Presentation on theme: "Comic Test Materials: two writing utensils and the comic sheet Left side of room: hold one writing utensil between your nose and upper lip Right side of."— Presentation transcript:
Comic Test Materials: two writing utensils and the comic sheet Left side of room: hold one writing utensil between your nose and upper lip Right side of room: hold one writing utensil in your teeth, with your lips never touching Rate the following cartoons in terms of their humor on a scale of 1 (not funny at all) to 7 (extremely funny) –use the other utensil to write with on the comic sheet provided
How you think determines how you feel
Cannon-Bard Theory Disagreed with James-Lange emotions occur simultaneously in the brain and body. –The brain routes the sensory message to both at the same time. Cannon Bard’s theory explains how the same physiological arousal can cause different emotions.
Schacter’s Two Factor theory (AKA Two Factor, Schacter-Singer Two Factor, etc) Combines the other two. physical arousal is fuel that intensifies the emotion. after arousal occurs, the brain then puts a label thru cognition, deciding what the emotions should be.
To sum up: Arousal fuels emotion Cognition channels it
Physiology of Emotion Emotions caused an aroused physiological state: –automatic/sympathetic nervous system. Glucose released Respiration increased Blood clotter released Adrenaline: epinephrine, norepinephrine Blood pressure up.
Emotion and the Brain Different emotions flow through different brain circuits. –Disgust/sadness = right brain circuits –Happiness/positive emotions = left frontal lobe activities
Expressing Emotion Feeling emotion and expressing emotions are two very different things. Much of communication is nonverbal: body, face and gestures. –Staring into eyes can give good “love” information. –People are very good at reading nonverbal cues. You can tell a happy face from 100 yds. –Angry faces tend to leap out of the crowd at you. –Women are better at perceiving lies, loves, and emotional cues.
Reading Emotions Introverts are better at reading nonverbal cues extraverts are better at expressing them. Females are better than males.
Expressiveness Behavior Feedback phenomenon. –Expressions not only communicate emotion but they regulate it: Smiling will make you happier. Walking boldly will make you more confident. Pull up on your desk, push down on it, which feels better?
Expressiveness and Culture However, facial expressions for various expressions are universal. –For instance, Japanese rarely show self- aggrandizing and negative emotions but likely to show happiness, as means of social glue.
Who is the best at displaying naturally occurring emotions?
Experiencing emotion Emotions can be categorized in three different ways: 1.Pleasant vs. unpleasant 2.Intense vs. sleepy 3.Long-lasting vs. brief
Arousal vs. Valence
Concealing emotions Humans are good at intentionally concealing emotions.
Polygraphs Detect physiological arousal. –Traditionally not admissible, because innocent are often found guilty. –The Guilty Knowledge Test: more useful in court Brain fingerprinting is admissible
Different part of brain lights up for lying
How does personal experience relate to the telling of expressions?
Different emotions, different brain circuits
Fear Controlled by the amygdala –located at the ends of the hippocampus in the Limbic system of the lower brain. Fear is adaptive to fight/flee from dangerous events. We can learn to fear just about anything, –we fear some things easier than others: heights, spiders, snakes. Stress is fear gone wild: too much, too often.
Fear Example Humans can learn to fear embarrassment and social situations –Chronic anxiety (fear) of social events can have devastating effects on your immune system and other mood systems (depression/anxiety disorders). Type D personality –Extreme fear of a specific trigger is called a phobia.
Thresholds of Fear Peoples’ triggers for fear vary. –Some are not easily fearful test pilots, serial killers, Type B personalities –Some are anxious/nervous almost all the time. Type A personalities Tranquilizers operate on this brain/body system by calming the SNS or blocking adrenaline (epinephrine) receivers in the brain.
Happiness One’s mood colors everything else – memories, assessments of relationships, relative well-being Happiness defined as subjective well being – how happy to you think you are Feel Good, Do Good Phenomena: –The happier you are the more likely you are to help others.
Happiness Examples happiness set point (50% heritable). happiness hovers in a range around that point independent of life circumstances. –If something extremely bad happens or extremely good, you eventually rebound back to your range. –Ex: Two years later, the relative happiness of accident paraplegics and lottery winners is the same.
Money and Happiness Money does not buy happiness. –There is no relationship between money and happiness, with the exception of the desperately poor in impoverished countries (basic needs?) Money only buys a temporary surge of happiness – remember set point
Changing materialism of entering collegians
Subjective well-being (self-perception)
Adaptation-level Principle Is the tendency to judge various stimuli relative to our own previous experiences. –If circumstances change, within months you recalibrate your level and then emotionally judge experiences relative to the new circumstance.
Adaptation-level Principle For material wealth to increase, relative-well being would require an ever increasing abundance. Think about the Amish, never had, never missed.
Relative Deprivation Principle We compare ourselves to others just above and just below us. –So, if everyone gets an A, we’re not as happy as if we got the only A. –If you’re GPA is 3.0, you’ll be happier comparing yourself to 2.0s than 4.0s. –basically someone is always above and always below.
