School-wide Positive Behavior Support PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior OSEP Center on PBIS
PBS is not... Not specific practice or curriculum … it ’ s a general approach to preventing problem behavior Not limited to any particular group of students … it ’ s for all students Not new … its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5% Individual students Assessment-based High intensity 1-5%Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions Individual students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15% Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Small group interventions Some individualizing 5-15%Tier 2/Secondary Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Small group interventions Some individualizing Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90% All students Preventive, proactive 80-90%Tier 1/Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive School-Wide Systems for Student Success: A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008. Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?” OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed at http://pbis.org/schoolwide.htm
Establish Commitment 80% of faculty support the need for behavioral change. Behavioral change is one of the top 3 priorities of the school. Three-year commitment
What does PBS look like? >80% of students can tell you what is expected of them Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative Function based behavior support is foundation for addressing individual problem behavior. Data & team-based action planning & implementation are operating. Administrators are active participants. Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students
Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction Active supervision Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors Frequent precorrections for chronic errors Effective academic instruction & curriculum Classroom Setting Systems TEACHER has at least one positive contact with each student daily TEACHER provides more positive than negative acknowledgements >80% STUDENTS can describe typical classroom routine
Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged Active supervision by all staff Scan, move, interact Precorrections & reminders Positive reinforcement Nonclassroom Setting Systems STAFF has at least 4 positive for each negative contact with students STAFF has continuous positive interactions w/ variety of students >80% STUDENTS can describe what SW expectation looks like in specific setting
Behavioral competence at school & district levels Function-based behavior support planning Team- & data-based decision making Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes Targeted social skills & self-management instruction Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations Individual Student Systems TEAM to monitor status of sever problem behaviors STAFF can describe how to obtain intensive behavior supports DISTRICT supports available to schools
Define behavioral expectations Teach behavioral expectations Monitor and reward appropriate behavior Provide corrective consequences for problem behaviors. Use collected data to solve problems and make decisions. Key Components
Define School-Wide Expectations for Behavior Identify 3-5 Expectations Short statements Positive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing) Memorable
School Rules NO Food NO Weapons NO Backpacks NO Drugs/Smoking NO Bullying Redesign Learning & Teaching Environment
Developing the Matrix 1) List problem behaviors 2) Identify “replacement behaviors” (what do you want the students to do instead?) 3) Create “matrix” of replacements (expectations) by setting.
Teaching Matrix SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Compute r Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. Expectations 1. SOCIAL SKILL 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
Teaching our Expectations in natural environments
Teaching Academics & Behaviors DEFINE Simply DEFINE Simply MODEL PRACTICE In Setting PRACTICE In Setting ADJUST for Efficiency ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously
Park Avenue Expectation Lesson Plan At Park Avenue, we are people of character. We are respectful. We are responsible. We care. Area: CafeteriaTime Allotted: 15-20 minutes Materials needed: For script: trays, utensils, milk, napkins, buckets for silverware, garbage can, trays for all students to practice for classroom teacher: Expectations ResponsibleRespectfulCaring Get all food and utensils 1 st time Keep area neat and clean Raise hand and wait for permission to leave Use line basics when entering Keep place in line Take the first milk you touch Use good manners Walk down the right side of the stairs quietly using the handrail one step at a time. Enter cafeteria using line basics (Hands at sides, facing forward, voices off.) Take the first milk you touch and hold it carefully in your hand. Take the first utensil you touch. Take your tray and say “thank you”. Choose items and put them on your tray. Once you have touched something it’s yours. Enter your number. Go to the directed table and quietly eat your own lunch - no sharing. Raise your hand and wait to be dismissed. Put your utensils carefully into the tub. Carry your tray carefully and throw out everything. Stack your tray on the counter so it fits inside the others. Leave the lunchroom quietly and walk to recess.
Acknowledging Student Behavior How to use Positive and Negative Consequences to support Tier 1 Behavior.
