2Deviation ReviewDeviation is the difference from a standard or reference value (usually the mean).This is the starting point for determining both the variance and the standard deviation of a set of scores.We want to measure the dispersion of the scores around the mean, so it makes sense to use the deviation scores.
3Activity #1 (Part 1)Measure to the nearest millimeter the writing utensil you are using and write the measurement on a piece of paper.
4Sum of Squares (SS) Sum of squares = sum of squared deviations SS is used when calculating the variance and the standard deviationIf you are using a frequency distribution table:
5Sum of Squares (SS)The population formulas are as follows:
6Calculating SS Step 1: Find the mean. Step 2: Find the deviation scores.Step 3: Square the deviation scores.Step 4: Sum the squared deviation scores.Score1357Deviation-3-113Deviation291
7Sum of Squares Computational Formulas When you are trying to understand SS, use the previous formulas, but when you are computing SS, use these formulas (it’s faster).
8Watch Out Know the difference between and . means that you square Xs, then sum the squared Xs.means that you sum the Xs, then square the sum of the Xs.
9Calculating SS (the easy way) Step 1: Sum the X column and square the sum.Step 2: Square each score (X)Step 3: Sum the X2 column.Step 4: Plug the values into the formula and solve.X1357X2192549
10Calculating SS with Frequency Distribution Tables Step 1: Create a fX column and sum the values, then square the sum.Step 2: Create a fX2 column by multiplying fX(X) (do not square fX).Step 3: Sum the fX2 column.Step 4: Plug the values into the equation and solve (remember N is the sum of f).X1357f24fX2122014fX223610098
11Population Variance (σ2) Variance = average of squared deviationsRecall that SS is the sum of the squared deviations, the numerator in the above equation. So we can rewrite the equation as:
12Sample Variance (s2)If we use the population formula for sample data, we will probably underestimate the variance (i.e., s2 will be smaller than σ2).To correct for this and get a better estimate of the population variance, we change the denominator to N-1.
13Sample Variance (s2)When you use N-1 in the denominator, the result is a larger estimate of the population variance.Why do we need to make our estimate larger?(Unadjusted) sample variance is alwaysless than or equal to populationvariance.
14Standard DeviationThe standard deviation is the square root of the variance.
16Calculation: Break it Down Sum of Squares (SS)Variance (s2)
17Know These EquationsWith these three equations you can understand and calculate sample variance and standard deviation.
18What Does it Look Like? Let’s look at an example (also see p. 103): The standard deviation is another unit of measurement on the X axis.
19What Should We Expect?For a small sample, we should expect the standard deviation units to divide the sample distribution into about 4 parts.For a large sample, we should expect closer to six parts.
20Activity #1 (Part 2)Given our writing utensil data, calculate (in the following order):SSs2sUse either of the sample formulas and show all of your work.Write your name on the paper.
21Standard Scores (z scores) z score = the deviation of a raw score from the mean in standard deviation units.The closer a score is to the mean, the smaller its z score will be.A positive z-score indicates that the score is above the mean, negative indicates that it is below the mean. A z score of zero will always be at the mean.
22You TryWhat raw score would have a z score of -1?
23You TryWhat raw score would have a z score of 2?
24Calculating z scores Population: Sample: So you have to know the standard deviation and the mean before you can find the z score.
25Calculating Raw Scores If I know the z score but I don’t know the corresponding raw score, using basic algebra I can change the equation to solve for X.
26Activity #2Given the above information, calculate the z score values for the following raw scores: 75, 95, 100, 50, 125, and 80.Using the same sample information, calculate the raw scores for the following z scores: 3.25, -.25, 2, -1.75, and 2.5
27Homework Study for Chapter 6 Quiz (know the equations in red). Read Chapter 7Do Chapter 6 Homework