Get Happiness!!!! (within your inherited range) flow. Form close meaningful relationships internal-locus of control report being happier. faith in something larger than themselves. Optimism: look on sunny side.
Opponent Process Theory of Emotion When you feel one emotion, you will feel the opposite feeling when resolved –Fear of public speaking, feeling elated after But when the first emotion is repeated, it is less intense and the opponent feeling becomes stronger. –Less scared the next time you speak, stronger feelings of elation when finished
Opponent Process Theory of Emotion Examples: Do drugs, feel good, come down, get depressed. Do more drugs, not as high, come down harder. Exercise? Studying?
Anger Generally triggers are perceived –misdeeds of friends and loved ones. anger-provoking deeds are ones that tend to be willful, unjustified and avoidable. –“It doesn’t have to be this way!”
Anger adaptive for arousing protective reactions maladaptive when it fuels behaviors we later regret.
Anger and Catharsis Displaying anger is not cathartic (cleansing), it increases anger. How so? (OC) The immediate soothing effect it causes becomes positively reinforcing, building anger as habitual response.
Type A vs Type B vs Type D Type A: hard driving success oriented people. Type A with ANGER highly correlated with heart Disease. Type B: relaxed easy going, not nearly as likely to get heart Disease. Type D: anxious, nervous always waiting for something bad to happen, reduced disease fighting mechanisms.
Dealing with Anger Calm down first!!! –Remember the fuel of emotion is physical arousal, so when you come back to homeostasis, you’ll be more rational. Deal with issues, quickly and directly (after calming down), so as not to rehearse the anger-provoking incident.
Stress Creates aroused physiological state for an extended period of time reeking havoc on the immune system and other brain/body systems leads to anxiety and/or depression.
Stress Overview Stressor: any physical or psychological challenge that threatens homeostasis –Phys: injury, exertion, noise, overcrowding, excessive heat or cold –Psych: interpersonal conflict, peer pressure, time-pressure tasks, expectations, achievement
Whether or not a situation is considered stressful has to do with how you cognitively assess the situation: is it life threatening or not? –Primary appraisal – life threatening? –Secondary appraisal – coping?
Appraisal of Stress
Catastrophes Significant life changes Daily hassles Men more often socially withdrawal and turn to alcohol or aggression Women band together
Stress Response Behavioral: actual fight or flight Physiological: alteration to physiology to prep to fight or flight Negative emotional states: frustration, fear, anxiety, pressure –Eustress: positive stress
Types of Conflict (stressors) 1.Approach-approach: choose between one of two attractive goals Hanging out with a friend you haven’t seen in forever or going to a baseball game you really want to see
2. Avoidance-avoidance Choose between two unattractive options –Lesser of two evils –Cleaning your room or studying for your psych test on Tuesday
3. Approach-avoidance Choose a goal that has both attractive and unattractive features –You want to purchase the new iPhone 87s with super cool features (it does your taxes and stuff) but you have to work 4 straight days overtime in order to afford the $800/month charge
4. Double approach-avoidance Must choose between two alternatives, both which have positive and negative features –You need to choose between two colleges you like, but both have negative features as well
General Adaptation Syndrome Hans Selye –Alarm: mobilize resources (SNS) –Resistance: coping (fight/flight) –Exhaustion: reserves depleted (PNS)
Theories of emotion and physiological response to stress James-Lange would say? Cannon-Bard would say?
Chronic Stress and Appraisal Theory
Where will disease set in?
Sympathetic Nervous System Arousal
Phase 3: Exhaustion
Stress and the Immune System Immune system: body’s first internal line of defense –Perception of stress leads to suppression of immune system –HIV+ -> AIDS
Stress and Health Stress and Anger can reduce lymphocytes (disease fighting antibodies): –Psychoneuroimmunology: destruction of immune system by stress. –Psychophysiological (psychosomatic) illnesses: headaches, colds hypertension (high blood pressure)
Psychoneuroimmunology: destruction of immune system by stress
Stress and wounds. Under stressed conditions: surgery wounds heal slower. Subjects given cold viruses during exams were much more likely to develop colds than during non-exam periods. HIV’s and cancer’s course has been linked to stress.
Stress Effects Reduction in telomeres: cancer and aging Shrinks hippocampus Increased plaque buildup in heart Reduction in lymphocytes.
Inability to control life causes stress
Review: Type A Type B Whose SNS system is more likely to work overtime? Who is more prone to heart attacks? –Of that type, are men or women more prone?
Mediators of Stress 1.Adequacy of coping skills 2.Available support system 3.Intensity and duration of the stressor/history of stress 4.Individual beliefs 1.Locus of control 1.Internal: a belief that a person has control over rewards and punishments in life 2.External: a belief that luck, chance, and powerful people determine events
Behavioral strategies Time management Behavior modification Relaxation training Biofeedback Meditation Avoiding stressors
Realizing and creating well being Well-being: life is good Awareness: support Encouraging others to develop deeper meanings: peace and love, bro Self-efficacy: having control in your life