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Unit Nine. Contents  A. Text one I. Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions (II). Background information II. While-reading: Text Analysis (I) Structure analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit Nine. Contents  A. Text one I. Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions (II). Background information II. While-reading: Text Analysis (I) Structure analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit Nine

2 Contents  A. Text one I. Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions (II). Background information II. While-reading: Text Analysis (I) Structure analysis (II) Comprehension questions (III) Language points (IV) Difficult sentences III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items (II) Translation Exercises (III) Oral activities (IV) Writing practice B. Text two ( I ) Questions for text comprehension ( II ) Language points A. Text one I. Pre-readingwarm-up questions(II). Background informationII. While-reading: Text Analysis (I) Structure analysis(II) Comprehension questions(III) Language points(IV) Difficult sentences III. Post-Reading:(I) Grammatical items (II) Translation Exercises(III) Oral activities(IV) Writing practice B. Text two ( I ) Questions for text comprehension ( II ) Language points

3  Overview of Chinese Cuisine  Chinese cuisine (Chinese language 中餐 ) is the general term given to the various cuisines from different regions of China and abroad. Many people regard Chinese cuisine as one of the most famous cuisine system in the world (others are French cuisine and Turkey cuisine). As for the varieties, not only flavour,but also food material and cooking mathods, Chinese cuisine is the most.

4  Kenneth Lo’s quote Kenneth Lo’s quote  San Lu San Lu  Famous Regional Cuisines of Chinese FoodRegional Cuisines  Translation of Names of Chinese Dishes Translation of Names of Chinese Dishes

5  In the matter of food and eating, however, one can hardly remain completely indifferent to what one is doing for long. How can one remain entirely indifferent to something which is going to enter one’s body and become part of oneself? How can one remain indifferent to something which will determine one’s physical strength and ultimately one’s spiritual and moral fibre and well-being?

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7  E Mee, Hor Fun/Hor-Fan/Sar Hor Fun, Mee, Mee Swa, Popiah, Kue Teo/Kway teow, Char kway teow, Fried Bee Hoon/Mee Hoon  伊面, 河粉 / 沙河粉, 面,面线,薄饼, 粿条, 炒 粿条,炒米粉  Mee Hoon Kueh/Kuih, Chai tao kway, wonton, O Luah (Oyster pancake), Loh Mai Gai  面粉粿, 菜头粿 ,云吞(粤式馄饨),蚝烙,糯米 鸡

8  Regional cultural differences vary greatly amongst the different regions of China, giving rise to the different styles of food. There are eight main regional cuisines, or Eight Great Traditions ( 八大菜系 ): Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan, and Zhejiang. Among them, Cantonese, Sichuan, Shandong, and Huaiyang cuisine (a major style and even viewed as the representation of the entire Jiangsu cuisine) are often considered as the standouts of Chinese cuisine and due to their influence are proclaimed as the Four Great Traditions ( 四大菜系 ). Occasionally, Beijing cuisine and Shanghai cuisine are also cited along with the aforementioned eight regional styles as the Ten Great Traditions ( 十大菜系 ).

9  Shao Shing soup 绍兴汤  cf. Russian Borscht 罗宋汤  Chiao-Tzu 饺子  also Jiaozi, Chinese dumplings, etc Wade-Giles system  Kuo-tioh (Northern style)  锅贴 also Guotie,  potstickers,  pan-fried Jiaozi, wor tip, etc

10  Structural analysis Structural analysis  Text comprehension Text comprehension  Language work Language work  Paraphrase Paraphrase  Rhetorical features Rhetorical features  After-reading activities After-reading activities

11  This text can be divided into three parts: the first part discusses the difference in Chinese and Western attitudes towards food, the second deals with reasons of the international success of Chinese food, and the third elaborates on the nature of Chinese food. Identify the paragraphs that constitute the three parts respectively and pick out the topic sentence of the each paragraph in the third part.firstsecondthird

12  Part I: P.1-4  Part II: P.5-6  Part III: P.7-P.9  P.7: The traditional high-quality Chinese meal is a serious matter, fastidiously prepared and fastidiously enjoyed.  P.8: The enjoyment must match the preparation.  P.9: The smooth harmonies and piquant contrasts in Chinese food are an expression of basic assumptions about life itself.

