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Writing Essay Dr. Aidah Abu Elsoud Alkaissi

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1 Writing Essay Dr. Aidah Abu Elsoud Alkaissi
An-Najah National University Nursing College

2 Chapter 1: Writing essay
Why do students really write essays? Well, to get the opportunity to apply and deepen their knowledge in the academic field of specialization. In the essay the student can highlight and sift through what she learned while studying. The student also becomes familiar with the research process in its various stages and learn to work independently. An essay is a great way to build up the world of work. One of the biggest challenges when you write essay is to maintain creativity in research any strict limits. In other words, create something new but still reliable

3 To assess an essay All institutions have of course their own criteria to assess and rate the papers. But there are a number of points that most of essay writing can think of. Problematization Ability Your ability to discuss problems / to discuss, formulate and justify a problem, to design and operationalization of research questions, to express a view, an intention.

4 Scientific ability Your ability to work scientifically / how well you are able to demonstrate familiarity with science, theoretical and methodological reasoning and apply these arguments in your research and your writing. Theoretical capacity Your ability to reflect on, analyze and justify the theory you choose to use.  Empirical ability Your ability to add up, justify and implement an empirical study. Analytical ability Your ability to empirically apply the various theories and concepts / use of theory and concepts to analyze the empirical material.   .

5 Critical ability Your ability to conduct yourself critically to various types of source materials, as well as empirical theory / of others and their ideas, thoughts and reasoning.   Creative ability Your ability to think independently, experimenting and creating / producing a research grant involving both practical and theoretical points.   Structural capacity Your ability to organize your research approach and your writing.  Key Ability Your ability to express yourself in writing / storyline with a clear and unmistakable theme. Opposition Ability Your ability to implement an opposition work

6 Shape Most schools have set rules for the essay form, ie fonts, margins, spacing, etc. In general you can say that the paper should have a form that is readable and looks well worked out! It is very important that all the text follows the same template. Otherwise, the paper looks unprofessional appearance, which should reduce the perceived quality of the content. Some general rules of the form: - Paragon (Nytt stycke ) marked with a series of indentation or a blank line. - The body typically provides 1.5-spaced in Times New Roman, 12p. - Headlines are written in a different typeface than the body, usually Arial or Verdana. - The essay can be adjusted margin, that is, all lines equally long. Margin adjustment can be done automatically in Word to customize the spaces between words.

7 Front page / title page Front page / title page On the front of the essay is the name of the author / authors, college / university and the institution, name of supervisor and title of the essay. In some cases, college / university logo appear.

8 Title The title is a very important part of the essay. It should summarize the content and appeal to the reader. Common types of headlines Two, three terms and an explanation Brats Jackets and logos suburb: A study of local clothing trends and brand associations among students at East High School Reals Football God, striker and Tough: If the production of masculinity and status in sports media

9 Longer descriptive title A comparative study between the nail plate joints and WT-Tskruvar in glulam structures Parents' experiences of living with children with food allergy with a special focus on anaphylaxis Short and concis What influences and characterizes positive people Customer Perceived service quality of Internet shopping sites Title + Subtitle I just want to be happy! A study of how young adults see themselves and their life situation in relation to late modernity Witty (cleverness and quickness of mind) A title may well be witty but it should then be supplemented by a more descriptive sub- title. Music in the store: A quantitative study of how music is used in shops as part of the company's commercial

10 Abstract Abstract is a short summary of the paper. Usually for abstract by the end of essay writing when you are stressed out and tired of his general thesis. Since the abstract is the first (unfortunately often the last) which is the reader meets a very important part of the essay. It is in many cases it determines whether the rest should be read or not. Abstract can be read as a stand-alone text and summarize the gist of the essay. It is important that research findings are included, as well as research methodology and information on the key moments in the scientific analysis. Abstract may not be composed of cut out sentences from the essay! Abstract usually consists of words. It should be about words long. An abstract is usually completed with a number of keywords

11 Table of Contents All essays should have a table of contents to give the reader an overview and easy to find what she / he is seeking. You can create tables of contents automatically in word processor, for example in Word (click on Insert> Reference> Index and Tables> Table of Contents). If the paper contains a number of sub-headings, you can restrict the index to include a title and headings 2 and 3. Remember that only the heading "annexes" to be in the TOC. The name of the individual annexes should not be in the TOC. If the paper contains many tables and figures, it is smart to put them in separate tables (Table and Figure list file).

12 Figure / Table List List of figures and tables appearing in the paper can be automatically created in Word. Insert when a reference in each figure / table (click on the insert in the menu bar> click on the reference> select description> select Figure or Table> click ok). Then create a character lists (click on Insert> Reference> Index and Tables> List of figures).

