1Unit 3 Democracies Chapters 8, 10 & 12 Mrs. TuckerWorld HistoryVictor Valley High School
2Democracies California Standards: –Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England the United States, France, and Latin America (e.g. John Lock, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simon Bolivar, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison;– List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights (1689), the American Declaration of Independence (1776), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791).– Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism in the Napoleonic empire.
3Democracies Standards, Continued: – Discuss how nationalism spread across Europe with Napoleon but was represented for a generation under the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe until the Revolutions of 1848.– Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature (e.g., the poetry of William Blake and William Wordsworth), social criticism (e.g., the novels of Charles Dickens), and the move away from Classicism in Europe.– Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.
4Democracies Standards, Continued: – Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule.– Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.– Understand how the forces of nationalism developed in the Middle East, how the Holocaust affected world opinion regarding the need for a Jewish state, and the significance and effects of the location and establishment of Israel on world affairs
5Reading Standards for Informational Text 6-12, Grade 9-10 Common CoreReading Standards for Informational Text 6-12, Grade 9-105. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).a. Analyze the use of text features (e.g., graphics, headers, captions) in functional workplace documents.Integration of Knowledge and Ideas8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
6Common Core Standards WRITING STANDARDS, Grades 9-10 Students Text Types and Purposes1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
7Common Core Standards, Continued d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. 2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.a. Introduce a topic or thesis statement; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.b. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
8Common Core Standards, Continued c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
9Democracies - Main Ideas Discontent and Enlightenment Ideas spurred people in Latin America to Fight Colonial Rule;Sixteen of Today’s Latin American Nations gained their independence at this time;Liberal and Nationalist Uprisings Challenged the old Conservative Order of Europe;The System of Nation-States established in Europe during this Period Continues today;Nationalism Contributed to the Formation of Two New Nations and a New Political Order in Europe;Nationalism is the Basis of World Politics Today and has often Caused Conflicts and Wars;Artistic and Intellectual Movements both Reflected and Fueled Changes in Europe During the 1800s;Romanticism and Realism are Still Found in Novels, Dramas, and Films Produced Today;
15Clash of PhilosophiesConservative: usually wealthy property owners and nobility – protecting traditional monarchies of Europe;Liberal: mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants – more power to elected parliaments – only educated and landowners would vote;Radical: drastic change to extend democracy to all people – governments should practice ideals of French Revolution – Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity/Brotherhood
16NationalismBelief that people’s greatest loyalty is not to a king or empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history;
18Positive and Negative Results of Nationalism Positive ResultsNegative ResultsPeople within a nation overcoming their differences for the common goodThe overthrow of colonial ruleDemocratic governments in nations throughout the worldCompetition among nations spurring scientific and technological advancesForced assimilation of minority cultures into a nation’s majority culture;Ethnic cleansing, such as in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 1990s;The rise of extreme nationalistic movements, such as Nazism;Competition between nations leading to warfare
19The BalkansThe Balkans – all or part of present-day Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and the Former Yugoslavia;Balkan Peninsula controlled by Ottoman Empire – Turkey – Muslim;Religion – Greek Orthodox – Ties to Russian Orthodox - Russia, along with France and Britain support Greek’s Independence against Ottoman;Greek Independence a popular cause against the world – Western Civilization – Respected Greek Culture;Many different languages, cultures, histories, and religions;Ruled by an Empire;
20Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power Revolutions of 1820s – 1830s - Revolutionary zeal swept across EuropeGreek Independence –1830 – Independent Kingdom of Greece – supported by Britain, France, and Russia;Belgians declared independence against Dutch Rule;Italy – Nationalist worked to unite many separate states on Italian Peninsula – Order restored by Austrian troops sent by Metternich;Poles in Warsaw revolt -- Russian rule in Russian army crushed revolt ;
22Questions, page 257, 6-9Why might liberals and radicals join together in a nationalist cause?Why did some liberals disapprove of the way Louis-Napoleon ruled France after the uprisings of 1848?What consequences did Alexander’s reforms have on Russia?Imagine you live in Europe in Write a letter to a friend, stating your political position – conservative, liberal, or radical. Relate your feelings about the uprisings and Europe's future. (1 page).
