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Environmental History and Value Systems 7.1.1-7.1.6 Videos – The Lorax.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental History and Value Systems 7.1.1-7.1.6 Videos – The Lorax."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental History and Value Systems Videos – The Lorax

2 7.1.1 – State what is meant by an environmental value system – State what is meant by an environmental value system – Outline the range of environmental philosophies with reference – Outline the range of environmental philosophies with reference – Discuss how these philosophies influence the decision-making process with respect to environmental issues covered in this course – Discuss how these philosophies influence the decision-making process with respect to environmental issues covered in this course – Outline key historical influences on the development of the modern environmental movement – Outline key historical influences on the development of the modern environmental movement Compare and contrast environmental value systems of two named societies Compare and contrast environmental value systems of two named societies Justify your personal viewpoint on environmental issues Justify your personal viewpoint on environmental issues

3 Environmental History In the US – frontier ethic dominates during 1700’s &1800’s In the US – frontier ethic dominates during 1700’s &1800’s In 1800’s naturalists begin to voice concern In 1800’s naturalists begin to voice concern John James Audubon – painted birds and sparked interest John James Audubon – painted birds and sparked interest Henry David Thoreau – writer and naturalist who lived on Walden pond for 2 years Henry David Thoreau – writer and naturalist who lived on Walden pond for 2 years George Perkins Marsh ( ) – wrote Man and Nature 1 st discussion of humans as agents of environmental change George Perkins Marsh ( ) – wrote Man and Nature 1 st discussion of humans as agents of environmental change

4 Theodore Roosevelt ( ) – 17.4 million acres of land protected Theodore Roosevelt ( ) – 17.4 million acres of land protected 1872 – Yellowstone NP established  world’s first NP 1872 – Yellowstone NP established  world’s first NP John Muir ( ) est. Yosemite, Sequoia NPs and Sierra Club John Muir ( ) est. Yosemite, Sequoia NPs and Sierra Club Aldo Leopold ( ) – Naturalist – A sand county almanac Aldo Leopold ( ) – Naturalist – A sand county almanac Rachel Carson ( ) – Silent Spring Rachel Carson ( ) – Silent Spring Garrett Hardin (1968) – Tragedy of the Commons Garrett Hardin (1968) – Tragedy of the Commons Paul Ehrlich (1968) – Population Bomb Paul Ehrlich (1968) – Population Bomb

5 Interactive timeline ntal-history-timeline/ ntal-history-timeline/ ntal-history-timeline/ ntal-history-timeline/

6 Environmental History of U.S. in the last 30 years

7 Top 10: Anthropogenic Environmental Disasters n Sometimes we get a wake up call 1. Bhopal: the Union Carbide gas leak 2. Chernobyl: Russian nuclear power plant explosion 3. Seveso: Italian dioxin crisis 4. The 1952 London smog disaster 5. Major oil spills of the 20th and 21st century 6. The Love Canal chemical waste dump 7. The Baia Mare cyanide spill 8. The European BSE crisis 9. Spanish waste water spill 10. The Three Mile Island near nuclear disaster Bhopal: the Union Carbide gas leakChernobyl: Russian nuclear power plant explosionSeveso: Italian dioxin crisisThe 1952 London smog disasterMajor oil spills of the 20th and 21st centuryThe Love Canal chemical waste dumpThe Baia Mare cyanide spillThe European BSE crisisSpanish waste water spillThe Three Mile Island near nuclear disasterBhopal: the Union Carbide gas leakChernobyl: Russian nuclear power plant explosionSeveso: Italian dioxin crisisThe 1952 London smog disasterMajor oil spills of the 20th and 21st centuryThe Love Canal chemical waste dumpThe Baia Mare cyanide spillThe European BSE crisisSpanish waste water spillThe Three Mile Island near nuclear disaster

8 Bhopal disaster (1984, India) Union Carbide pesticide plant released 42 tonnes of toxic methyl isocyanate gas  500,000 exposed, 8,000 dead within a week, >16,000 dead since Union Carbide pesticide plant released 42 tonnes of toxic methyl isocyanate gas  500,000 exposed, 8,000 dead within a week, >16,000 dead since Union Carbidepesticidetonnesmethyl isocyanate Union Carbidepesticidetonnesmethyl isocyanate

9 Chernobyl Meltdown (1986 Ukraine) Reactor tests conducted Required shutdown of safety systems Cooling system failure Leading to meltdown Explosion releasing radioactive cloud Permanent evacuation in 30 km radius Eventual deaths 8, ,000

10 Now? Contained not Cleaned

11 Mercury and Minamata 1950’s Japan 1950’s Japan Suddenly people develop acute mercury poisoning – numbness, muscle weakness, coma death Suddenly people develop acute mercury poisoning – numbness, muscle weakness, coma death Minamata disease – 2,300 officially recognized victims Minamata disease – 2,300 officially recognized victims Chisso corporation dumping methyl mercury into local bay Chisso corporation dumping methyl mercury into local bay Biomagnification of Hg through food chain into people Biomagnification of Hg through food chain into people

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14 Whaling Historically hunted for blubber, whale oil Historically hunted for blubber, whale oil Now hunted for meat Now hunted for meat International Whaling commission forms in 1946 – moratorium in 1986 International Whaling commission forms in 1946 – moratorium in 1986 Now whaling by Inuits & Norway & Iceland (legitimate?) & Japan (Scientific?) Now whaling by Inuits & Norway & Iceland (legitimate?) & Japan (Scientific?)