13 Chapter 9: Thesis Template
An essay can be designed with the help of trattekniken. In the introductory sections set the paper into a broader perspective. The essay then narrows and ultimately leads to a research question. The theory and empirical data linking to research the issue. The analysis and conclusions of the paper broadened again by the results translated into a greater whole. At the end of the essay can discuss, for example research result

14 Abstract Contents Introduction Chapter - Introduction - Background - Issues Discussion - Purpose / Problem - Research question / s electricity. hypothesis - Possible boundaries

15 Method - Scientific basis - Choice of method - Justification for the choice of method - Alternative approaches - Use of previous knowledge - Critical review of the method

16 Theory - Previous research - Relevant theories Empirical / Self-study - Of results - Analysis, results and interpretation Conclusion / Concluding Discussion - Recommendations - Method of Criticism References / Sources of information - Unprinted sources - Printed sources Attachments - Possible interview guide

17 Chapter 10: Introduction Chapter
Gives the reader an overview of research and the essay as a whole. The introductory chapter will also bring the reader's interest in the paper. Introduction: The chapter usually consists of introductory and background that leads to a problem view, and finally a research question. Concepts and definitions used should be recognized, especially if the reader is not expected to be familiar with these.

18 Introduction Introduction aims to provide the reader with answers to the questions' why have you chosen the specific chemical "and" what do you want to achieve with the work ". Introduction should give a concise picture of the research.

19 Background This section reproduces the background to the purpose and topic. A good background to facilitate understanding of results as reported later in the paper.

20 The purpose The very purpose of the essay should be clearly stated and answer the whole purpose of writing the essay. The purpose may be of different nature. 1st A descriptive purposes indicates a desire to depict a certain part of reality. Ex. How do SIDA's regional offices in Asia? 1st A normative view means that you also wish to comment on how something should be. It may include recommendations for any actor. Ex. How should SIDA's regional offices work in Asia? 1st A declaratory order stating that you both want to describe how something is and why this is the case. Ex. How do SIDA's regional offices in Asia and why have they chosen this approach?

21 1st An understanding-oriented view says that it would investigate what phenomena mean. For example, by examining the underlying motives for human conduct or interpret a particular phenomenon. Ex. Why more and more students interrupt their education?

22 1st Objectives may finally be evolving theory or theory specifying their nature.
What concerns you then is to develop the theory in which such non-existence or in any respect is unsatisfactory. Ex. How to change the applicability of Porter's five prime model on the Internet?

23 Issue / s or hypothesis The aim then flows out of an issue / s or a hypothesis. These and any other questions / hypotheses are then examined in the paper. Issues that can be answered with yes or no should not be used. In connection with the purpose can be any state boundaries in the paper. For instance, "we will only study the adolescents in the Stockholm area.

24 Chapter 11: The method The method is necessary for readers to follow in the paper and to evaluate the outcome. The method accounts for one of their scientific bases and how it carried out its investigation. The section should answer the questions "what methods were used to gather and select materials" and "the methods underlying the interpretation and analysis of the material.“

25 Ex. Positivistic or hermeneutic basis - Choice of method Ex
Ex. Positivistic or hermeneutic basis - Choice of method Ex. Inductive or deductive approach, quantitative or qualitative method - Justification for the choice of method - Alternative approaches - Use of previous knowledge (theories, models, studies) - Critical review of the method Ex. reliability and validity

26 Chapter 12: Theory One of the basic elements of an essay is an account of previous research and other relevant theories. Theory chapter can also be called "theoretical framework" (mainly in a deductive approach), "Theoretical starting points" or simply "theory". The theory should only consist of theories that can be related to the investigation in the paper. The theory can also be composed of materials that create an understanding of the reader to the research field. The section will follow a red thread and relevant theories will be discussed - not only reported. For example, the theory chapter contain several similar theories being compared. A critical discussion of theories lack merit and should also be included. Theory section ends with a summary of the key theoretical points.

27 Chapter 13: Self-study / Empirical
Empirical section consists of performance reports of the completed investigation, interpretation and analysis of results is one of the largest sections in the paper. The results of the completed study will be presented in a clear and legible manner. It must certainly not fill the section with only tables. Instead, you should discuss its findings and present it in an easily comprehensible manner. Results table may be appended to the essay. Either one can interpret the results directly in the income statement or to the interpretation of its own chapter (which results or analysis and interpretation). If one chooses the latter should make it clear what are the results and what is interpretation. For example, 'school A performed 10% better than school D "," we interpret this as an expression of ...".