13  Comprehension  In the life of an individual, how, according to Kenneth Lo, is food different from Music, a Lecture or Conversation, or Matters of Business?  Why, according to the writer, do the Westerners find it difficult to answer Lo’s questions?  What is the Chinese attitude toward food?  What does “to eat with a capital E” mean?

14  Food to my countrymen is one of the ecstasies of life, to be thought about in advance; to be smothered with loving care throughout its preparation; and to have time lavished on it in the final pleasure of eating. (P.3)

15  attend to attend to  indifferent, profound indifferent, profound  derive from derive from  ecstasy, smother ecstasy, smother  lavish lavish

16  attend to: deal with business or personal matters; to take care of, to look after  I may be late --- I have got one or two things to attend to.  Could you attend to this matter immediately?  His company helps employees attend to their elderly relatives.

17  indifferent: not at all interested in someone or something, without interest or concern  Sarah is indifferent to praise or blame, about success or failure.  profoundly: extremely  Your rude words are profoundly offensive to us.  He could hardly calm down after that profoundly disturbing experience.  Adj.profound. Very great, deep, far-reaching, felt very strongly, needing a lot of study or thought  Profound understanding/shock/sleep/ignorance/sigh /thinker/learning/impression/mystery

18  derive from: to come from a source or origin; to get something, especially an advantage or a pleasant feeling, from something  The story derives from a very common folktale.  The word “ubiquitous” derives from Latin.  Medically, we will derive great benefit from this technique.

19  ecstasy: a feeling of extreme happiness  She was in an ecstasy of love.  They went into ecstasies over the view.  smother: to completely cover the whole surface of something with something else, to cover thickly or with too much of sth; to kill sb by covering their face so that they cannot breathe  The cook smothered a steak with mushrooms.

20  lavish: to give someone or something a lot of love, praise, money etc.  lavish sth on/upon sb.  He lavished attention on her.  lavish sb with sth  Hug your children and lavish them with love.

21  1 Why does the writer mention Hong Kong, Honolulu, Hoboken and Huddersfield?  2 What has helped the spread of Chinese food to the rest of the world?

22  The main reason for the sudden and tremendous popularity of Chinese food throughout the whole Western world lies in two facts. One is the increased desire for sensual pleasures and freedom from age-old customs in the West; the other is the notion of physical pleasure provided by Chinese food which is always ready to satisfy the taste of the eater.

23  marked: striking; very easy to notice; conspicuous  Miller’s organized desk stood in marked contrast to the rest of the office.  There is a marked increase in economy.  assert: to state firmly that something is true  She asserted that nuclear power was a safe and non-polluting energy source.  Native Americans asserted their rights to ancestral land.

24  Ubiquitous adj. (seeming to be) present everywhere or in several places at the same time; very common; omnipresent  Coffee shops are ubiquitous these days. ◆ His ubiquitous influence was felt by the whole family.  Cf. ubiquity n.  Spring up: appear, develop, grow, etc quickly or suddenly (sprang, have sprung)  Weeds sprang up everywhere.* A breeze sprang up as we were returning. * New houses were springing up all over the town. * Doubts have begun to spring up in my mind.

25  bedeck: (literary) to decorate something such as a building or street by hanging things all over it  He led us into a room bedecked with tinsel.  infamous- famous-unfamous-notorious-noted- unnoted  Infamous: deserving of or causing an evil reputation.  crucial: extremely important  This aid money is crucial to the government’s economic policies.  The work of monks was crucial in/to spreading Christianity.

