, or generate a product. DOK is about cognitive complexity, not difficulty. Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK)
DOK 1 requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or performance of a simple process or procedure. Locate or recall facts explicitly found in text.
Recall or recognize a fact, term, or property. Represent in words or diagrams a scientific concept or relationship. Provide or recognize a standard scientific representation for simple phenomena. Perform a routine procedure such as measuring length. Identify familiar forces (e.g. pushes, pulls, gravitation, friction, etc.) Identify objects and materials as solids, liquids, or gases
DOK 2 includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response. Items require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the question or problem. These actions imply more than one mental or cognitive process/step. Identify and summarize the major events, problem, solution, conflicts in literary text. Explain the cause-effect of historical events.
Specify and explain the relationship among facts, terms, properties, and variables. Identify variables, including controls, in simple experiments. Distinguish between experiments and systematic observations. Describe and explain examples and non-examples of science concepts. Select a procedure according to specified criteria and perform it. Formulate a routine problem given data and conditions. Organize, represent, and interpret data.
DOK 3 requires deep understanding as exhibited through planning, using evidence, and more demanding cognitive reasoning. The cognitive demands at Level 3 are complex and abstract. An assessment item that has more than one possible answer and requires students to justify the response they give would most likely be a Level 3. Explain, generalize or connect ideas, using supporting evidence from a text or source.
Identify research questions and design investigations for a scientific problem. Design and execute an experiment or systematic observation to test a hypothesis or research question. Develop a scientific model for a complex situation. Form conclusions from experimental data. Cite evidence that living systems follow the Laws of Conservation of Mass and Energy. Explain how political, social, and economic concerns can affect science, and vice versa. Create a conceptual or mathematical model to explain the key elements of a scientific theory or concept. Explain the physical properties of the Sun and its dynamic nature and connect them to conditions and events on Earth. Analyze past, present, and potential future consequences to the environment resulting from various energy production technologies
DOK 4 requires high cognitive demand and is very complex. Students are expected to make connections—relate ideas within the content or among content areas—and have to select or devise one approach among many alternatives on how the situation can be solved. Due to the complexity of cognitive demand, DOK 4 often requires an extended period of time. Gather, analyze, organize, and interpret information from multiple (print and non-print sources) to draft a reasoned report.
Based on provided data from a complex experiment that is novel to the student, deduce the fundamental relationships among several variables. Conduct an investigation, from specifying a problem to designing and carrying out an experiment, to analyzing its data and forming conclusions. Explain how a particular scientific theory (e.g., evolution, plate tectonics, atomic theory, etc.) is supported by evidence from multiple lines of inquiry. Produce a detailed report of a scientific experiment or systematic observation and infer conclusions based upon evidence obtained. Write a detailed history of the development of an important scientific concept (e.g., atomic theory, gravitation) and explain how current conceptions developed from prior ones
DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE Recall Recall— Identify this utensil. Concept Concept— Explain the function of the fork. Strategic Strategic— Identify two examples of when a fork would not be the best utensil for a type of food and explain why. Extended Extended— Design an investigation to determine the optimal number and length of tines for a salad fork. From: Lois Barnes SREB/HSTW
DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE Recall Recall— Identify the type of tree. Concept Concept— Explain the function of the leaves. Strategic Strategic— Explain how a drought might affect the growth of the tree. Extended Extended— Design an investigation of seedling growth to determine the best fertilizer for this type of tree. From: Lois Barnes SREB/HSTW
DOK 1 – Teacher driven DOK 2 – Teacher provided options DOK 3 – Student DOK 4 - Student
Working with an elbow partner label each task/prompt with the appropriate DOK level and justify your decision.
This matrix from the Smarter Balanced Content Specifications for Literacy draws from both Bloom’s (revised) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives and Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels below.
DOK is a scale of cognitive demand DOK requires looking at the assessment item/standard not student work to determine the level. DOK is about the item/standard not the student The context of the item/standard must be considered to determine the DOK level not just a look at what verb was chosen. DOK is lowered when too much information is given DOK is not about difficulty but how much thinking is required for the student to complete the prompt/task DOK is not an exact science
Recall/ Reproduction DOK 1 Skills/ Concepts DOK 2 Strategic Thinking DOK 3 Extended Thinking DOK 4 Proficiency Proficiency reflects DOK level specific to a standard
Each item aligned to a standard Enough items to represent standard Items grouped by standard Enough items at different DOK levels Best “type” of assessment item to measure level Strength of item to distinguish both correctness and misconceptions for instruction
DOK scaffolding for Tutorial Deign DOK 3 and 4 collaboration items for enrichment - using scaling as foundation
Select course standards These are the priority standards for the course – the ones students will have multiple opportunities to reach standard on – shift to CCSS and NGSS alignment Scale standards Develop summative assessments – “body of evidence” Leveled prompts/items Backwards design an instructional plan: include levels of rigor, quality assignment development, intentional text selection, frequent checks for understanding and student-involved progress monitoring Interventions and enrichments Within class As a building Determine reporting and grading based on the instructional plan