28 Analysis, results and interpretation If you choose to have a chapter entitled "analysis or" results and interpretation ", the past performance statements shall be free of interpretations. This section has the ability to interpret data and to highlight interesting results.

29 Chapter 14: Conclusions and closing discussion
This chapter ties together the purpose, method and results which allows for a discussion of the theoretical background. The conclusion can answer the following "What do the results", "they are reasonable and they pointed out in a particular direction". One can also discuss about the subject should be investigated further and in that case how. Implications Recommendations Methodological Critique

30 Harvard system Chapter 15: References There are two main systems for source references in the text; Harvard system and Oxford. Harvard system is also called the author-year system and allows for literature references in the text. For direct quotations or specific information you should also print the page number. According to Oxford used notes with source references. The notes can either be placed at the bottom of the page, so-called footnotes, or at the end of the essay. Generally, readers prefer the former.

31 Example: Harvard Gustavsson (2004) identifies three types of personal knowledge of, interviews, conversations and dialogues. The main aim of the interviews is to "collect actual data of an objective nature" (Gustavsson 2004, p. 241) or (Gustavsson 2004:241). If one refers to several works which are written the same year by the same author distinguished by one of these a, b, c after the year (Gustavsson, 2004a), (Gustavsson, 2004b).

32 Oxford system The Footnote/ Bibliography or 'Oxford' Referencing System This guide presents an introduction to the Footnote/ Bibliography system, also known as the Oxford system or the Documentary/ Note system. Many schools at The University of New South Wales have style guides indicating how referencing for assignments should be done. The Learning Centre strongly suggests that you check with each school about which method to use. What is Referencing? Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the contributions of others in your writing. Whenever you use ANY words, ideas or information from ANY source in your assignments, you must reference those sources. This means that if you use the exact words of an author, if you paraphrase their words or if you summarise their ideas, you must provide a reference. Not referencing your sources means you may be charged with plagiarism and your work could be failed.

33 The Footnote/ Bibliography method requires you to include:
How Do I Do It? The Footnote/ Bibliography method requires you to include: a footnote in the text. a bibliography or list of references at the end of the text. What is a Footnote? Footnotes (sometimes just called ‘notes’) are what they sound like—a note (or a reference to a source of information) which appears at the foot (bottom) of a page. In a footnote referencing system, you indicate a reference by: 1. putting a small number above the line of type directly following the source material. This number is called a note identifier. It sits slightly above the line of text. It looks like this.1 2. putting the same number, followed by a citation of your source, at the bottom of the page. Footnoting should be numerical and chronological: the first reference is 1, the second is 2, and so on. The advantage of footnoting is that the reader can simply cast their eyes down the page to discover the source of a reference which interests them.

34 Chapter 16: Quotations Citations are indicated by quotation marks and is in the text. If the quotation is longer than two lines will make it a separate block that is moved in one step from the margin. Usually it also reduces the text size and reduces the line spacing in the block quotation. The quotation marks are always removed from the block quotation. You may not modify or add any of the quotes. They must be "original"! older spelling and weird word order (as one myself) must be maintained. If you make a minor change should be stated. If you extradite part of a sentence, use /.../ If you extradite several full sentences, use /---/ The quotation must be followed by a proper source citation with page numbers

35 Chapter 17: Notes Notes can be used to: - Make bibliographical references (Oxford) - Refer to other discussions - Provide more comprehensive information - Refer to other sections of the paper Sometimes you can find quotes and theories from writers in other books, one of their own. When should certainly not refer to the original source, unless we read it. Instead, refer to the source where you found the information (secondary source).

36 Chapter 18: Oral sources If referring to an oral source you should provide your name, title / occupation, year, month and day, and the Enlightenment "oral source".

37 Chapter 19: Plagiarism and cheating
Not to leave out references to sources in breach of the scientific tradition. So be very careful to name the source that you have taken information from. including oral sources must be indicated.

38 Chapter 20: References All sources it used in essay writing is to be reported in a reference list at the end of the essay. Referrals usually begins with the author's surname, name, year, title (in brackets), place of publication, and then the publisher. Examples of other references (taken from Anonymous or unknown authors Caffeine linked to mental illness. (1991, July 13). New York Times, pp. B13, B15. In the body sees the source of reference as follows: ("Caffeine Linked," 1991). Books (a collection of authors, reprint / translation, edition other one first): American Psychiatric Association. (1990). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Booth, WC, Colomb, GG, & Williams, JM (1995). The Craft of Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ebbinghaus, H. (1913). Memory (H. A. & C. E. Ruegen Bussenius, Trans.). New York: Teachers College. (Original work Published 1885) Strunk, W., Jr.., & White, E. B. (1979). The Elements of Style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

39 Article from a database:
Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. (2002). Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 287, Retrieved July 7, 2002, from MEDSYS database. Online Newspaper / magazine Peter Short, M. G., & Parker, G. W. (1999). Potential Biological Weapons Threats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5 (4). Retrieved January 20, 2003, from ncidod/EID/vol5no4/kortepeter.htm Letter to the author: O'Neill, G. W. (1992, January). In support of DSM-III [Letter to the Editor]. APA Monitor, 4-5.

