Long Tradition Eternal Questions – Who are we? – Why do we act the way we do? – How can we understand and manage others?
Short History Wilhelm Wundt (1879) – First Lab – Used introspection Charles Darwin – Voyage around the world – Naturalist – Origin of the Species
Short History Sigmund Freud – 19 th century Vienna – Jewish MD – Hypnosis – Emphasized the unconscious Early Women in Psychology – Mary Calkins and Margaret Floy Washburn
Short History Humanistic Psychology – Another response to behaviorism – Carl Rogers and Abram Maslow – “self-” is indicative of humanistic psychology (e.g., self-esteem, self-image, self-actualization – Brought human agency back into psychology
Short History Behaviorism – Begun by John B. Watson – (think of him at Walmart checkout) – Fully developed by B. F. Skinner – Brought animals back into psychology (especially rats and pigeons)
Short History The (so called) Cognitive Revolution – More of an evolution – Begins around 1945 – Computer and Computer metaphor – Computer is hardware – Thinking is software
Science Attitude – Naturalistic explanations Method – Each science has its own methods (e.g., geologists and rock hammers) – All methods are objective and data driven – Psychology methods covered near end of chapter
Contemporary Psychology Neuroscience—Chap 2 Evolutionary—Chap 2 Behavioral Genetics (hot area)—Chap 2 Psychodynamic (Freud, etc.)-Chaps 11, 12, 13 Behavioral—Chap 6 Cognitive—Chap 7 Social Cultural—We will not cover
Big Ideas Critical Thinking-(e.g., happiness) Biosocial Approach-biology, psychology, and sociocultural Two-track Mind (conscious-unconscious)-blind woman who can still grab objects Human Strengths-positive psychology: + emotions, +character, +groups, communities, and cultures
Why Do Psychology? Limits of Intuition and Common Sense – Hindsight Bias – Overconfidence Scientific Attitude – Curiosity – Skepticism – Humility
How We Ask and Answer Questions The Scientific Method – Theories – Hypotheses – Operational Definitions – Replications Types of Psychological Research – Descriptive – Correlational – Experiments
Descriptive Methods Case Studies – Close study of person or group Surveys – Most common method – Sampling is key (random samples) Naturalistic Observation – Observing people or animals in their natural habitat Participant Observation* – Inserting self into a naturalistic situation
Correlations Relationship between two or more variables Range from -1.00 to + 1.00 Positive vs. Negative (show cheerleader i.e.) Cannot show cause and effect Illusory Correlations
FAQs About Psychology Does lab research reveal general principles? What are the ethical safeguards for human and animal research? – See APA Ethical StandardsAPA Ethical Standards Is psychology value free?
Advantages of Science Rapid Communication – Internet, Meetings, Journals, Books – “invisible university” Reliable Data – Replication helps avoid issues like “cold fusion” Intellectual Freedom – Freedom to follow ideas and data
Disadvantages of Science Information Overload – PsycINFO and other databases to the rescue Scientific Fraud Anti-Scientific Bias Politics (e.g., global warming, evolution) Popularity (stiff academic requirements) STEM Moral (e.g., Hobby Lobby, evolution)
Cross-Cultural Psychology Psychology criticized in past for being “the study of American college sophomores” Social Cultural values affect behavior and mental life Brazil and Clocks – Levine found that Brazilians have a different sense of time – Follow up studies of bank clocks confirmed that
Cognitive Science Newer area; serves as “umbrella for: – Psychology, computer science, linguistics, AI, logic, and neuroscience Includes humans, animals, and machines Chess, AI, and Deep Blue – Deep Blue defeated Kasparov in chess Robotics and Autonomous Navigation – Would you board a driverless bus?
Mind-Body Problem Mind = internal; Body = external Descartes separated the two into equal and co-acting parts: “interactionism” – Could not supply a physiological mechanism Alternatives to interactionism include: idealism and materialism Psychology must deal with both halves
What Psychologists Do Ask Questions – Motivational Questions Jim Jones or Heaven’s Gate – Ecological Questions How, Where, How Often Report Findings – Internet, meetings, articles, books Interpret Findings
Test 1 20 True-False – Not tricky 20 Multiple Choice – Four choices each time 10 Matching – 5 people – 5 things – Strategy explained