26  part and parcel: to be a necessary feature of sth.; an essential part that must not be ignored  Unemployment is part and parcel of the bigger problem---a sagging economy.  It’s best to accept that some inconveniences are part and parcel of travel.  average: having qualities that are typical of most people or things; typical, common, ordinary  The average American has not even thought about next year’s election.

27  It is this increased sensuality and the desire for great freedom from age-bound habits in the West, combined with the inherent sensual concept of Chinese food, always quick to satisfy the taste buds, that is at the root of the sudden and phenomenal spread of Chinese food throughout the length and breadth of the Western World. (P.6)

28  phenomenon : n. fact or occurrence, esp in nature or society, that can be perceived by the senses  A rare phenomenon ◆ natural, social, historical, etc phenomena  phenomenal: adj. very great, remarkable, amazing or impressive:  The product has been a phenomenal success. ◆ The company has seen phenomenal growth. ◆ She has a phenomenal memory.

29  Comprehension  How does the writer explain that the traditional high-quality Chinese meal is a serious matter?  Why is a Chinese meal compared to a religious ceremony?  What else must be pleased besides the palate? Why?

30  fastidiously: very carefully about small details in your appearance, work  He fastidiously copied every word of his notes onto clean paper.  chore: a small job that you have to do regularly; something you have to do that is very boring and unpleasant  It is a real chore to stand in line to buy food every day. ◆ We share domestic chores.

31  contrive: to make or invent something in a skilful way  In 1862, a technique was contrived to take a series of photographs showing stages of movement.  alter: to change  The coat was too long, so I took it back to the store to have it altered. ◆ Find out the difference between these synonyms.  Self-study:alter-change-modify-convert-shift- transform-vary

32  sensuality---sensual: relating to the feelings of your body rather than your mind  the sensual pleasure of good food  Self-study: Sensible, sensual, sensitive.  Inherent adj.---inherence n.  existing as a natural or permanent feature or quality of sb/sth  He has an inherent distrust of foreigners.  the inherence of polysemy in human language

33  conform to: to act in accordance with; to comply with  People who do not conform to traditional standards of behaviour. ◆ All the buildings must conform with the regional development plan.  palate: the sense of taste, and especially your ability to enjoy or judge food  It tasted very strange, at least to my untrained palate. ◆ I let my palate dictate what I eat.

34  elusive: hard to express or understand; a person or animal that is difficult to find or not often seen  For me, the poem has an elusive quality.  She managed to get an interview with that elusive man.  chop up: to cut something into smaller pieces  He went outside to chop some more wood for the fire.  Famous tongue twister: How much wood would a woodchopper chop if a woodchopper would chop wood?

35  Many people in the West are gourmets and others are gluttons,…(P.2)  …contribute anything to making you a saint or a sinner? (P.2)  …have sprung up everywhere from Hong Kong to Honolulu to Hoboken to Huddersfield. (P.5)--- meaning discussion  …all these have become much more a part and parcel of the average person’s life…(P.6)  Meat and fish, solids and soups, sweet and sour sauces, …(P. 8)

36  Regional cultural differences vary greatly amongst the different regions of China, giving rise to the different styles of food. There are eight main regional cuisines, or Eight Great Traditions ( 八大菜系 ): Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan, and Zhejiang. Among them, Cantonese, Sichuan, Shandong, and Huaiyang cuisine (a major style and even viewed as the representation of the entire Jiangsu cuisine) are often considered as the standouts of Chinese cuisine and due to their influence are proclaimed as the Four Great Traditions. Occasionally, Beijing cuisine and Shanghai cuisine are also cited along with the aforementioned eight regional styles as the Ten Great Traditions. Work in groups to present a report on related topics herein.

