Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9:Roosevelt and the Modern Presidency. Freedom: A History of US Disc 3 Yearning to Breathe Free The Presidents Disc 2 McKinley to."— Presentation transcript:
Freedom: A History of US Disc 3 Yearning to Breathe Free The Presidents Disc 2 McKinley to Wilson
William McKinley 1897-1901 Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 William Howard Taft 1909-1913 Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921
William McKinley (R) 1897-1901 Theodore Roosevelt (R) 1901-1909 William Howard Taft (R) 1909-1913 Woodrow Wilson (D) 1913-1921
Republican from Ohio Last president to have fought in the Civil War Believed in the gold standard Defeated William Jennings Bryan twice for the presidency Spanish-American War 1898 Assassinated September 1901 at Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo
Progressive Republican from New York with a difference An original Didn’t think in terms of pure political party Represented the people Complicated man Conservative—Wanted reform Hunter—Started conservation movement Hawk—Won Nobel Peace Prize Most electrifying politician of his generation Shrewd, energetic, charismatic Spanish-American war hero—Rough RidersRough Riders Nobel Peace Prize Big Stick Square Deal Trust buster, Conservationist Conservation—his most enduring achievement
Republican from Ohio Personal and political friend of Roosevelt Governor General of Philippines Legal mind—not a natural politician “Politics makes me sick.” Bigger trust buster than TR Rift with Roosevelt split the Republican Party Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Progressive Democrat From New Jersey (née Virginia) President Princeton University Governor of New Jersey New Freedom—“triple wall of privilege” Idealist, visionary World War I First president to leave U.S. while in office Versailles Treaty League of Nations
Overcrowded Cities Political Corruption Depletion of Natural Resources Unequal Distribution of Wealth Muckrakers
Confusion of ethics Social/economic problems too complex for old set of laws Rise of big business Control of natural resources Exploitation of labor, children, immigrants Rise of the city Overcrowding, epidemics, sewage, poverty, schools Breakdown of political honesty Gentlemen not in politics Results not methods Grossly unequal distribution of wealth Social and class divisions along economic lines Denial to Negro of constitutional rights
People who want reform/change Political More democracy to put power in the hands of the people not the moneyed interests Will of the people is sacred Economic To cleanse capitalism Redistribute the wealth Protect natural resources Social Education is a prerequisite for responsible citizenship Favored free public and universal education through secondary school Industrial accidents End child labor End exploitation of labor and the immigrant Subjugation of America’s nine million blacks
Exposed inequities that afflicted American life Stirred public opinion to support reform Coined by Teddy Roosevelt
Attack on predatory wealth and conspicuous consumption
Poor neighborhood, Philadelphia 1915 Scenes like this in the immigrant wards of America's great cities stirred middle-class reformers to action at the turn of the century.
Popular magazines Waged circulation wars Dug deep for the dirt Muckrakers obliged The Shame of the Cities Lincoln Steffans Corrupt alliance between business and government Charged that 75 of the 90 senators represented the railroads not the people Backed by facts Ida Tarbell
Most progressives were middle class men and women Sensed pressure from Giant corporations Restless immigrants Aggressive labor unions Wanted Government to curb the trusts Stem the Socialist threat by improving average person’s life
Australian ballot Secret, uniform, private ballot Locked box Paid judges of elections Only eligible voters—only once 1888 Massachusetts—first Direct primary elections People choose candidates in special elections Replaced party bosses and other officials making the choice First 1842 Pennsylvania—county 1903 Wisconsin—state
Initiative Create new legislation Referendum Repeal old legislation Recall Remove undesirable official from office Western states –most progressive California Oregon Wisconsin
“Fighting Bob” La Follette Militant progressive Republican governor from Wisconsin Regulated Lumber Railroads Public utilities
History U.S. Constitution called for State legislatures to choose U.S. senators Framers feared popular rule Progressives felt indirect election meant selection by powerful business interests Millionaire’s Club Pressure for change
Women guaranteed the right to vote Previously states determined who could vote Pre Civil War women’s suffrage movement gained momentum after the war 1890 Wyoming First state to allow women to vote 1893 Colorado allowed women to vote Suffragists
Suffrage parade Suffrage leaders built support for the cause by using modern advertising and publicity techniques, including automobiles festooned with flags, bunting, banners, posters, and--in this case--smiling little girls.
Before Congress passed and the states ratified the Nineteenth Amendment, woman suffrage already existed, but mainly in the West. Several midwestern states allowed women to vote only in presidential elections, but legislatures in the South and Northeast generally refused such rights until forced to do so by constitutional amendment.
