# Understanding Word Patterns

## Presentation on theme: "Understanding Word Patterns"— Presentation transcript:

Understanding Word Patterns
Analogies Understanding Word Patterns

Word Analogies Analogies develop logic.
Analyze two words and identify the relationship between them. Find another pair of words that has the same relationship.

Analogy construction FIND : LOCATE :: lose : misplace
Colon stands for the phrase “is related to” FIND [is related to] LOCATE LOSE [is related to] MISPLACE Double colon (::) stands for “in the same way that” Or simply—FIND is to LOCATE as lose is to misplace.

DRY : ARID :: lost : mislaid
Types of Analogies What’s the relationship? DRY : ARID :: lost : mislaid Both words have similar meanings so this relationship is a synonym

Types of Analogies KIND : CRUEL :: happy : sad
What’s the relationship? KIND : CRUEL :: happy : sad Both words have opposite meanings, so their relationship is an antonym.

Types of Analogies What’s the relationship?
CHAPTER : BOOK :: fender : automobile A chapter is a part of a book just as a fender is a part of an automobile. Part and Whole What happens if you switch book and chapter in this analogy? BOOK : CHAPTER :: fender : automobile Invalid analogy

Part and Whole continued
What’s the relationship? POEM : STANZA :: play : acts It’s still Part and Whole, but this time the whole comes first. We could call it Whole and Part.

Characteristic/Quality
Types of Analogies What’s the relationship? MIRROR : SMOOTH :: sandpaper : rough Mirrors are characteristically smooth just as sandpaper is characteristically rough. Characteristic/Quality

Classification Types of Analogies What’s the relationship?
POLKA : DANCE :: frog : amphibian BIRD : CARDINAL :: house : igloo A polka may be classified as a dance; a cardinal is classified as a bird. Classification

Types of Analogies Cause and Effect
What’s the relationship? GIFT : JOY :: rain : flood TEARS : SADNESS :: smiles : joy A gift can cause joy; tears are an effect of sadness. Cause and Effect

KNIFE : CUT :: shovel : dig The function of a knife is to cut.
Types of Analogies What’s the relationship? KNIFE : CUT :: shovel : dig The function of a knife is to cut. Function

Location Types of Analogies FISH : SEA :: moose : forest
What’s the relationship? FISH : SEA :: moose : forest A fish can be found in the sea, just as a moose can be found in a forest. Location

Degree Types of Analogies What’s the relationship?
CHUCKLE : LAUGH :: whimper : cry These words differ in degree. One is more intense than the other. Degree

Types of Analogies What’s the relationship?
CASHIER : CASH :: plumber : pipe A cashier works with cash, just as a plumber works with pipes. Performer and a related object

Types of Analogies AUTHOR : WRITE :: chef : cook
What’s the relationship? AUTHOR : WRITE :: chef : cook You expect an author to write, just as you expect a chef to cook. Performer and a related action

Action and a related object
Types of Analogies What’s the relationship? BOIL : EGG :: throw : ball You boil an egg, just as you throw a ball. (In these items, the object always receives the action.) Action and a related object

SAT Test Practice Analogy Questions
1.) BIRD : NEST :: (A) dog : doghouse (B) squirrel : tree (C) beaver : dam (D) cat : litter box (E) book : library 2.) DALMATIAN : DOG :: (A) oriole : bird (B) horse : pony (C) shark : great white (D) cardinal : insect (E) stock : savings

1 and 2 Answers and Explanation
1.) C. If you used to general a sentence such as "A bird spends time in a nest", then you would have quickly seen the need to make your sentence more specific to eliminate some of the choices. In any event, choices D (cat : litter box) and E (book : library) should have been relatively easy to eliminate. If you chose the sentence "A bird lives in a nest", you would have had 3 equally good answers so you would need to revise your sentence. A bird builds a nest and a beaver builds a dam. 2.) A. This is a "type of" analogy question. You may have noticed how easily choices B and C could be eliminated because they are in the reverse order of the questioned pair. Choice E is sort of correct in that stocks are a type of savings instrument, but A is clearly better as the oriole is a species of bird and the analogy is between 2 living things just as the question is.

SAT Test Practice Analogy Questions
3.) DOCTOR : HOSPITAL :: (A) sports fan : stadium (B) cow : farm (C) professor : college (D) criminal : jail (E) food : grocery store 4.) CUB : BEAR :: (A) piano : orchestra (B) puppy : dog (C) cat : kitten (D) eagle : predator (E) fork : utensil 5.) TENET : THEOLOGIAN :: (A) predecessor : heir (B) hypothesis : biologist (C) recluse : rivalry (D) arrogance : persecution (E) guitarist : rock band

3, 4, and 5 Answers and Explanation
3.) C. This is a "place where" analogy question. If you simply made a sentence around the preposition "is found in", (A doctor is found in a hospital) you would have quickly realized you had to become a little more specific. A doctor works in a hospital and a professor works in a college. 4.) B. A good sentence for this analogy would be "A cub is a young bear." Choice C is close, but the order is reversed. (If we had written C as kitten : cat instead of cat : kitten, we would have provided you with 2 equally correct answers.) Therefore, the answer is CUB : BEAR :: puppy : dog 5.) B. Ah, you say, they snuck in a vocabulary analogy they warned me about. A tenet is a belief and a theologian is someone who studies religion. A hypothesis is something a biologist will study as part of his or her professional endeavors.

Types of Analogies-REVIEW
The following will give you ideas for analogies from the simple to the advanced: Synonyms: elated : happy :: wealthy : rich Relationships: salt : mine :: marble : quarry Part-whole: battery : flashlight :: engine : car Numerical: 2 : 10 :: 5 : 25 Cause and effect: fatigue : yawning :: itching : scratching Person to situation: parent : home :: teacher : school Geography: Chicago : Illinois :: Denver : Colorado Measurement: pound : kilogram :: quart : liter Time: March : spring :: December : winter

More examples… 1. synonyms (competent, capable)
2. antonyms (bold, shy) 3. homonyms (piece, peace) 4. action to object (smell, perfume) 5. animal to animal’s sound (turkey, gobble) 6. animal to group (lion, pride) 7. category to example (insect, mosquito) 8. example to category (human, omnivore) 9. degree (prick, impale) 10. cause to effect (wound, blood) 11. locomotion to animal (slither, snake) 12. fruit to dried variety (grape, raisin)

And even more examples…
13. object to composition (credit card, plastic) 14. vehicle/vessel to stopping agent (ship, anchor) 15. workplace to worker (garage, mechanic) 16. person to tool (dentist, drill) 17. sport to scoring event (baseball, run) 18. player to sport (quarterback, football) 19. slang to word (cop, policeman) 20. object to location (Andes, South America) Get some repetitions in by looking over your notes nightly!