37  P, p’ for pinyin b, p; t, t’ for d, t; k, k’ for g, k; ch, ch’ for j, q and zh, ch; hs for x; sh for sh; tz/ts for z (tzu= pinyin zi, otherwise ts); tz’/ts’ for c (tz’u= pinyin ci, otherwise ts’); sz/ss/s for s (szu/ssu= pinyin si, otherwise s); j for r.  erh for er; u/ŭ for –i in pinyin zi, ci & si; ih for –i in pinyin zhi, chi & shi; ieh for ie; ien for ian; ung for ong; yüeh for yue; yüan for yuan; yün for yun; iung for iong  Examples (with some modifications):  kung fu; Tai Chi Chuan (T’ai Chi Chüan); Tsinghua University, Tsingtao Beer, Chiao-tzu, Tao (Taoism), K’ung Fu Tzu, Laotse, Chuangtse, Yangtze River, Chingkang Mountains

38 3. 专家们对他在生物技术研究上取得的显著进步 大加赞扬。 The experts lavished their praise on him as he has made marked progress in his study of biotech. 4. 作为一名护士,你应该全心全意照料病人,而 不是漠然置之。 As a nurse,instead of being indifferent to the patients,you should attend to them whole- heartedly.

39  enterprise: readiness to embark on what is new; initiative  He got the job because he showed the spirit of enterprise  Note: it’s a polysemant.  Embark on—be involved in—engage in (sth new or difficult)

40 5 。这场辩论的实质是老年人与青年人间是否存 在 “ 代沟 ” ;或者说,青年人应不应该依照老一辈 的愿望生活。 At the root of the debate lies the question whether there is really a generation gap between the young and the old.Or to put it another way,should the young lead their life in a way that conforms to the wishes of the old generations? 6. 他在本质上是个事业进取心很强的人。 He is inherently a man of great enterprise.

41 1. 中国菜因配料讲究,烹饪细致而享誉中外。 Chinese cuisine is world famous for its fastidious preparations and fine cooking 2. 自九十年代初起,各类西式饭店如雨后春笋 般出现,对人们的传统口味提出了挑战。 Since the early1990s,a variety of Western -style restaurants have sprung up to challenge people’s accustomed palate.

42  Characteristics  Chinese culinary arts are famous all over the world. Chinese dishes appeal to the senses through color, shape, aroma and taste. Chinese cuisine's entree normally strives for three to five colors, made up of the main ingredient, with more secondary ingredients of contrasting colors and textures; these are prepared and cooked to enhance their own qualities, with the use of appropriate condiments and garnishing, enabling to chef to present a delicious platter of fragrant delicious art.

43  Chinese Cooking Methods  The authentic Chinese cooking is varied with western style mainly on cooking methods. As a matter of fact, it is varied in different provinces. The western cooking, represented by French cuisine, is developed mainly to cook animal food, such as meat, poultry and fish. So it depends on limited methods such as roast and fry. While Chinese chef have to face much more ingredients. The Chinese cooking philosophy emphasizes mix of ingredients, so the chefs developed sophisticated treatments to different materials, many of that don’t have English counter-part.

44  Regional Tastes  Traditionally, Chinese cuisine is regarded as a group of many local cuisine types. Among them, 8 provinces contribute most. We call them "Eight Great Traditions". Some of that is even regarded as independent cuisine system.  Anhui (Hui 徽 ) cuisine Anhui (Hui 徽 ) cuisine  Cantonese (Yue 粵 ) cuisine Cantonese (Yue 粵 ) cuisine  Fujian (Min 闽 ) cuisine Fujian (Min 闽 ) cuisine  Hunan (Xiang 湘 ) cuisine Hunan (Xiang 湘 ) cuisine  Jiangsu (Su 苏 or Yang 揚 ) cuisine Jiangsu (Su 苏 or Yang 揚 ) cuisine  Shandong (Lu 魯 ) cuisine Shandong (Lu 魯 ) cuisine  Szechuan (Chuan 川 ) cuisine Szechuan (Chuan 川 ) cuisine  Zhejiang (Zhe 浙 ) cuisine Zhejiang (Zhe 浙 ) cuisine