26Italian UnificationPrime Minister of Sardinia – Camillo di Cavour - unites the North;Giuseppe Garibaldi – Red Shirts – Unites the SouthSardinian King, Victor Emmanuel Rules – 18601866 – Venice Added from Austria1870 – Papal States added – Popes Continues to Rule Vatican City
27German Unification Prussia Leads German Unification Otto von Bismarck Realpolitik – The Politics of RealityIron and BloodPrussia Grows toward Building a German EmpireSeven Weeks’ War – defeats Austria – unites Northern GermanyFranco-Prussian War - staged war – “insult” by French ambassador to Prussian king – united Southern and eventually all of Germany;German King – Title of Kaiser
29Revolution in the Arts - Romanticism Ideas of RomanticismEmphasized inner feelings, emotions, and imaginationFocused on the mysterious, supernatural, exotic, grotesque, or horrifyingLoved beauties of untamed natureIdealized past as simpler and nobler timeGlorified heroes and heroic actionsCherished folk traditions, music, and storiesValued common people and individualPromoted radical change and democracy
30Romanticism in Arts Literature and Poetry The Gothic Novel William WordsworthSamuel Taylor ColeridgeLord ByronPercy Bysshe ShelleyJohn KeatsJohann Wolfgang von GoetheJakob and Wilhelm GrimmVictor HugoThe Gothic NovelMary Shelley – Frankenstein
31Music Composers Franz Liszt Ludwig van Beethoven Felix Mendelssohn Robert SchumannFrederic ChopinGuiseppe VerdiRichard Wagner
32Realism Realism shows life as it was and not as it should be PhotographyLouis DaguerreWilliam TalbotWritersHonoré de BlazacÉmile ZolaCharles Dickens
33Impressionism 1860s – Movement in Paris against Realist style Tried to show their impression of a subject or moment in time;Light, pure shimmering colors used to capture a moment in a glanceArtistsClaude MonetEdgar DegasPierre-Auguste RenoirComposersMaurice RavelClaude Debussy
35QuestionsPage 267, 6-9How are the movements of Romanticism and Realism alike and different?How might a realist novel bring about changes in Society? Describe the ways by which this might happen.How did nationalism influence the artistic movements?Listen to a piece of music by Beethoven, and then listen to a piece of contemporary music that you like. Write a compare and contrast essay on the two pieces of musicEXTRA CREDIT – 50 points
36An Age of Democracy and Progress – British Reforms The Reform Bill of 1832:Extend Suffrage/VotingFear of Revolutionary Fever from France heading to Britain prompts reforms;Lessened property requirements so wealthy middle class men could vote;Modernized districts for electing members of Parliament which gave cities more representation;Chartist Movement – People’s Charter of 1838Suffrage for all menYearly Parliamentary electionsSecret Ballot for Parliamentary Votes;End to Property Requirements;By 1900 – all demands of Chartists except for annual elections became Law;
37Women Get the Vote?By 1890, several industrial countries had universal male suffrage;No country allowed women to vote;Women in Britain and US organized reform societies and protested unfair laws and customs;Women’s Suffrage – some though it was too radical – some thought women lacked the ability to vote;Militant Protests – Emmeline Pankhurst – formed Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) 1903;
38Militant ProtestsThe WSPU – most militant organization for women’s rights.Goal – draw attention to cause of woman suffrage;“I want to say here and now that the only justification for violence, the only justification for damage to property, the only justification for risk to the comfort of other human beings is the fact that you have tried all other available means and have failed to secure justice.” Emmeline Pankhurst, Why we are Militant
39France and Democracy Third Republic Aftermath of Franco-Prussian War; Crises and changes in government almost yearly;a dozen political parties competing for power;1875 National Assembly agree on a new government;Divisions in France;
