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History of Hospitality and Foodservice

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1 History of Hospitality and Foodservice
CA-CAI-1d: Trace the history and growth of the foodservice and hospitality industry and list historical chefs and entrepreneurs relating their major accomplishments to the food industry.

2 Ancient Greece and Rome
B.C. Meals were considered a time to nourish the soul as well as the body People ate while reclining on couches, enjoying music, poetry, and dancing Lesche: private clubs where banquets where held for Greeks Phatnai: Catered to travelers and traders Travelers brought their own food to these clubs grapes, olives, bread, wine and cheese

3 Rome 282 B.C. Romans conquered land surrounding Mediterranean that was formerly occupied by Greeks Romans were different—meals were primarily served in the home. They also desired more exotic foods and spices which increased trade Also stretched their empire farther east and north

4 Middle Ages 475-1300 A.D. Signaled by the end of the Roman Empire
Feudal society Large banquets were held almost every night—to eat. Their main utensil was their hands Travel was no longer safe so trade stopped Europe became isolated until…. Marco Polo from Venice brought spices back from his travels to China

5 Renaissance 1400-1700’s Spices were limited to just the wealthy
Creation of Haute Cuisine Elaborate and refined system of food preparation Began in Italy and was brought to France by Catherine de Medici Artisans began making utensils from fine metals

6 Renaissance Continued
International trade continued to improve Cafés began opening serving coffee and sweets Guilds were established associations of people with similar interests or professions Cooking Guilds established many professional standards that exist today

7 Renaissance Continued
Boulanger—1765 Opened his café and served soups (restaurers) to his customers The term “restaurant” was coined. Many other cooks found themselves unemployed and began opening restaurants of their own.

8 Settling in North America
Boston and New York were the major ports of trade Very few early Americans traveled or dined out… Dinner was served at lodges and inns

9 Industrial Revolution
People in Europe began moving closer to the city to work in factories There was a need to live walking distance to work so you could return home for lunch Dining establishments opened up to serve the needs of workers and employers

10 Scientific Advancements
Louis Pasteur developed pasteurization which made milk safer to drink Nicholas Appert discovered canning methods Florence Nightingale made arguments on appropriate dietary needs and health maintenance

11 The Gilded Age ’s Factory owners were making big bucks and liked elegant and fancy Entrepreneurs opened restaurants so that people could dine and be seen in elegant surroundings. Delmonico’s and the Astor House 18 course meals were common

12 Marie-Antoine Careme 1800’s
Created chef uniform to represent cleanliness Perfected the chef hat Different sizes represented rank

13 Georges Escoffier 1846-1935 Perfected chef dress
Established the brigade system and rules of conduct

14 20th Century Birth of Fast Food
White Castle 1921 in Wichita, Kansas Other early restaurants, KFC and McDonalds Growth of National Chains grew through the 1970’s “eating out” is now just as common as eating at home

15 20th Century Continued The Food Network launched in 1993

16 The Evolution of the Cooking School
The first schools were really just classes conducted in private households or the teacher’s home. Originally used to teach women of the household, military organizations, and religious establishments 16

17 A Man’s Perspective Men were trained in a completely different method
They relied heavily on apprenticeships They trained with a master chef and made their way up to top-level culinary positions

18 The First Schools Philadelphia 1808: Elizabeth Goodfellow opened a pastry shop and offered classes to the public Considered America’s first cooking school 1855: Pierre Blot opened the Culinary School of Design Later, Blot partnered with Commodore Vanderbilt and opened the New York Cooking School America’s first FRENCH cooking school

19 Today’s Cooking Schools
The original/first Le Cordon Blue in Paris was opened in 1895 by Marthe Distell Following WWII, the GI bill for returning veterans boomed education. The Culinary Institute of America was opened in 1946 The first American cooking school for professionals Relocated to Hyde Park, NY in 1970

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