Presentation on theme: "Systems of Measurements used in Health Care"— Presentation transcript:
1Systems of Measurements used in Health Care METRIC SYSTEM HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM
2Metric system is more accurate than the household system. METRIC TERM – ABBREVIATION – STANDARD SYSTEM COMPARISONMeter m Length/distanceGram g Weight/massLiter L* Volume/capacityMetric system is more accurate than the household system.Metric is easier to convert between numbers because everything is based on a unit of 10.*Capital L is used for liter at all times, not lower case, can be confused with number 1 or l.
3TERM ABBREVIATION MEANING Conversion within the decimal system are calculated by multiplying by 10, 100, 1000 and so on1kiloliter=1000 X1 liter=1000liters1hectoliter= 100 X 1 liter= 100 liters1 decaliter= 10 X 1 liter= 10liters1deciliter= 0.1 X 1 liter= 0.1 liter1 centiliter= 0.01 X1 liter= 0.01liter1milliliter= X1 liter= liter***Gram or meter can be used in place of liter depending on what unit of measurement is used**
4Less Than One Unit of Measure Length:• 1 decimeter (dm) = 1/10 or 0.1 of a meter• 1 centimeter (cm) = 1/1 00 or 0.01 of a meter• 1 millimeter (mm) = 1/1 000 or of a meter
5Volume: • 1 deciliter (dL) = 1/10 or 0.1 of a liter • 1 milliliter (mL) = 1/1 000 or of a liter
6More Than One Unit of Measure Weight:• 1 .0 hectogram = 100 grams • 1 .5 hectograms = 150 grams • 1.0 kilogram = 1000 grams • 1 .5 kilograms = 1500 gramsLength:• 1 .0 hecto meter = 100 meters • 1.5 hectometers = 150 meters • 1.0 kilometer = 1000 meters • 1.5 kilometers = 1500 meters
7By=base unit of measurement K H D B D C MKING=kiloHenry=hectoDied=decaBy=base unit of measurementDrinking=deciChocolate=centiMilk=milli
8The Metric Number Line:. Another way to help you navigate inside The Metric Number Line: Another way to help you navigate inside the metric system.Kilo Hecto Deka * Deci Centi Milli
9To use the Metric Line: You will decide what unit you are changing FROM and what unit you are changing TO.Starting at the FROM unit, count over (keeping in mind- "left" or "right") to the TO unit.
10EXAMPLE: 32 kilograms = ___________ grams **This will be the number of places you will move the decimal in your answer.EXAMPLE: 32 kilograms = ___________ grams(This means you want to change FROM kilograms TO grams.)Use the number line and count over, starting atKilograms….move to grams.K H D (grams) D C M* -> 1 place- ->2 places- -> 3 places
11Move the decimal 3 places to the "right“ Now we use the number of places you moved (3 places to the "right") to find the answer.Move the decimal 3 places to the "right“using a zero to hold each of the places32 kilograms = gramsDon’t forget that every whole number has adecimal to it’s right, so in our example32kg is the same as saying 32.0 kg(We don’t always write the decimal to the right of a numberbut it is understood that it is there.)
12Example: A physician orders 2000milligrams of a medication Converting units within the metric system is accomplished by moving the decimal point.Example: A physician orders 2000milligrams of a medicationThe medication is available in 2-gram tabletsMilligrams must be converted to gramsMilli is in the third place to the right of gramMove the decimal point three spaces to the left toward gram: 2000=2.000 , or 2.Change unit name to grams: 2gramsThe proper dose would be 2 grams, or one 2-gram tablet.**Converting from a larger to a smaller prefix or unit (kilo to milli): the answer will be larger. **Converting from a smaller to a larger prefix or unit (milli to kilo): the answer will be smaller.**Millimeters (mL) and cubic centinmeters (cc) represent the same amount. Both units measure volume, and they are often interchanged when dispensing liquids. **1mL=1cc. 1mL or 1cc has a weight of 1gram.
13Basic Rules for the Metric System 1. Numbers less than one unit are written in decimals. Examples:2. If there is no number before the decimal point, always add a zero. Examples: .1 is is is 0.753. Abbreviations are always singular, never plural. Examples: Grams is abbreviated g, not gs. Liters is abbreviated L, not Ls. Liter is always shortened to capital L, not lowercase I.4. Leave a space between the number and the abbreviation. Examples: 10 g not lOg ml not l000ml.
14HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM Method of measurement most familiar to US students. Units of measurement are related to each other and can be converted among themselves.
15HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM Volume/capacity measurements: Tablespoons (T or tbsp): 2T=1ozOunces (oz): 8oz=1C (cup)Cups (C or cp): 2C=1ptPints (pt): 2pt=1qtQuarts (qt): 4qt=1gal
16HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM Distance/length measurement Inch(in or “) 12in =1ft Foot (ft or ‘): 3ft=1ydYard (yd): 1,760yd=1mile
17HOUSEHOLD SYSTEM Mass/weight measurements: Ounce (oz): 16oz=1lb Pound=lb
18Converting Systems of Measurement Health Care work requires that units from one system of measurement be converted to those of another.Requires knowledge of the equivalences between systemsCommon approximate equivalents:Distance/length Capacity/volume Mass/weight1in=2.5cm 1tsp=5ml=5cc 2.2lb=1kg39.4in=1m 1oz=30ml=30ccFrequently, there are no exact equivalents, and the answer is a close approximation when converting between systems.
19STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS Identify an equivalent between two systemsSet up a proportion so unit measurements on each side of the equation are the sameUse X for the unknown value being calculatedCross-multiply (multiply the means and then multiply the extremes)Solve for XDecide if the answer is reasonable
20STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS…CONT If converting from a smaller unit to a larger unit, the answer will be smaller.Example: How many tsp are in 10ml?Known equivalent: 1tsp=5ml1tsp: 5ml= X tsp.: 10mlX= 2tsp
21STEPS FOR PERFORMING CONVERSIONS….CONT If converting from a larger unit to a smaller unit, the answer will be largerExample: How many pounds are in 6.8kg?Known equivalent: 2.2pd=1kg2.2pd: 1kg= Xpd: 6.8kgX=14.96pounds
24Measuring Devices: Fluid Ounces and Cubic Centimeters Baby’s bottleGraduateMeasuring cup
25Converting Pounds and Kilograms Converting pounds to kilograms Multiply weight in pounds by Examples: 110 lb changed to kilograms: 110 x 0.45 = 49.5 kg 200 lb changed to kilograms: 200 x 0.45 =90 kgConverting kilograms to poundsMultiply weight in kilograms by 2.2 Examples: 50 kg changed to pounds: 50 x 2.2 = 110 lb 90 kg changed to pounds: 90 x 2.2 = 198 lb
26Converting Ounces to Metric Measurements •Converting ounces to cc/mlMultiply volume in ounces by 30Examples:1 oz medicine 1 × 30 = 30 ml = 30 cc8 oz water 8 × 30 = 240 ml = 240 cc6 oz soup 6 × 30 = 180 ml = 180 cc4 oz juice 4 × 30 = 120 ml = 120 cc12 oz soda pop 12 × 30 = 360 ml = 360 cc• Converting ounces to gramsMultiply weight in ounces by 30Examples:1 oz changed to grams: 1 × 30 = 30 g8 oz changed to grams: 8 × 30 = 240 g**Remember 1oz also equivalent to 1gram**
28Metric/Household Conversion Practice At the pediatrician’s office, Mr. Johnson observes you documenting his daughter’s weight as 30kilograms. Mr. Johnson asks you to tell him the weight in pounds.Mrs. Bennerman has been instructed to drink a liter of water prior to her fetal ultrasound. She asks you how many cups of fluid she will have to drink.The doctor has requested Mrs. Lim to give her toddler 30cc of Gatorade each hour after vomiting subsides. Mrs. Lim would like to use a spoon for administering the fluid. How many teaspoons/tablespoons will you tell her?
29Question for Wednesday How many cc’s are in 1oz?
30Question for FridayHow many mm of gauze bandage is needed to cover a wound that is 6cm in length?
31Question for ThursdayHow many milliliters are in four liters?
32Question for MondayWhat is the length in inches of a newborn baby measured to be 56cm?
33Test ReviewA resident is to receive 1milligram of medication per dose. If a solution has 8milligrams of medication in 40milliliters of solution, how much solution should the resident receive?
34Test ReviewA radiology patient needs to drink one liter of contrast fluid prior to a procedure. How many 250cc containers will the patient need to drink?
35Test ReviewTwo yards of elastic bandage is needed to wrap an athlete’s ankle. How many meters of bandage will be used?
36Test ReviewThe number of ml that a 500cc container can hold is:
37Test ReviewA premature infant weighing 650grams weighs how many milligrams?
38Test ReviewHow many mm of gauze bandage is needed to cover a wound that is 6cm in length?
39Test ReviewThe average adult brain weighs 40-60ounces or how many kg?
40Test ReviewSusie has been on a diet and has lost 4kilograms. How many pounds has she lost?
41Test ReviewJohnny weighed 13lbs on his 2month check-up. How many kilograms did he weigh?
42Test ReviewThe capacity of the right atrium is approximately 1.9ounces. What does this equal in cc’s?
43Test ReviewHow many mL of liquid medication can a teaspoon hold?
44Test ReviewWhich kitchen utensil is BEST to use when measuring 15mL of cough syrup?
45Test ReviewWhat is the length in inches of a newborn baby measured to be 56cm?
46Test ReviewA surgical scar which measures 5.1cm is how many inches long?
47Test ReviewA surgeon removes a 100gm tumor from a patient. How many ounces does this tumor weigh?
48Test ReviewApproximately how many kilograms does a 225 pound patient weigh?