45  History of Chinese Cuisine  The Chinese culinary history is as long as Chinese civilization.Our ancesters developed sophiscated skills and thories thousands years ago. Accumulated generation by generation, the Chinese people built maybe the richest treasure for the world cuisine arts.  detaildetail

46  Overseas Chinese Cuisine  Is Chop suey 杂碎, Siu mei Chinese food? Does Kong Pao Chicken or Fish Flavored shredded pork 鱼香肉 丝, sweet nad sour pork (ribs), sweet and sour pork and braised eggplantstastes like what they are in China? Why Cantonese dishes so popular in Chinatown around the world? Here we look back to centuries ago to trace the spreading of Chinese cuisine overseas.

47  Story of Dishes  Almost every Chinese dish has a story behind. it's a reflect of history and part of our "food culture". Some dishes' name is from legend or innovater's story. True or not? Nevermind, just add the flavor when you eating!

48 g  DINNER KNOW HOW A meal in Chinese culture is typically seen as consisting of two or more general components: (1) a carbohydrate source or starch, known as 主食 in the Chinese language, (zhǔshí Pinyin, lit. "main food", staple) — typically rice, noodles, or mantou (steamed buns), and (2) accompanying dishes of vegetables, meat, fish, or other items, known as 菜 (càiPinyin, lit. vegetable") in the Chinese language. This cultural conceptualization is in some ways in contrast to cuisines of Northern Europe and the USA, where meat or animal protein is often considered the main dish, and analogous to the one of most Mediterranean cuisines, based typically on wheat-derived components like pasta or cous cous. Rice is a critical part of much of Chinese cuisine. However, in many parts of China, particularly northern China, wheat-based products including noodles and steamed buns (such as mantou 饅頭 ) predominate, in contrast to southern China where rice is dominant. Despite the importance of rice in Chinese cuisine, at extremely formal occasions, sometimes no rice at all will be served; in such a case, rice would only be provided when no other dishes remained, or as a token dish in the form of fried rice at the end of the meal. Soup is usually served at the start of a meal and at the end of a meal in Southern China. Chopsticks are the primary eating utensil in Chinese culture for solid foods, while soups and other liquids are enjoyed[1] with a wide, flat-bottomed spoon (traditionally made of ceramic). It is reported that wooden chopsticks are losing their dominance due to recent logging shortfalls in China and East Asia; many Chinese eating establishments are considering a switch to a more environmentally sustainable eating utensil, such as plastic or bamboo chopsticks. More expensive materials used in the past included ivory and silver. On the other hand, disposable chopsticks made of wood/bamboo have all but replaced reusable ones in small restaurants. In most dishes in Chinese cuisine, food is prepared in bite-sized pieces (e.g. vegetable, meat, doufu), ready for direct picking up and eating. Traditionally, Chinese culture considered using knives and forks at the table barbaric due to fact that these implements are regarded as weapons. It was also considered ungracious to have guests work at cutting their own food. Fish are usually cooked and served whole, with diners directly pulling pieces from the fish with chopsticks to eat, unlike in some other cuisines where they are first filleted. This is because it is desired for fish to be served as fresh as possible. It is common in many restaurant settings for the server to use a pair of spoons to divide the fish into servings at the table. Chicken is another meat popular in Chinese meals. While the chicken is cut into pieces, every single piece of the chicken is served including gizzards and head. The emphasis in Chinese culture on wholeness is reflected here. It is considered bad luck if fish or chicken is served without its head and tail, as that is synonymous with something that does not have a proper beginning or end. In a Chinese meal, each individual diner is given his or her own bowl of rice while the accompanying dishes are served in communal plates (or bowls) that are shared by everyone sitting at the table. In the Chinese meal, each diner picks food out of the communal plates on a bite-by-bite basis with their chopsticks. This is in contrast to western meals where it is customary to dole out individual servings of the dishes at the beginning of the meal. Many non-Chinese are uncomfortable with allowing a person's individual utensils (which might have traces of saliva) to touch the communal plates; for this hygienic reason, additional serving spoons or chopsticks (公筷, lit. common/public/shared chopsticks) may be made available. In areas with increased Western influence, such as Hong Kong, diners are provided individually with a heavy metal spoon for this purpose. The food selected is often eaten together with some rice either in one bite or in alternation. Vegetarianism is not uncommon or unusual in China, though, as is the case in the West, it is only practiced by a relatively small proportion of the population. The Chinese vegetarians do not eat a lot of tofu, unlike the stereotypical impression in the West. Most Chinese vegetarians are Buddhists. Non-Chinese people eating Chinese cuisine will note that a large number of popular vegetable dishes may actually contain meat (usually pork), as meat chunks or bits have been traditionally used to flavor dishes. Chinese Buddhist cuisine has many true vegetarian dishes that contain no meat at all. In contrast to most western meals, a Chinese meal does not typically end with a dessert. However, a sweet dish is usually served at the end of a formal dinner or banquet, such as sliced fruits or a sweet soup ( 糖水, lit. sugar water) which is served warm. In traditional Chinese culture, cold beverages are believed to be harmful to digestion of hot food, so items like ice-cold water or soft drinks are traditionally not served at meal-time. Besides soup, if any other beverages are served, they would most likely be hot tea or hot water. Tea is believed to help in the digestion of greasy foods. Despite this tradition, nowadays beer and soft drinks are popular accompaniment with meals. A popular combo in many small restaurants in parts of China is hot pot served with cold beer, a combination known as 冷淡杯 (Pinyin: leng3 dan4 bei1, literally: cold and bland cup, despite being strongly flavored), which is the very opposite of what traditional wisdom would admonish. Often, Chinese food found outside China can range from the authentic, or food that has been adapted for local tastes, to something that is newly created. For example, chop suey does not exist in Chinese restaurants in China.

