# Systems of Measurements used in Health Care

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Systems of Measurements used in Health Care
METRIC SYSTEM HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM

Metric system is more accurate than the household system.
METRIC TERM – ABBREVIATION – STANDARD SYSTEM COMPARISON Meter m Length/distance Gram g Weight/mass Liter L* Volume/capacity Metric system is more accurate than the household system. Metric is easier to convert between numbers because everything is based on a unit of 10. *Capital L is used for liter at all times, not lower case, can be confused with number 1 or l.

TERM ABBREVIATION MEANING
Conversion within the decimal system are calculated by multiplying by 10, 100, 1000 and so on 1kiloliter=1000 X1 liter=1000liters 1hectoliter= 100 X 1 liter= 100 liters 1 decaliter= 10 X 1 liter= 10liters 1deciliter= 0.1 X 1 liter= 0.1 liter 1 centiliter= 0.01 X1 liter= 0.01liter 1milliliter= X1 liter= liter ***Gram or meter can be used in place of liter depending on what unit of measurement is used**

Less Than One Unit of Measure
Length: • 1 decimeter (dm) = 1/10 or 0.1 of a meter • 1 centimeter (cm) = 1/1 00 or 0.01 of a meter • 1 millimeter (mm) = 1/1 000 or of a meter

Volume: • 1 deciliter (dL) = 1/10 or 0.1 of a liter
• 1 milliliter (mL) = 1/1 000 or of a liter

More Than One Unit of Measure
Weight: • 1 .0 hectogram = 100 grams • 1 .5 hectograms = 150 grams • 1.0 kilogram = 1000 grams • 1 .5 kilograms = 1500 grams Length: • 1 .0 hecto meter = 100 meters • 1.5 hectometers = 150 meters • 1.0 kilometer = 1000 meters • 1.5 kilometers = 1500 meters

By=base unit of measurement
K H D B D C M KING=kilo Henry=hecto Died=deca By=base unit of measurement Drinking=deci Chocolate=centi Milk=milli

The Metric Number Line: Another way to help you navigate inside the metric system. Kilo Hecto Deka * Deci Centi Milli

To use the Metric Line: You will decide what unit you are
changing FROM and what unit you are changing TO. Starting at the FROM unit, count over (keeping in mind- "left" or "right") to the TO unit.

EXAMPLE: 32 kilograms = ___________ grams
**This will be the number of places you will move the decimal in your answer. EXAMPLE: 32 kilograms = ___________ grams (This means you want to change FROM kilograms TO grams.) Use the number line and count over, starting at Kilograms….move to grams. K H D (grams) D C M * -> 1 place- ->2 places- -> 3 places

Move the decimal 3 places to the "right“
Now we use the number of places you moved (3 places to the "right") to find the answer. Move the decimal 3 places to the "right“ using a zero to hold each of the places 32 kilograms = grams Don’t forget that every whole number has a decimal to it’s right, so in our example 32kg is the same as saying 32.0 kg (We don’t always write the decimal to the right of a number but it is understood that it is there.)

Example: A physician orders 2000milligrams of a medication
Converting units within the metric system is accomplished by moving the decimal point. Example: A physician orders 2000milligrams of a medication The medication is available in 2-gram tablets Milligrams must be converted to grams Milli is in the third place to the right of gram Move the decimal point three spaces to the left toward gram: 2000=2.000 , or 2. Change unit name to grams: 2grams The proper dose would be 2 grams, or one 2-gram tablet. **Converting from a larger to a smaller prefix or unit (kilo to milli): the answer will be larger. **Converting from a smaller to a larger prefix or unit (milli to kilo): the answer will be smaller. **Millimeters (mL) and cubic centinmeters (cc) represent the same amount. Both units measure volume, and they are often interchanged when dispensing liquids. **1mL=1cc. 1mL or 1cc has a weight of 1gram.

Basic Rules for the Metric System
1. Numbers less than one unit are written in decimals. Examples: 2. If there is no number before the decimal point, always add a zero. Examples: .1 is is is 0.75 3. Abbreviations are always singular, never plural. Examples: Grams is abbreviated g, not gs. Liters is abbreviated L, not Ls. Liter is always shortened to capital L, not lowercase I. 4. Leave a space between the number and the abbreviation. Examples: 10 g not lOg ml not l000ml.

HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM Method of measurement most familiar to US students.
Units of measurement are related to each other and can be converted among themselves.

HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM Volume/capacity measurements:
Tablespoons (T or tbsp): 2T=1oz Ounces (oz): 8oz=1C (cup) Cups (C or cp): 2C=1pt Pints (pt): 2pt=1qt Quarts (qt): 4qt=1gal

HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM Distance/length measurement Inch(in or “) 12in =1ft
Foot (ft or ‘): 3ft=1yd Yard (yd): 1,760yd=1mile

HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM Mass/weight measurements: Ounce (oz): 16oz=1lb
Pound=lb

Converting Systems of Measurement
Health Care work requires that units from one system of measurement be converted to those of another. Requires knowledge of the equivalences between systems Common approximate equivalents: Distance/length Capacity/volume Mass/weight 1in=2.5cm 1tsp=5ml=5cc 2.2lb=1kg 39.4in=1m 1oz=30ml=30cc Frequently, there are no exact equivalents, and the answer is a close approximation when converting between systems.

STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS
Identify an equivalent between two systems Set up a proportion so unit measurements on each side of the equation are the same Use X for the unknown value being calculated Cross-multiply (multiply the means and then multiply the extremes) Solve for X Decide if the answer is reasonable

STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS…CONT
If converting from a smaller unit to a larger unit, the answer will be smaller. Example: How many tsp are in 10ml? Known equivalent: 1tsp=5ml 1tsp: 5ml= X tsp.: 10ml X= 2tsp

STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS….CONT
If converting from a larger unit to a smaller unit, the answer will be larger Example: How many pounds are in 6.8kg? Known equivalent: 2.2pd=1kg 2.2pd: 1kg= Xpd: 6.8kg X=14.96pounds

Standard and Metric Units of Length

Measuring Devices: Fluid Ounces and Cubic Centimeters

Converting Pounds and Kilograms Converting pounds to kilograms
Multiply weight in pounds by Examples: 110 lb changed to kilograms: 110 x 0.45 = 49.5 kg 200 lb changed to kilograms: 200 x 0.45 =90 kg Converting kilograms to pounds Multiply weight in kilograms by 2.2 Examples: 50 kg changed to pounds: 50 x 2.2 = 110 lb 90 kg changed to pounds: 90 x 2.2 = 198 lb

Converting Ounces to Metric Measurements
•Converting ounces to cc/ml Multiply volume in ounces by 30 Examples: 1 oz medicine 1 × 30 = 30 ml = 30 cc 8 oz water 8 × 30 = 240 ml = 240 cc 6 oz soup 6 × 30 = 180 ml = 180 cc 4 oz juice 4 × 30 = 120 ml = 120 cc 12 oz soda pop 12 × 30 = 360 ml = 360 cc • Converting ounces to grams Multiply weight in ounces by 30 Examples: 1 oz changed to grams: 1 × 30 = 30 g 8 oz changed to grams: 8 × 30 = 240 g **Remember 1oz also equivalent to 1gram**

Metric/Household Conversion Practice
30ml/cc=____oz 32oz=______cups 20kg=______lbs lbs=______oz 2000g=______kg 5T=______ml 3.5L=______ml 30ml=______tsp 10 tsp=______cc 850ml=______L 5yd =______m 100F=______C 38C=______F 8qts=______L

Metric/Household Conversion Practice
At the pediatrician’s office, Mr. Johnson observes you documenting his daughter’s weight as 30kilograms. Mr. Johnson asks you to tell him the weight in pounds. Mrs. Bennerman has been instructed to drink a liter of water prior to her fetal ultrasound. She asks you how many cups of fluid she will have to drink. The doctor has requested Mrs. Lim to give her toddler 30cc of Gatorade each hour after vomiting subsides. Mrs. Lim would like to use a spoon for administering the fluid. How many teaspoons/tablespoons will you tell her?

Question for Wednesday
How many cc’s are in 1oz?

Question for Friday How many mm of gauze bandage is needed to cover a wound that is 6cm in length?

Question for Thursday How many milliliters are in four liters?

Question for Monday What is the length in inches of a newborn baby measured to be 56cm?

Test Review A resident is to receive 1milligram of medication per dose. If a solution has 8milligrams of medication in 40milliliters of solution, how much solution should the resident receive?

Test Review A radiology patient needs to drink one liter of contrast fluid prior to a procedure. How many 250cc containers will the patient need to drink?

Test Review Two yards of elastic bandage is needed to wrap an athlete’s ankle. How many meters of bandage will be used?

Test Review The number of ml that a 500cc container can hold is:

Test Review A premature infant weighing 650grams weighs how many milligrams?

Test Review How many mm of gauze bandage is needed to cover a wound that is 6cm in length?

Test Review The average adult brain weighs 40-60ounces or how many kg?

Test Review Susie has been on a diet and has lost 4kilograms. How many pounds has she lost?

Test Review Johnny weighed 13lbs on his 2month check-up. How many kilograms did he weigh?

Test Review The capacity of the right atrium is approximately 1.9ounces. What does this equal in cc’s?

Test Review How many mL of liquid medication can a teaspoon hold?

Test Review Which kitchen utensil is BEST to use when measuring 15mL of cough syrup?

Test Review What is the length in inches of a newborn baby measured to be 56cm?

Test Review A surgical scar which measures 5.1cm is how many inches long?

Test Review A surgeon removes a 100gm tumor from a patient. How many ounces does this tumor weigh?

Test Review Approximately how many kilograms does a 225 pound patient weigh?

Test Review 10 milliliters is equal to 10……

Test Review How many milliliters are in four liters?

Test Review How many cc’s are in one liter of fluid?

Test Review How many Kg are equal to 40lbs?

Test Review Patient has a temperature of 99degrees F. What is their temperature in Celsius?

Test Review How many mL of liquid medication can a teaspoon hold?

Test Review How many kg’s are equal to 40lbs?

Test Review 12,000L is equal to how many KL?

Test Review The capacity of the right atrium is approximately 1.9ounces. What does this equal in mL?

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