40Rise of Zionism The Dreyfus Affair 1880s-1890s, The Third Republic threatened by Monarchists, Aristocrats, Clergy, and Army Leaders who wanted Monarchy or Military rule;Widespread feelings of anti- Semitism led to accusing Captain Alfred Dreyfus, one of the few Jewish officers in French army, of selling military secrets to Germany;Found guilty on false and vague charges and sentenced to life in prison – Devil’s IslandÉmile Zola – open letter in J’accuse! It denounced army for covering up scandal;Dreyfus was eventually declared innocent by French government;This gave rise to Zionism, leader Theodor Herzl – quest for a Jewish Homeland;Other movements in Russia and Eastern Europe – Pogroms – campaigns of violence against Jews – immigration to US and Palestine;
41Self Rule – British Colonies Canada – 1839 – Canada united (upper and lower Canada) as Province of Canada;British immigration encouraged;Canada should be allowed to govern themselves;Westward expansion – Transcontinental railroad – 1885;New ZealandNative Population – Maori;Free Settlers;Self governing in 1850s;AustraliaNative Population – Aborigines;Colonized as penal colony in 1788 to resolve overcrowded prisons in Britain;Free Settlers joined former convicts in early 1800s;Sheep farming;Cheap land;Gold Rush in 1851;Self governing in 1850s;
42The Great Famine The Great Hunger Irish peasants dependent on potatoes as sole source of food;From 1845 – 1948 a plant fungus ruined nearly all Ireland’s potato crop;Our of 8 million population, 1 million died from starvation and disease;Most, About 1 ½ million left Ireland to the US,Immigrants also immigrated to Britain, Canada, and Australia;Britain enforced demands of English landowners that Irish peasants pay their rent – many Irish lost land and fell in debt;Large landowners profited from higher food prices;
44Self Rule – British Colonies IrelandEnglish control of Ireland – joined to Ireland in 1801;Conflict between British Protestants and Native Irish Catholics;Catholic Emancipation Act in restored many rights to Catholics;Irish Potato FamineDemand for Irish Home Rule – control of internal matters only or Independence.Irish Republican Army – IRAIreland divided intoNorthern Ireland – controlled by BritainIreland – Home Rule – 1921;1949 – Irish Free State becomes Independent Republic of Ireland Ireland;
45War and Expansion in the United States Manifest DestinyAmericans believe they have the right and duty to rule North American from Atlantic coast to the Pacific;War with Mexico – US gains Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, and Colorado;
46Civil War Tests Democracy Causes of the WarDivided InterestsNorth/East – Industry, Trade, farms – Free Workers;South – Agricultural – Cash Crops – slave labor;States Rights vs. Rights of Federal Government;Climax of Tension in 1860 – When Abraham Lincoln Elected;Civil War Breaks Out
47Civil WarApril 12, 1861 – Confederate forces fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina to start war;Four years of fighting:South – advantages – superior military leadership;North – advantages – larger population, better transportation, greater resources, more factories;April 1865 – South Surrenders;Emancipation Proclamation – Declared all slaves in Confederate states were free;Showed European nations that war was “fought against slavery,” and did not support South;13th Amendment – Abolished Slavery – Ratified December, 1865;Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendment extended rights of citizenship to all Americans and guaranteed former slaves right to vote;
48New Ideas in Science Germ Theory French Chemist Louis Pasteur – mid-1800sWhile examining fermentation process of alcohol discovered microscopic organisms - bacteria;Learned heat killed bacteria;Developed process of pasteurization to kill germs in liquids like milk;Charles DarwinTheory of EvolutionNaturalistVoyage of H.M.S. Beagletheory that all forms of life evolvedOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural SelectionSurvival of the FittestSocial Darwinism
49New Ideas in Science Marie Curie Worked with her husband Pierre Curie Discovered two missing elements – Radium and Polonium;1898 – Radioactivity1903 – The Curies shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry;
50New Ideas in Science Social Science Explore Behavior Psychology Ivan PavlovHuman actions were often unconscious reactions to Experiences through trainingSigmund FreudUnconscious mind drives how people think and act about itPsychoanalysis – deal with psychological conflicts;