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Population genetics as a means to explore

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1 Population genetics as a means to explore
Charles Darwin ( ) ALFRED WALLACE ( ) Population genetics as a means to explore EVOLUTION

2 A. Theory of Evolution Around world, many people held view that each species came about by divine (godly) creation Buddhism: 1. who cares?; 2. spiritual beings take many forms including man in each cycle Hinduism: 1. primal man Purusa sacrificed to become universe - head became heavens, arms became warriors, legs the commoners, feet the serfs; 2. Vishnu commanded servant Brahma to create world which he did out of lotus flower Islam: Allah (God) created heaven and earth in 6 days (Quran 7:54) Judeo-Christian: God created each creature including man in 6 days (Genesis I:20-25)

3 During 19th century, many fossils discovered of species not currently in existence
Question of origin spawned many hypotheses 1831 voyage of amateur naturalist Charles Darwin along with 1854 exploration of naturalist Alfred Wallace gave enough evidence for both to propose theory of evolution of populations of organisms via natural selection

4 Poor Mr. Wallace

5 Darwin’s Finch Evolution

6 B. Natural Selection Process that results in survival and propagation of organisms with favorable mutations that are better suited to adapt to environment than those without Nature selects adaptations of organisms best suited to succeed in environment (“survival of the fittest”) Acts on phenotype of individual – whatever physical appearance or expression of trait to help it to survive and reproduce (homozygous or heterozygous genotype is not important) Best phenotype of population will dominate

7 No longer referred to as “mutations” but rather “adaptations”
Detrimental Mutation Beneficial Mutation Mutations will always happen. Some are good, some are bad, most are neutral. No longer referred to as “mutations” but rather “adaptations”

8 Two types of adaptations:
Structural – physical changes in appearance Physiological – change in how organism functions or metabolizes (making venom, digesting cow milk)

9 Structural Adaptations
Thorns made it harder for predators to eat rosebuds White coat helps it blend in, making it easier to stalk prey

10 Structural Adaptations
Pouch enables joey to be protected but lets mom still roam around to find food Opposable thumbs makes it easier to grasp small objects with one hand while leaving other hand free for defense. .



13 Evidence of natural selection is of peppered moths in industrial age England via “industrial melanism” Prior to industrial revolution, 98% of peppered moths were light colored to blend in with light colored tree bark 98% typica 2%

14 After industry & soot from factories turned tree trunks black, those dark peppered moths had an advantage and soon became most common carbonaria 98% 2%

15 C. Changes in Gene Pool All alleles in population are considered gene pool Only these alleles can make new organisms Ex: If mom & dad are homozygous dominant for brown eyes, blue eyes just aren’t in your gene pool Numerical count of alleles in specific population called allelic frequency What is allelic frequency of B & b in this gene pool? TOTAL: 14 alleles (7 pigs) B: 7/14 = 50% b: 7/14 = 50%

B = 3/12 B = 7/24

17 If gene pool has large variety of alleles, it’s considered genetically diverse
High biodiversity is important in health & survival of population against: Disease Natural disasters Loss of habitat Irish Potato Famine ( ) is direct result of lack of genetically diverse potatoes succumbing to mold infestation

18 Irish Potato Famine Potatoes originated from Andes Mountains in S. America – many different varieties of potatoes Only few varieties made it to Ireland, where poor farmers would grow it as mainstay of food “Potato blight” fungal disease of potato crops carried on ships landed in Ireland in 1844 destroying entire crops Mass starvation, disease, emigration led to 20-25% drop in population of Ireland

19 How does an organism acquire diversity?
Mutations! Beneficial - improved survival Neutral – doesn’t improve or harm survival Lethal – would kill organism

20 If allele is lethal (as in t in Tay-Sachs), will only be passed down if it doesn’t affect heterozygote Tt is completely healthy, will live to reproduce tt will die before reproducing Exceptions are H dominant allele in Huntington’s where individual reproduces before lethality of allele manifests

21 Are we in danger of famine due to lack of diversity? Corn Chickens
Soybeans A new study (2008) has found that commercial birds raised for eggs and meat are missing more than half of the genetic diversity found in native chickens, possibly increasing a vulnerability to new diseases and raising serious questions about the sustainability of the poultry industry. Many different varieties of soy, although we only grow one

22 Without diversity, organism is vulnerable to disease and at risk of extinction
Passenger Pigeon N. America 1914 Dodo Mauritania, 1681 Golden Toad Costa Rica 1989

23 Hardy-Weinberg Principle
To see if evolution is occurring, there must be a change in allele frequency An equation called the Hardy-Weinberg equation is a mathematical way to determine if change is happening p2 + 2pq +q2 = 1.0 p = numbers of dominant alleles q = numbers of recessive alleles As long as equation = 1.0, no evolution If equation  1.0, change is happening = evolution

24 H-W Sample Problem Ex: Within a population of butterflies, the color brown (B) is dominant over the color white (b). And, 40% of all butterflies are white. Given this simple information calculate the following: A. The percentage of butterflies in the population that are heterozygous. B. The frequency of homozygous dominant individuals.

25 Equation: p2 +2pq +q2 = 1.0; p + q = 1.0
White (recessive) = bb = 40% then bb = q2 = 0.4 q = 0.4 = (i.e x = 0.4) q = 0.63 Since p + q = 1.0, p = = 0.37 p = 0.37 A. heterozygous? 2pq = 2 [(0.37)(0.63)] = 0.47 B. homozygous dominant? BB = p2 or (0.37)2 = 0.14

26 D. Evidence for Evolution
Direct evidence for evolution (via drug-resistant bacteria & different plant species) makes it easy to see evolution exists in lower-order species Evidence for evolution in the higher-order species (animals & humans) is more indirect: Fossils: bone structures are similar but act differently Anatomy: looking at bones of different species tells us certain bones do identical things Embryology: species that are way different as adults (humans vs. chickens) look identical when embryos Biochemistry: DNA or RNA differences between species is good comparison (chimps & humans 98% identical)

27 Whale still has mammalian
Fossils Whale still has mammalian HIP BONES! Important pieces of evidence for evolution because it provides record of early life and evolutionary history Paleontologists gathered evidence of whale’s ancestors and believe they were land- dwelling, dog-like animals

28 Anatomy Can compare two or more different species and see they have structural features in common which are called homologous structures

29 Embryology Evidence of same structure in embryonic stage tells us that all have common, albeit distant, ancestor Embryo: earliest stage of growth and development of both plants and animals All fish, reptile, bird, and mammal embryos have tails and gill slits (no air in uterus)

30 Biochemistry Looking at DNA and RNA of individuals and species gives us biochemical evidence for evolution look at sequence of mitochondrial DNA and RNA to see who’s related to whom

31 End! Quiz on this section Thursday, March 29

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