Presentation on theme: "Understanding Word Patterns"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding Word Patterns AnalogiesUnderstanding Word Patterns
2Word Analogies Analogies develop logic. Analyze two words and identify the relationship between them.Find another pair of words that has the same relationship.
3Analogy construction FIND : LOCATE :: lose : misplace Colon stands for the phrase“is related to”FIND [is related to] LOCATELOSE [is related to] MISPLACEDouble colon (::) stands for“in the same way that”Or simply—FIND is to LOCATE as lose is to misplace.
4DRY : ARID :: lost : mislaid Types of AnalogiesWhat’s the relationship?DRY : ARID :: lost : mislaidBoth words have similar meanings so this relationship is a synonym
5Types of Analogies KIND : CRUEL :: happy : sad What’s the relationship?KIND : CRUEL :: happy : sadBoth words have opposite meanings, so their relationship is an antonym.
6Types of Analogies What’s the relationship? CHAPTER : BOOK :: fender : automobileA chapter is a part of a book just as a fender is a part of an automobile.Part and WholeWhat happens if you switch book and chapter in this analogy?BOOK : CHAPTER :: fender : automobileInvalid analogy
7Part and Whole continued What’s the relationship?POEM : STANZA :: play : actsIt’s still Part and Whole, but this time the whole comes first. We could call it Whole and Part.
8Characteristic/Quality Types of AnalogiesWhat’s the relationship?MIRROR : SMOOTH :: sandpaper : roughMirrors are characteristically smooth just as sandpaper is characteristically rough.Characteristic/Quality
9Classification Types of Analogies What’s the relationship? POLKA : DANCE :: frog : amphibian BIRD : CARDINAL :: house : iglooA polka may be classified as a dance; a cardinal is classified as a bird.Classification
10Types of Analogies Cause and Effect What’s the relationship?GIFT : JOY :: rain : flood TEARS : SADNESS :: smiles : joyA gift can cause joy; tears are an effect of sadness.Cause and Effect
11KNIFE : CUT :: shovel : dig The function of a knife is to cut. Types of AnalogiesWhat’s the relationship?KNIFE : CUT :: shovel : digThe function of a knife is to cut.Function
12Location Types of Analogies FISH : SEA :: moose : forest What’s the relationship?FISH : SEA :: moose : forestA fish can be found in the sea, just as a moose can be found in a forest.Location
13Degree Types of Analogies What’s the relationship? CHUCKLE : LAUGH :: whimper : cryThese words differ in degree. One is more intense than the other.Degree
14Types of Analogies What’s the relationship? CASHIER : CASH :: plumber : pipeA cashier works with cash, just as a plumber works with pipes.Performer and a related object
15Types of Analogies AUTHOR : WRITE :: chef : cook What’s the relationship?AUTHOR : WRITE :: chef : cookYou expect an author to write, just as you expect a chef to cook.Performer and a related action
16Action and a related object Types of AnalogiesWhat’s the relationship?BOIL : EGG :: throw : ballYou boil an egg, just as you throw a ball. (In these items, the object always receives the action.)Action and a related object
17SAT Test Practice Analogy Questions 1.) BIRD : NEST ::(A) dog : doghouse (B) squirrel : tree(C) beaver : dam(D) cat : litter box (E) book : library2.) DALMATIAN : DOG ::(A) oriole : bird(B) horse : pony(C) shark : great white(D) cardinal : insect (E) stock : savings
181 and 2 Answers and Explanation 1.) C. If you used to general a sentence such as "A bird spends time in a nest", then you would have quickly seen the need to make your sentence more specific to eliminate some of the choices. In any event, choices D (cat : litter box) and E (book : library) should have been relatively easy to eliminate. If you chose the sentence "A bird lives in a nest", you would have had 3 equally good answers so you would need to revise your sentence. A bird builds a nest and a beaver builds a dam.2.) A. This is a "type of" analogy question. You may have noticed how easily choices B and C could be eliminated because they are in the reverse order of the questioned pair. Choice E is sort of correct in that stocks are a type of savings instrument, but A is clearly better as the oriole is a species of bird and the analogy is between 2 living things just as the question is.
19SAT Test Practice Analogy Questions 3.) DOCTOR : HOSPITAL :: (A) sports fan : stadium (B) cow : farm (C) professor : college (D) criminal : jail (E) food : grocery store 4.) CUB : BEAR :: (A) piano : orchestra (B) puppy : dog (C) cat : kitten (D) eagle : predator (E) fork : utensil5.) TENET : THEOLOGIAN ::(A) predecessor : heir(B) hypothesis : biologist(C) recluse : rivalry(D) arrogance : persecution (E) guitarist : rock band
203, 4, and 5 Answers and Explanation 3.) C. This is a "place where" analogy question. If you simply made a sentence around the preposition "is found in", (A doctor is found in a hospital) you would have quickly realized you had to become a little more specific. A doctor works in a hospital and a professor works in a college. 4.) B. A good sentence for this analogy would be "A cub is a young bear." Choice C is close, but the order is reversed. (If we had written C as kitten : cat instead of cat : kitten, we would have provided you with 2 equally correct answers.) Therefore, the answer is CUB : BEAR :: puppy : dog 5.) B. Ah, you say, they snuck in a vocabulary analogy they warned me about. A tenet is a belief and a theologian is someone who studies religion. A hypothesis is something a biologist will study as part of his or her professional endeavors.
21Types of Analogies-REVIEW The following will give you ideas for analogies from the simple to the advanced:Synonyms: elated : happy :: wealthy : richRelationships: salt : mine :: marble : quarryPart-whole: battery : flashlight :: engine : carNumerical: 2 : 10 :: 5 : 25Cause and effect: fatigue : yawning :: itching : scratchingPerson to situation: parent : home :: teacher : schoolGeography: Chicago : Illinois :: Denver : ColoradoMeasurement: pound : kilogram :: quart : literTime: March : spring :: December : winter
22More examples… 1. synonyms (competent, capable) 2. antonyms (bold, shy)3. homonyms (piece, peace)4. action to object (smell, perfume)5. animal to animal’s sound (turkey, gobble)6. animal to group (lion, pride)7. category to example (insect, mosquito)8. example to category (human, omnivore)9. degree (prick, impale)10. cause to effect (wound, blood)11. locomotion to animal (slither, snake)12. fruit to dried variety (grape, raisin)
23And even more examples… 13. object to composition (credit card, plastic)14. vehicle/vessel to stopping agent (ship, anchor)15. workplace to worker (garage, mechanic)16. person to tool (dentist, drill)17. sport to scoring event (baseball, run)18. player to sport (quarterback, football)19. slang to word (cop, policeman)20. object to location (Andes, South America)Get some repetitions in by looking over your notes nightly!