49  1.Chances of ceasefire seem ampler now that the two countries only diverge ___detail.  a. in the matter of b. for the matter of  c. with regard of d. in reference of  2.The restaurant’s _____ is Italian, not French. A.cuisine b.dishes  C.courses d.recipe

50  3.Mr.Tompson,the_____librarian is going to deliver a speech in the first hall on how to use the on-line catalogue of the university. A.primal b.chief  c.main d.primary  4.According to a latest survey, the __ life span of adult females in China is 72.5 years. A.average b.common  c.ordinary d.converts

51 5.A steam engine is the machine that __ heat into energy. a. alters b. changes c. transforms d. converts 6.The lake____its name__an earlier French explorer who happened to spot the glimm- ering waves while got lost in the forest. a. derived…from b. originated…from c. initiated…from d. commenced…from

52  1.a 2.a 3.b 4.a 5.c 6.a  He derives his enthusiasm for classical music from his mother. It has now become part and parcel of his life.

53 e  Dinner Know-how  Chinese dinner has its own rule, which differs most from that in western cunturies. Forget appetitizer or main course or desert, or you would be be puzzled by the Chinese menu. If you don't want to be awkard at the table, you'd better read this first.

54 InIn the matter of comfort, the car is the best means of transportation.thematterofthe of  至于舒适,小汽车是最好的交通工具  She is strict in the matter of discipline.inthematterof  她对纪律的要求是严格的。收藏指正  I am responsible for the matter. None of other's business.forthematterof  这件事由我负责, 跟旁人不相干。 这

55  With regard to terms of payment, we regret unable to accept documents against payment. Withregardof  关于支付方式,我方歉难接受付款交单。  With regard to the structure of investment, investment in basic industries has significantly increased. Withregardof  在投资结构方面,基础产业投资力度明显加大 。收藏指正

56 .In reference to; in the case of; concerning.Inreferenceinof  参考,依照;如果;关于

57 Thank You


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