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Brain Development from 4 to 6. Brain Development 4 to 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Development from 4 to 6. Brain Development 4 to 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brain Development from 4 to 6

2 Brain Development 4 to 6

3  Educators use formal intelligence tests to try and assess children’s thinking skills. Test helps educators understand and meet students’ educational needs  First intelligence test was developed by psychologist Alfred Binet in 1905 Main goal was to help students with school work Lewis M. Terman of Stanford University made a major revision  The new test is now called the Stanford-Binet

4  Terman developed a mathematical formula that could be used to give a child’s intelligence a number value The Intelligence quotient (IQ) is the number taken by comparing a child’s test results to those of other children the same age Average of any age is between 90 and 110  IQ tests are comprised of tasks and questions that correspond to what is expected of children at different ages 2 year olds test may include blocks, identifying parts of the body, putting shapes in the same shape holes

5  Educators must use IQ tests with caution  The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is dedicated to improving the wellbeing of children from birth through age 8 No child's placement in school should be based on a single test  Schools today use several techniques.  In the late 1900s, some IQ tests were criticized for cultural bias Meaning that many of the test questions favored people from one culture over another Language differences is one way IQ test makers are helping narrow the cultural gap

6  Psychologist Howard Gardner presented different ways of looking at intelligence. His argument? “ Humans have multiple intelligences”  Multiple intelligences are abilities in problem solving or creating materials that high value  Gardner identified 8 intelligences  Each person is a blend of intelligences  If a child excels in one intelligence, caregivers can provide opportunities for learning in that area

7 1. Linguistic Intelligence 2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence 3. Spatial Intelligence 4. Musical Intelligence 5. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence 6. Interpersonal Intelligence 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence 8. Naturalist Intelligence

8 LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE  Sensitive to language  Ability to learn languages and to use language to accomplish goals  Writers, poets, lawyers have high linguistic intelligence  Ability to analyze problems using logic  Perform mathematical operations  Explore issues scientifically  Associated with scientific and mathematical thinking and research

9 SPATIAL INTELLIGENCEMUSICAL INTELLIGENCE  Understanding of the potential use of space  Thinking in 3-D terms  Imagining things in clear visual images  Architects and landscape designers are among the careers that rely on this type of intelligence  Skill in performing, composing, and appreciating musical patterns

10 BODILY-KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE  Potential to use one’s body to solve problems  Using the mind to coordinate body movements  Physical trainers, physical therapists  Potential to understand the intentions, desires, and motivations of others  Helps teachers, counselors, and religious and political leaders work better with other people

11 INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCENATURALIST INTELLIGENCE  Implies the capacity to understand oneself, including fears, hopes, and motivations  It means having a good working model of ourselves and using it to control our actions  Involves recognizing, categorizing, and drawing upon the features of the environment

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13 AgeMilestones 4 YearsComplete sentences (5 to 6 words), makes up stories, asks the W, W, W, W, W, H questions, understands 3-step directions, knows colors and shapes, understands “same” “different”, “top” and “bottom” 5 Years6-8 word sentences, understands 13,000 words, learns alphabet and sounds, recalls parts of stories, counts up to 10 objects and sort by size, understands “above, below, before, and after” 6 YearsReads words and simple sentences, writes simple words, solves problems more effectively, plays pretend games, has a longer attention span, understands “right, left” and other time concepts

14  Stage between ages 2 and 7 is the preoperational period Children are directed inward and learn from concrete evidence  Children this age can only view the world from their own perspective and cannot think in abstract terms  Signs of preoperational thinking: 1. Make-believe play 2. Use of symbols (stop sign means stop) 3. Egocentric viewpoint (self-centered thinking) 4. Limited focus  Makes decisions on his or her own perceptions

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16  Believed that development cannot be divided into neat stages  Learning is based on language and social interaction Children and peers play key roles in their own education  Teachers should collaborate with students rather than lecturing Students should collaborate with each other  Importance in past experiences and prior knowledge Necessary to understand new experiences

