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Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

2 Body Growth in Middle Childhood  Slow, regular pace  Girls shorter and lighter until about age 9, when trend reverses  Lower portion of body grows fastest  Bones lengthen, broaden  Muscles very flexible  All permanent teeth appear Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

3 Common Health Problems  Malnutrition  Obesity  32% of US children and adolescents are overweight  17% are obese  Illnesses Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk © Ilike/Shutterstock

4 Health Risks for Obese Children  More likely to be overweight adults  Physical symptoms:  high blood pressure, cholesterol  respiratory problems  insulin resistance  Development of lifelong problems:  heart disease, diabetes, gall bladder disease, cancer, early death Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

5 Causes of Obesity in Middle Childhood  Overweight parents  Low SES  Parental feeding practices:  overfeeding  overly controlling  Insufficient sleep  Low physical activity  Television  Eating out © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

6 Psychological and Social Consequences of Obesity  Stereotyping/teasing  Social isolation  Depression  Emotional, academic, and behavior problems  Reduced life chances © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

7 Treating Obesity  Family-based interventions:  diet change  exercise program  positive reinforcement  School environment:  screenings  improved nutrition standards  additional recess/physical education time  obesity awareness programs Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

8 Illness in Middle Childhood  High rates in first two years of school  15 percent have chronic conditions:  asthma  severe illnesses, such as sickle cell anemia, cancer, and diabetes © Ilike/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

9 Asthma  Bronchial tubes highly sensitive to stimuli:  cold, infection, allergies, stress  wheezing, coughing, breathing problems  Risk factors:  heredity  pollution  stressful home life  poor health care  obesity © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

10 Motor Development in Middle Childhood  Gross-motor skill gains:  flexibility  balance  agility  force  Fine-motor skill gains:  writing  drawing © JHershPhoto/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

11 Sex Differences in Motor Development  Girls better at fine-motor skills  Boys better at gross- motor skills, sports  Social environment:  parental expectations  self-perceptions  coaching, media © Jeff Thrower/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

12 Piaget’s Theory: Attainments of the Concrete Operational Stage  Conservation:  decentration  reversibility  Classification  Seriation: transitive inference  Spatial reasoning: cognitive maps © Jaren Jai Wicklund/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

13 Classification  Children pass the class inclusion problem between ages 7 and 10  Collecting and classifying items become common © auremar/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

14 Seriation  Ability to order items along a quantitative dimension—becomes efficient around 6–7 years  Transitive inference: ability to seriate mentally—appears around 7 years Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Terrie L. Zeller/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

15 Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought  Operations are concrete:  applied to information children can perceive directly  work poorly with abstract ideas  Continuum of acquisition: children master concrete operational tasks gradually, step by step Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

16 Information-Processing View of Concrete Operational Thought  Neo-Piagetians: gains in information- processing speed, rather than shift to a new stage  automatic schemas free working memory  central conceptual structures: networks of concepts and relations that allow them to think more effectively about a wide range of situations. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

17 Key Gains in Information Processing  Working memory  Flexible strategy use  Cognitive self-regulation: continually monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes and redirecting unsuccessful efforts. © Oksana Kuzmina/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

18 Attention in Middle Childhood Attention becomes more  selective  adaptable  planful © arek_malang/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

19 Memory Strategies Rehearsal (early grade school)  repeating information to oneself Organization (early grade school)  grouping related items together Elaboration (end of middle childhood)  creating a relationship between pieces of information not in the same category Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

20 Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  Inattention  Impulsivity  Excessive motor activity  Results in  academic problems  social problems © Suzanne Tucker/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

21 Promoting Cognitive Self-Regulation  Point out important features of tasks.  Suggest effective learning strategies.  Emphasize monitoring of progress. © Lisa F. Young/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

22 Information Processing and Academic Learning  Reading:  phonological awareness, information- processing speed, and visual discrimination contribute to reading skills  blend whole-language and phonics approaches  Mathematics:  learn facts and procedures through practice, reasoning, experimenting with strategies  blend drill and “number sense” approaches Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

23 Intelligence Tests Group Tests  Allow testing of large groups  Require little training to administer  Useful for instructional planning  Identify students who need individual testing Individual Tests  Require training and experience to administer  Provide insights about accuracy of score  Identify highly intelligent children and children with learning problems Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

24 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence Figure 9.4 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

25 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences  Linguistic  Logico-mathematical  Musical  Spatial  Bodily-kinesthetic  Naturalist  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal © spotmatik/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

26 Nature, Nurture, and IQ  Adoption studies confirm the influence of both heredity and environment.  Ethnic differences are largely environmental.  A dramatic secular trend (generational rise in IQ) supports the role of environment. © Alexander Trinitatov/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

27 Cultural Bias in Testing  Cultural influences affect test performance:  communication styles  test content  stereotypes © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

28 Communication Styles Middle-SES White Parents  Knowledge-training questions  Hierarchical style of communication Low-SES Minority Parents  Analogy or story- starter questions  no right answer  fosters complex verbal skills  Collaborative style of communication Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

29 Learning Two Languages  Bilingual development:  learn both languages at the same time or learn first language, then second  sensitive period during childhood  Bilingual education:  language immersion  English-only programs: risk of inadequate proficiency in both languages Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

30 Features of High-Quality Elementary Education  Class size  Physical setting  Curriculum  Teacher–student interactions  Evaluations of progress  Relationships with families © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

31 Educational Philosophies  Traditional vs. constructivist  New philosophical directions: social- constructivist  teachers and children as partners  many types of symbolic communication  teaching adapted to zone of proximal development  cooperative learning Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

32 Teacher–Student Interaction  Teachers:  caring, helpful, stimulating, emphasizing high-level thinking—fosters achievement  use of repetitive drill, bias in favor of well-behaved students—impedes achievement  Self-fulfilling prophecies: have greater impact on low-achieving students  homogenous ability groups—a potent source Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

33 Teaching Children with Learning Difficulties  Children often placed in regular classrooms:  mild mental retardation  learning disabilities: 5–10% of school-age children  Law requires “least restrictive” environment: inclusive classrooms  full inclusion  resource rooms Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

34 International Comparisons in Academic Achievement Figure 9.7 (Adapted from Programme for International Student Assessment, 2009.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

35 Cultural Variations in Schools  United States:  less challenging teaching  variable teacher training, salaries  Finland:  nationally mandated curricula, teaching practices, assessments  Asia (Japan, Korea, Taiwan):  nationally mandated curricula  well-prepared, well-paid teachers © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk


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