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Chapter 22: Descent with Modification - A Darwinian View of Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22: Descent with Modification - A Darwinian View of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22: Descent with Modification - A Darwinian View of Life

2 Essential Knowledge u 1.a.1 – Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution (22.2). u 1.a.4 – Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics (22.3).

3 Evolution u The processes that have transformed life on earth from its beginnings u Change in genetic make-up over time u Gradual appearance of biological diversity u Illustrates science as a PROCESS

4 Evolutionary Adaptation u An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance an organisms ability to survive and reproduce u Involves populations – group of animals of same species that live in same geographic area

5 Pre-Darwinian Views 1. Greeks 2. Fixed 3. Catastrophism 4. Hutton and Lyell 5. Lamarck

6 Greek Philosophers 1. Plato - Organisms are already perfectly adapted to their environment 2. Aristotle - Organisms arranged on a “scale of life” from simple to complex u Fixed, unchanging u Ladder of Life

7 Result: Greek u No evolution u Life is already perfect and doesn’t need to change u All the rungs on life's "ladder" are already occupied.

8 Fixed Species u The creator had designed each and every species for a particular purpose. u Coincides with Old Testament u Says Earth is only5-6,000 yrs old (according to the Bible)

9 Result: Fixed Species u No Evolution! u Created the viewpoint that all species could be identified and named (Taxonomy). u A major factor in the Linnaeus classification system u Similarities showed pattern of creationism (not an evolutionary pattern)

10 Catastrophism u Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). u Attempted to relate fossils to current life u Paleontology started u Noticed: Deeper fossils were less similar

11 Catastrophism Idea u Fossils were the remains of species lost due to catastrophe u No new species originated; species could only be lost over time u Each rock/strata boundary represented a catastrophe u Catastrophe destroyed all/many species u Created a mass extinction u Result – No evolution!

12 James Hutton u Geologist u Related living organisms and their changes to changes in the Earth u 1795 - Gradualism u Profound change is the cumulative product of slow, but continuous process

13 Result: Gradualism u Changes on the Earth were gradual, not catastrophic. u Gradual mechanisms change living organisms (and Earth)

14 Charles Lyell u Geologist u 1797 - 1875. u Incorporated Hutton’s gradualism into a theory called Uniformitarianism.

15 Uniformitarianism idea u Geological processes have operated at the same rate over the Earth’s history u These processes are STILL occurring today u More comprehensive theory (involved past AND present)

16 Result: Uniformitarianism u The Earth must be VERY old. (much older than 6000 years of the fixed species concept). u Idea that slow and subtle processes can cause substantial change over time

17 Jean Baptiste Lamarck u Published theory in 1809. u Theory - Life changed from simple to complex over time

18 Lamarck u Fossils were the remains of past life forms u Used fossils to create of descent u Evolution did occur. u His two mechanisms were incorrect

19 Mechanisms 1. Use and Disuse - u Body parts used to survive become larger and stronger u Body parts not used to survive deteriorate. u Ex: giraffe (neck was constantly stretched to reach leaves)

20 Mechanisms 2. Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics u Modifications acquired by use/disuse were passed on to offspring u Ex: muscular arms (you work out and therefore your children will be muscular)

21 Problem w/ Lamarck u He had no prior knowledge of genetics (hadn’t been “discovered” yet) u Acquired traits are not transmitted offspring u Lamarck claimed animals have an innate drive to become more complex (not better adapted!)

22 Lamarck’s Credits u Did suggest correctly the role of fossils in evolution u Did suggest that adaptation to the environment is a primary product of evolution u Problem: timing (too fast!)

23 Charles Darwin u Father of the modern theory of evolution u Theory - Descent with Modification.

24 Darwin's Background u Trained as a Naturalist (after trying religion and medicine). u Was a poor student u Quit medical school (to become clergy man and ship naturalist)

25 Voyage of the Beagle 1831-1835: Trip was used to chart coastlines of Southern hemisphere

26 Result: Voyage u Became interested in geographic distribution of species (why certain animals live where they do?) u Visited: Brazilian jungles, Galapagos islands, Argentina, Antarctica, Andes Mtns u Allowed him to formulate and support his ideas on Natural Selection

27 Galapagos Finches u Beaks and behaviors have adapted to specific foods available on specific islands

28 Island Tortoises u Neck lengths have adapted to foods on specific islands

29 Marine Iguanas u Adapted swimming/walking adaptations to be successful both in water and on land

30 Alfred Wallace - 1858 u Wrote paper on natural slection u Ideas were identical to Darwin's. u Waited to publish (wrote to Darwin w/ ideas)

31 Result - July 1, 1858 u Dual presentation of the Wallace-Darwin ideas to the Linnaean Society of London. u Lyell presented u 1859 – Darwin published (solo) the “Origin of Species”

32 Comment u Darwin best remembered for the theory because of his overwhelming evidence and because he published 1 st ! u Wallace could have received credit for his ideas (but he idolized Darwin and wanted him to get the attention)

33 Darwinian View u History of life is like a tree with branches over time from a common source u Current diversity of life is caused by the forks from common ancestors