40 Article from a magazine:
Gardner, H. (1991, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today, Article from a newspaper: Brown, L. S. (1993, Spring). My research with orange. The Psychology Department Newsletter, 3, 2. Goleman, D. (1991, October 24). Battle of Insurers vs.. Therapists: Cost Control pitted Against neat care. New York Times, pp. D1, D9. Markoff, J. (1996, June 5). Voluntary Rules Proposed to Help INSURE privacy for Internet users. New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 1996, from Homepage: Dewey, R. A. (2002). Psych Web by Russ Dewey. Retrieved January 25, 2003 from / It is important to include the date on which the information was found on the Internet.

41 Chapter 21: Types of papers / theses
Pro seminar paper Also known as B-level. The thesis / project work for the advanced courses, credits, and includes 4-6 credits. Bachelor Thesis Also known as C-level. The essay is written in advanced courses, credits, and includes 10 points. Master Thesis Also known as D-level. The thesis for Master's courses, credits, and includes 10 points.

42 Chapter 22: Opposition The opposition (colloquially as an opponent) will be held at the end of essay writing and is a requirement to get their paper accepted. In opposition to the author of the paper (the respondent) respond to criticism from a so-called opponents. The opponent is usually another student or someone from the faculty. The opponent will both highlight the strengths and weaknesses of this paper. This is important not only say what is good / bad, but also why it is good / bad. Instead of keeping a monologue as an opponent, you should establish a dialogue with the respondent.

43 CHECKLIST for opposition The cover page
CHECKLIST for opposition The cover page * Cover sheet is accurate to the school schedule? * Does it feel good title and the informative? Abstract * Summarizes the essay in a good way? * Is the independent ie. not a collection of disconnected sentences? * Have the right length ( words)? Introduction and background * Is the start orientation for the reader? * Is the introduction interesting? * Can the reader a good overview of the problem area?

44 Problems and objectives
Problems and objectives * Succeed authors justify the topic and the problem with the election? * Purpose is to elaborate the problems discussion? * Purpose is clear and well written? * Is possible to achieve the objective? * Liaison between the problems and objectives?

45 Method * Name any methodological difficulties and criticism of the selection method? * Is the choice of method in the selection of theory and scientific approach? Theory, empirical analysis & * Matches the theory and empirical data to each other, how is the proportion of theory / empiricism? * Is relevant theories in the theory section? * Implemented a discussion of those theories, or merely an account of them?

46 The ratio theory / empirical Empirical
* The ratio theory / empirical Empirical * Are accurate accounts of empirical and logical with regard to the purpose and method? * How is the survey conducted? Is the data collection method with the description? Analysis * Have the authors used the well of the empirical material in the analysis? * Use the mention theory to interpret empirical data?

47 Conclusions / Final Discussion
Conclusions / Final Discussion * Is there a clear link between the purpose and conclusions? * Satisfy the intent? * Findings and conclusions are sustainable? Based on the analysis of empirical data? * Have the authors evaluated and criticized the methods used? * Discussed limitations in the survey / data collection? * Have the authors made some suggestions for further research?

48 Substance. Is it factually correct
Substance * Is it factually correct? * Data presented are reliable and relevant? * Are graphs, tables and charts accurate

49 honesty and critical distance it is easy to discern what is the authors' own opinions and what is taken from other sources? Did the authors of a critical distance to the theories and conclusions?

50 Language. Is easy to read the paper
Language * Is easy to read the paper? * Have you used a proper sentence structure? * Does the technical terms used? is explained to the reader?

51 Chapter 23: Tips! o Write down all ideas that come up during the writing. It feels as immaterial one moment can be invaluable in the next. o Do not remove too much text / writing data over time without saving it somewhere else. It is easy to remove too much and miss important material. However, the paper must be consolidated Terasa (boiled down) before it is submitted for assessment. o Read others' essays for inspiration and ideas! o Give the paper to any third party for final proofreading. It will be easy "home blind" in their own essay. o It can not be said for many times: Start on time!

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