17  Dr. Maria Montessori ( ) studied children and developed her own theory on childhood learning Her methods are now used at over 4,000 schools in North America  Believed children would learn naturally if placed in a prepared learning environment containing the appropriate materials or learning games The Montessori Method focuses on developing the senses, language and motor skills  A Montessori classroom is one where the children can learn from themselves and from each other Learning stations arranged by subject area Teachers allow independence in the classroom sometimes  Montessori teachers receive special training

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19 Learning from 4 to 6

20  Experiences, especially those shared with adults, form the basis of student learning  Talking about their world and experiences forms connections Positive comments teach vocabulary and encourage feelings of self-worth Ask questions to make them think about their experiences in new ways and to help focus play  Explanations and suggestions are also helpful Using age appropriate language, of course!  Asking a child’s advice promotes learning “How should I fold these napkins for lunch?”  Trips and activities Riding a bus, nature walks, trips to the zoo  Helping around the house

21  Children that enjoy reading will find learning easier and more fun  Reading to children regularly helps them associate books with enjoyment  Reading together can remain a part of a daily routine even as they start to read on their own  Important factor in learning to read is the ability to hear phonemes Is the smallest individual sound in a word  Hearing the “ou” in “house” Rhyming helps with phonemic awareness  Alliteration is the repetition of certain sounds and helps with phonemic awareness Collecting words that begin with the same letter  Some research suggest those that are bilingual find it easier to learn and read Understand printed words that convey a specific meaning sooner than children that speak one language

22  This age group benefits from working with several art materials Modeling clay, crayons, paper, paste, paint, and scissors  Buttons and dried macaroni are used often  Encourage children to work with different materials By doing so, you are fostering the creative process  Asking “How did you make that” or “Tell me about your drawing.”

23  Rhythm intrigues children Children this age are more aware of rhythms and enjoy singing simple, repetitive songs  A finger play is a song or chant with accompanying hand motions  Music is a great teaching tool  Playing simple musical instruments helps develop children’s interest in music Bells, drums, tambourines, or anything that makes noise (old pans, bowls, spoons)

24  Children show a rapid increase in their vocabulary A normally developing 6-year old can understand approximately 2,500 words  Articulation improves dramatically By age 6, children can say 90% of words correctly  Much of this improvement depends on physical development Some sounds are more difficult to make  b,m,p are made with the lips  F and v sounds are made using lips and teeth Most difficult to make are j, ch, st, pl, th, and sl  They require smooth coordination of lip, tongue, and throat muscles  EX: Pwease instead of please

25  Children need to hear language that is specific and rich in detail Rather than using the word “go”, encourage children to use descriptive verbs “race, jogs, runs…”  Helping a child describe what they are seeing can aid in using descriptive verb usage  Children who do not speak English at home may have difficulty when they begin school  Children who move to one part of the country to another also have trouble (pronunciation) New England, Deep South, South, Midwest, West Coast, etc.

26  Preschool is attended to prepare children for the school setting  At age 5 or 6 most children enter kindergarten The standard for entering public school is when the child reaches their 5 th birthday Some schools have a cutoff date such as September 1 st Schools may require a physical exam  In the past, kindergarten was half-day, now there are full-day options Research shows children that attend full-day programs perform better in elementary school

27  One study showed that children with high IQs had emotional problems if they began school before they are ready Other studies show the opposite  Children who start later have problems with behavior later in their school years  Many school systems offer screenings to help assess a child’s readiness They can judge the child’s readiness based on what they observe

28  Guidelines: 1. Communicate with Adults 2. Manage Personal Needs Get dressed or undressed and can use the bathroom without help 3. Complete a Task Such as finishing a drawing or putting away supplies 4. Listen Attentively Listen to and answer questions about a story 5. Follow Directions and Take Turns 6. Be Patient

29  Starting kindergarten is a major adjustment for a child  School is generally bigger than preschool with much older children around  Children switching from half-day preschool to a full- day kindergarten must adjust to longer hours away from home  Some begin riding a bus for the first time  Guidelines to help aid in the new experiences: 1. Be sure the child knows their full name, address, and phone number 2. Explain what to expect 3. Lots of rest! 4. Let the child pick their lunch box or backpack and pick out clothes for the 1 st day 5. Arrange to have play dates before the start of school if possible 6. Share positive feelings about school


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