34 Example u Most branches are dead ends! u 99% of all species are extinct

35 “The Origin of Species” u Documented the occurrence of evolution u Suggested that the mechanism for evolution was Natural Selection. u Conclusion: Biological diversity was/is the product of evolution

36 u Focused on diversity of organisms u Includes: geographic distribution, adaptations, origins u Two points: 1) Ancestral descendants 2) Natural selection is mechanism for evolution “The Origin of Species”

37 The Theory of Evolution u Based upon 5 major facts/observations u Helps to devise 3 evolutionary inferences

38 Evolution: The Facts: u Fact 1 u Fact 1 - All species reproduce themselves u Until resources limit this growth

39 The Facts, cont: u Fact 2 u Fact 2 – u Most populations are normally stable in size u Fact 3 u Fact 3 – u Natural Resources are limited (finite).

40 Inference 1 u Use Facts 1, 2, 3 u The large number of offspring must compete for the limited resources u Result - Most offspring will die!

41 More Facts u Fact 4 u Fact 4 – u No two individuals in a population are exactly alike u Fact 5 u Fact 5 – u Variation is inherited

42 Inference 2 u Use Facts 4, 5 u Those individuals whose inherited characteristics fit them best to their environment will survive and reproduce!

43 Inference 3 u Use Facts 4, 5 u Offspring inherit the favorable characteristics u Populations shift over time as the favorable characteristics accumulate

44 Thomas Malthus u Demographer (geographic distribution and population growth) u Helped Darwin to develop these inferences

45 Nature u Nature u Nature: Food, shelter, disasters, climate u Determines which characteristics are favorable u Favors some, while filtering others u Determines who will survive! u Result - “Natural Selection”

46 Artificial Selection u When man determines the characteristics that survive and reproduce u Result - the various breeds of animals and plants we’ve developed. u Genetic engineering!


48 Evolution Success Measured By: u Survival rate u Reproductive rate (success) u Whoever lives long enough and has kids is the “winner” in evolution.

49 Requirements for Natural Selection u In order for Natural Selection to work, you must have: u Long periods of time u Variations within a population

50 Subgroups of Natural Selection 1. Populations are the units of Evolution (NOT individuals) 2. Only inherited characteristics can evolve (traits passed from parent to offspring) 3. Natural selection is always operating (based upon environmental factors)

51 Comment u Some acquired characteristics may allow a species to evolve "outside" of natural selection u Ex: culture, learning, diet, exposure to mutagens u Nature vs. nurture

52 Visible Signs of Evolution 1. Biogeography 2. Fossils 3. Taxonomy 4. Comparative Anatomy 5. Comparative Embryology 6. Molecular Biology

53 Biogeography u The geographical distribution of species u Problem: u Species mixtures on islands u Marsupials in Australia

54 Biogeography u Closely/Evolutionarily-related species tend to be found in the same geographic region u However, the same niches (in differing regions of the world) are usually occupied by species that may have evolved similar adaptations – but are DIFFERENT species u Ex: sugar glider and flying squirrel

55 **Both have adapted similar adaptations (skin flaps) but are NOT closely related to each other. They have evolved this adaptation independently


57 ** Islands often contain ENDEMIC species (species that are found NO WHERE ELSE in the world!) **Why? Islands are a perfect example of how geography influences evolution

58 Evolution Viewpoint u Biogeographical patterns reflect descent from the ancestors that colonized the area

59 Fossils u Relics or impressions of organisms from the past u Problem: u Show changes over time from simple to complex u Many fossils don't have descendants

60 Evolution Viewpoint u Life has changed over time u Many species failed to survive and became extinct

61 Comments: Fossils 1. Fossilization is a rare event 2. Only hard parts fossilize well 3. Problem in finding fossils 4. Interpretation. 5. “Missing links”

62 Taxonomy u Science of Classification. u Using various characteristics – group organisms by like characteristics

63 Main Categories u Domain u Kingdom u Phylum or Division u Class u Order u Family u Genus u Species

64 Comparative Anatomy 1. Homologous Structures - Common "building plan” with divergent functions Mammal forelimbs

65 Comparative Anatomy 2. Vestigial Organs - Rudimentary structures of marginal, if any, use. Whale Legs

66 Human Example

67 Evolution Viewpoint u Remodeling of ancestral structures as their functions or adaptations changed

68 Comparative Embryology u Problem - closely related organisms go through similar stages in their embryonic development u Ex: Gill pouches in vertebrates


70 u All animals go through these stages of development!!

71 Evolution Viewpoint u Ontogeny is a replay of Phylogeny. (Development reflects descent)

72 Molecular Biology u Study of Evolution at the DNA or protein levels u Problem - related species have similar DNA sequences


74 Evolution Viewpoint u Related species share a common ancestral DNA. The closer the relationship, the more similar the DNA sequences should be.

75 Summary u Recognize viewpoints of evolution preceding Darwin, and identify their main points and characteristics. u Identify the assumptions, inferences and outcomes of Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection. u Recognize the signs of the process of evolution through the mechanism of natural selection.

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