Scribner's magazine cover May 1898 Athletics, the bicycle vogue, and colleges for women such as Wellesley helped give middle-class young women a sense of new possibilities at the dawn of the twentieth century.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire 1911 146 female garment workers died or jumped to their deaths Ladders from fire company did not reach to the ninth and tenth storey Exits were locked Worst workplace disaster in New York until 9/11
New York and other states passed laws regulating hours and conditions in firetraps like Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Muller v. Oregon 1908 Landmark case Crusading attorney Louis Brandeis (future Supreme Court justice) Decision Constitutionality of laws giving special protection to women Seemed discriminatory by later standards yet Hailed at the time as a triumph for workers 1917 Supreme Court Upheld a ten-hour work day law Employer has responsibility to society
Alcohol –demon rum—connected with Prostitution Crooked city officials Drunken voters New York and San Francisco One saloon for every 200 people Organizations that crusaded for reform Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Founded by Frances Willard Largest women’s organization in the world Anti-Saloon League Crusaded to outlaw liquor States and numerous counties passed “Dry laws” Big cities were generally “wet”
Control corporations Consumer protection Conservation of natural resources
Workers’ Conditions 10-12 hour days $8/week Child labor abuse 140,000 miners struck Workers demanded 9 hour day 20% pay increase Effects of the strike Coal supplies dwindled Factories, schools, hospitals closed due to cold
Roosevelt Summoned owners and workers to White House Threatened to use army to seize the mines Outcomes Major success for labor However—no official recognition of the union Owners agree to arbitration Agree to 10% wage increase 9 hour day First time president intervened on the side of labor Turning point in labor relations Led to Roosevelt urging Congress to create the Department of Commerce and Labor 1903 1913 Split—two departments
Elkins Act 1903 Fines on Railroads who give rebates and Shippers who accept them Hepburn Act 1906 Free passes—severely restricted Expanded the power of the ICC to Regulate Sleeping car companies Pipelines Authorized ICC to Nullify existing rates Stipulate maximum rates
1904 Northern Securities CaseNorthern Securities Case Directed his Attorney General to initiate 40 cases against other monopolies Supreme Court declared illegal Beef trust Sugar trust Fertilizer trust Harvesters trust However Feared total break-up of trusts Time honored belief in free enterprise Roosevelt Turns the Screws on the Trusts The cartoon exaggerates Roosevelt’s impact on the corporation giants.
PPressure for reform in meat and food industry TTainted beef FForeign governments threatened to ban all U.S. meat UUpton Sinclair’s The Jungle aroused public outcry RRoosevelt appointed a special commission to investigate the industry SSpanish-American war veterans complained of spoiled, wormy food PPublic anger at poisonous foods and drugs and false claims by producers
Meat Inspection Act 1906 Federal inspection of all meats entering interstate commerce Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 Prevented the manufacture, sale and transportation of unclean, misbranded or poisonous Foods Drugs Medicines Liquors
Roosevelt with naturalist John Muir Glacier Point, on the rim of Yosemite Valley In the distance is Yosemite Falls A few feet behind Roosevelt is a sheer drop of 3,254 feet Resources rapidly being depleted Roosevelt Huntsman Naturalist Rancher Appalled at pillaging of timber and mineral resources Newlands Reclamation Act 1902 Funds collected from the sale of public lands would be used in irrigation projects and dam buildingirrigation projects and dam building 1911 Roosevelt Dam Salt River in Arizona Enabled the irrigation of over 200,000 acres of desert
Irrigation and Conservation in the West to 1917
Roosevelt Set aside 125 million acres of the great fir forests in public reserve public reserve Set aside millions of acres of coal deposits and water resources Gifford Pinchot—Head of U.S. Forest Service Developed a policy of multiple-use resource management Use natural resources intelligently Combine recreation, sustained-yield logging, watershed protection on same expanse of federal land Most enduring achievement
Sunrise, Yosemite Valley, California Albert Bierstadt, c. 1870
Theodore Roosevelt Gifford Pinchot Two friends and allies in the conservation cause Aboard the steamboat Mississippi on a 1907 tour with the Inland Waterways Commission.
Antiquities Act 1906 Gave the president by executive order the right to Restrict the use of particular public land owned by the federal government Used over a hundred times since its passage Teddy Roosevelt Grand Canyon National Monument, Arizona Devils Tower, Wyoming
The United States 1876-1912 A wave of admissions between 1889 and 1912 brought remaining territories to statehood and marked the final creation of new states until Alaska and Hawaii were admitted in the 1950s.