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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – , India

2 OC-SBT/SBI/SGS Introduction Programmes and Courses  SEP –SBT011-CP1_U01  SEP – SGS011-CP1_U01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Credits  Academic Inputs by Sonali Alkari MSc (Botany), P.G. D.C. Bio-Informatics

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to:  Describe systematics.  Discuss different branches of taxonomy.  Describe Species.  Discuss important aspect of Species Definition.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Introduction  The study on evolution of various groups of organisms lead to development of significant features and relationship among organisms.  These area are the traditional province of classification and Systematics.  The identification and reorganization of the basic unit of classification leads to the development of species concept, which is fundamental evolutionary unit.

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Systematics-1  The word systematics is often used synonymous with taxonomy.  The Greek meaning of taxonomy is “arrangement by rules “and of systematics is “to put together”.  However, the term taxonomy and systematics have been so loosely and interchangeably used in the past that to establish a proper delineation between the two is extremely difficult.

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Systematics-2  The systematics is defined as “the study of phenotypic, genetic and phylogenetic relationship among taxa”.  Taxonomy is the science of the classification of organism according to their resemblances and differences.  In actual practice these two terms are used synonymously and deal with study of classification, its principle, procedures and rules.

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Systematics-3  Classification is grouping things together on the basis of features they have in common. The science of classification is called as taxonomy.  The science of taxonomy has two branches as nomenclature and systematic.  Nomenclature deals with naming of organisms where as systematic deals with placing of organisms into groups which is done on the basis of their similarities and differences.

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Bionomial System of Biological Nomenclature-1  Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus developed the bionomial system of biological nomenclature.  In this system each organism has two Latin names: a generic name beginning with the capital letter and specific name beginning with a lower case letter.

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Carl Linnaeus( ) He is remembered for his three most important contribution … 1.For providing systematic manner for easy identification of number of plants. 2.For giving some important terms in systematics, namely Kingdom, Class, order, Genus and Species. 3.The Bionomial nomenclature. Father of Taxonomy.

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Bionomial System of Biological Nomenclature-2  The binomial nomenclature system now follows the set rules given by international Code of Nomenclature for different categories of organisms.  For example, humans are named Homo sapiens; the genus is Homo and species is sapiens

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Species Concept-1  Species are important because they represent an important level of integration in living nature.  Among the variety of species definitions that have been offered, taxonomists have generally used morphological criteria.  The term species can be defined as a group of closely related organisms which are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.  Each species possesses its own distinct structural, behavioral and ecological characteristics.

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Species Concept-2  There are two different types of species concept  Biological species Concept  Evolutionary species concept  Biological Species Concept defines species as sexually interbreeding or potentially interbreeding group of individuals normally separated from other by reproductive isolation.  Evolutionary Species Concept define species in terms of differences that are not dependent on sexual isolation but rather on their evolutionary isolation.

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Species Concept-3  Species definition is intimately connected with two names, namely Linnaeus and Darwin.  Linnaeus believed in constancy and sharp delimitation of species while Linnaeus believed in variation and overlapping or ever- changing pattern of species.  The founders of taxonomy, Ray and Linnaeus were firm believers in fixity, the unchangingness, of species.  But after the development of theory of descent with modification by Lamarck (1809) and Darwin (1859), the organisms were classified on the basis of their inter-relationship.

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Species Concept-4  It is difficult to give a definition of species that is universally applicable.  The definition must be modified slightly to include species whose life cycle includes two or more quit different morphological forms (many coelenterates, parasitic worms, larval and adult insect and amphibians).  A precise definition of a species is not really possible. This is because species can change over time, according to the theory of natural selection.

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Subspecies  A population that is spread over a wide territory may show local or regional differences which may be called subspecies.  Many examples are known in which a species is broken up into a chain of subspecies, each of which differs slightly from its neighbors but interbreeds with them.  The subspecies at the two ends of the chain, however, may be so different that they cannot interbreed.

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Aspects in Defining Species  Three important aspects in defining species are:  Species must be defined biologically rather than morphologically as species are based on distinctness rather than on differences;  Species consists of population rather than unconnected individuals;  Crucial criterion in species definition is not fertility of individuals but reproduction isolation of populations.

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What we Learn…  You have learnt :  What is systematics and taxonomy.  Different branches of taxonomy.  Bionomial system of biological nomenclature.  what is species and different species concept.  Important aspect in defining species.

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Critical Thinking Questions 1.Is systematics synonymous with taxonomy ? 2.Define Species. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.20

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hints For Critical Thinking Question 1.Meaning of taxonomy and Systematics. 2.Important aspects in defining species. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips  Book Title:The Living World Author: George Johnson  Book Title: Biological Science Author: Taylor, Green & Stout  Book Title: ABC Of Biology Publisher :Holy Faith  Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… End of the Presentation Thank You !


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