15 ExtinctCritically Endangered EndangeredVulnerableLower Risk (Conservation Dependent) Lower risk (Near Threatene d) Lower Risk (Least Concern) None* Blue Whale (ANTARCTIC) [4 8]Blue Whale [4 8] Gray Whale Northwest Pacific population (cf. Northeast Pacific population) [49]Gray Whale [49] Blue Whale [50]Blue Whale [50] Fin Whale [51]Fin Whale [51] North Pacific Right Whale [52]North Pacific Right Whale [52] North Atlantic Right Whale [53]North Atlantic Right Whale [53] Sei Whale [54]Sei Whale [54] Beluga [55]Beluga [55] Blue Whale musculus subspecies - Atlantic population [56]Blue Whale [56] Sperm Whale [57]Sperm Whale [57] Antarctic Minke WhaleAntarctic Minke Whale Arnoux's Beaked WhaleArnoux's Beaked Whale Baird's Beaked WhaleBaird's Beaked Whale Blue Whale(North Pacific) [58]Blue Whale [58] Bowhead Whale [59]Bowhead Whale [59] Gray Whale Northeast Pacific population [60]Gray Whale [60] Northern Bottlenose WhaleNorthern Bottlenose Whale Southern Bottlenose WhaleSouthern Bottlenose Whale Short-finned Pilot WhaleShort-finned Pilot Whale Southern Right Whale [61]Southern Right Whale [61] Minke Whale [62]Minke Whale [62] Dwarf Sperm Whale [63]Dwarf Sperm Whale [63] Pygmy Right WhalePygmy Right Whale Long-finned Pilot WhaleLong-finned Pilot Whale Humpback Whale [64]Humpback Whale [64] Pygmy Sperm Whale [65]Pygmy Sperm Whale [65] Melon- headed WhaleMelon- headed Whale Gray Whale (species) [62]Gray Whale [62] Atlantic population of Gray Whale went extinct in late 17th Century. It is not listed as a part of IUCN's red list. [41]Gray Whale [41]

16 Once we’re awake (aware) Growth of environmental pressure groups – Greenpeace, Sea Sheppard Growth of environmental pressure groups – Greenpeace, Sea Sheppard Function locally and globally Function locally and globally Development of Environmental Stewardship Development of Environmental Stewardship Increased media coverage  increased awareness of issues Increased media coverage  increased awareness of issues

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18 These events Help us to establish our environmental value systems Help us to establish our environmental value systems This is a world view or set of paradigms that shapes the way an individual or group perceives and evaluates environmental issues This is a world view or set of paradigms that shapes the way an individual or group perceives and evaluates environmental issues Influenced by cultural, religious, economic and socio-political factors Influenced by cultural, religious, economic and socio-political factors

19 Environmental Values as a system Input – education, cultural dogma, religious doctrines, media Input – education, cultural dogma, religious doctrines, media Transfers and Transformations – Processing of information, thinking, discussion, regurgitation Transfers and Transformations – Processing of information, thinking, discussion, regurgitation Outputs – decisions, perspectives, courses of action Outputs – decisions, perspectives, courses of action

20 Value Systems can be Grouped into a spectrum Of Philosophies Know / Understand figure 6 Be able to outline the range

21 The continuum EcocentrismAnthropocentrismTechnocentrism Deep Ecologists Soft Ecologists Environmental Managers Cornucopians

22 Pick a world view and from that standpoint describe what you see

23 The influence of these philosophies We will look back to this as we move forward in the course We will look back to this as we move forward in the course Some examples look to our presidents Some examples look to our presidents Carter  progressive environmental policy to get us off of oil Carter  progressive environmental policy to get us off of oil Reagan  crushes solar energy industry Reagan  crushes solar energy industry Bush 1  reauthorized clean air act but Gulf war was one of the worst environmental disasters in history Bush 1  reauthorized clean air act but Gulf war was one of the worst environmental disasters in history Clinton  good – increased preserve area, pollution standards; bad – NAFTA, subsidizing SUV era of US automakers Clinton  good – increased preserve area, pollution standards; bad – NAFTA, subsidizing SUV era of US automakers Bush 2  Works to weaken environmental regulations on businesses – loosening scrubber requ. Bush 2  Works to weaken environmental regulations on businesses – loosening scrubber requ. Obama  Blocks mountain top coal mining Obama  Blocks mountain top coal mining

24 Historical Clashes of Worldviews Native Americans (first nation americans) vs. European Pioneers Native Americans (first nation americans) vs. European Pioneers Buddhist vs. Judeo-christian Societies Buddhist vs. Judeo-christian Societies Communist vs. capitalist societies Communist vs. capitalist societies

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26 Native Americans Deep respect for the natural world Deep respect for the natural world Thought of themselves as part of it not lords over it Thought of themselves as part of it not lords over it Much of their religion was tied to nature so spiritual connection as well Much of their religion was tied to nature so spiritual connection as well Only when the last tree has died and the last river been poisoned and the last fish been caught will we realize we cannot eat money. ~ Cree Indian Proverb ~

27 European Pioneers Frontier economics Frontier economics Exploitation of seemingly unlimited resources Exploitation of seemingly unlimited resources Becomes Manifest destiny – expansion not only good but obvious and certain Becomes Manifest destiny – expansion not only good but obvious and certain

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29 Justify your personal viewpoint on environmental issues -Where do you stand on the continuum of philosophies? -Where do you stand on the continuum of philosophies? Does it change with the specific issue Does it change with the specific issue For example does your stance on population control put you in the same area as your stance on resource exploitation or sustainable development For example does your stance on population control put you in the same area as your stance on resource exploitation or sustainable development We will answer this question again at the end of the course as well We will answer this question again at the end of the course as well

30 Sites of interest _record.html - Bush 2’s environmental record _record.html - Bush 2’s environmental record _record.html _record.html


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