Tied to specific behaviors Delivered soon after the behavior Age appropriate (actually valued by student) Delivered frequently Gradually faded away Rewards Can Be Effective When
Build Reward Systems Systems for Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior. Students should be acknowledged regularly (at least every 2 weeks) 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative Always build toward independence move from “other” delivered to self- delivered move from frequent reward to infrequent move from concrete to natural Build on person-to-person relationships
Components of School-Wide Acknowledgment Plans Immediate/High frequency/Predictable/Tangible Delivered at a high rate for a short period while teaching new behaviors or responding to problem behavior Name behavior and tie back to school-wide expectation upon delivery E.g. “Caught Being Good”, “Lincoln Loot”, “Titan Bucks”, positive referrals, points for privilege levels – turned in for tangible/non- tangible prize Intermittent/Unexpected Bring “surprise” attention to certain behaviors or at scheduled intervals Used to maintain a taught behavior E.g. Raffles, special privileges, principal random call Long-term Celebrations Used to celebrate/acknowledge school-wide accomplishment ALL kids, all adults E.g. Quarterly activities, assemblies, parent dinners, field trips
Rationale-What Does 5 Positives to 1 Negative Mean? Students should experience more positive interactions (ratio of 5 positives for every negative) on all locations of school. Positive Interactions= Behaviorally specific feedback as to what the student did right (contingent) Smile, nod, wink, greeting, attention, hand shake, high five (non-contingent) Negative Interactions= Non-specific behavioral corrections Ignoring student behavior (appropriate or inappropriate)
Samples High Fives, Gotchas Traveling Passport Super Sub Slips, Bus Bucks 1 Gallon Back/front of bus Free homework coupon Discount school store, grab bag Early dismissal/Late arrival First/last in Line Video store coupon, free fries Positive Office Referrals Extra dessert Class event G.O.O.S.E 1-Free Period Massage File stuffer Coffee Coupon Golden Plunger Give Em’ a Hand Kudos
Parent/Teacher Association provided teacher name stamps Reward tickets and criteria on lanyard Write out class tickets for week, reward when appropriate, check whose name remains
Corrective Consequences Problem Behaviors Do not ignore problem behavior Office Discipline Referral Forms (SWIS.org) Provide clear guidelines for what is handled in class versus sent to the office Remember the PURPOSE of negative consequences Prevent escalation of problem behaviors Prevent/minimize reward for problem behaviors Deliver punisher as a consequence for problem behavior Minor versus major Do not expect negative consequences to change behavior patterns. Negative consequences are a way to “keep the lid on.” Teaching changes behavior. Establish a continuum of procedures for correcting problem behavior.
Responding to Inappropriate Behavior Your error corrections should be: Contingent: Occurs immediately after the undesired behavior. Specific: Tell learner exactly what they are doing incorrectly and what they should do differently in the future. Brief: After redirecting back to appropriate behavior, move on.
Using data to make decisions and solve problems
Office Discipline Referrals Data collection method Shared frequently with all staff Data is presented visually for easy interpretation Simple Take very little teacher time to fill out Consistency across school staff Clear, mutually exclusive, exhaustive definitions Distinction between office v. classroom managed
Advocating for the psychologist-What is our role?
3-Tiered System of Support Necessary Conversations (Teams) CICO SAIG Group w. individual feature Complex FBA/BIP Problem Solving Team Tertiary Systems Team Brief FBA/ BIP Brief FBA/BIP WRAP Secondary Systems Team Plans SW & Class-wide supports Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness Standing team; uses FBA/BIP process for one youth at a time Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness Sept. 1, 2009 Universal Team Universal Support *Guiding ?s
How Do We Use Our Expertise? Write down ways you can be involved in Tier1implementation of PBIS at your school this year? Share with your elbow partner. Together come up with one thing that you are going to do between now and next month at your school to help with implementation. Share with group
Dates for Training On Site Visits Sept 25 Dec 16 March 18 8-11:30 (middle schools) 12:30-4 (high schools) Teleconference Oct 23 Nov 11 Feb 17 April 28 Times TBA