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EVOLUTION Natural Selection. Review  Spontaneous Generation  Living things come from nonliving things  Vital Force  The air contains something that.

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Presentation on theme: "EVOLUTION Natural Selection. Review  Spontaneous Generation  Living things come from nonliving things  Vital Force  The air contains something that."— Presentation transcript:

1 EVOLUTION Natural Selection

2 Review  Spontaneous Generation  Living things come from nonliving things  Vital Force  The air contains something that produces microorganisms

3 Review  When was the Earth formed?  4.6 billion years ago  What were the first life forms?  Prokaryotic cells  Define Evolution.  Describes how things change over time

4 Thoughts in 18 th Century  Scientists believed species were permanent and unchanging  Earth was only thousands of years old  Scientists began to present evidence that species change over time and that the Earth is much older.

5 Scientists are influenced by other scientists  James Hutton: a geologist in 1785  Realized that certain kinds of rocks are formed from molten lava  Some other rocks form very slowly, as sediments build up and are squeezed into layers  Froces beneath Earth’s surface push rock layers upward and build mountain ranges  Mountains can be warn down by rain, wind, heat and cold

6 Scientists are influenced by other scientists  Charles Lyell-1830-1833  Laws of nature are constant over time and that scientists must explain past events in term of processes they can observe in the present

7 Hutton and Lyell  Laws of nature concluded that Earth is extremely old and that the processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present

8 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck  French Naturalist 1. Suggested that organisms could change during their lifetimes by selectively using or not using various parts 2. Suggested that individuals could pass these acquired traits on to their offspring, causing change over time

9 Jean Baptiste Lamarck  1809  Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics  Individuals acquired traits during lifetime as a result of experience then can pass those traits onto their offspring. Larger muscles from work, children would have larger muscles

10 Thomas Malthus  English Economist  1798- notes humans were being born faster that dying causing over crowding  Forces working against population growth, include war, famine, and disease  Applied to other organisms as well

11 Alfred Russel Wallace  English naturalist working in Malaysia 1850’s  Thoughts were almost identical to Darwin’s which caused Darwin to publish book

12 Charles Darwin  1809-1882  Traveled on the Beagle  Noticed similar organisms around the world  Did a lot of work on Galapagos Islands off of South America  Wrote book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection  Used the phrase Descent with modification Beaks of finches on Galapagos Islands

13 Natural Selection  Four main parts of Darwin’s reasoning  Overproduction: more offspring can be produced than can survive to maturity  Genetic Variation: individuals within a population have different traits  Struggle to Survive: individuals must compete with each other for limited resources  Differential Reproduction: individuals that have certain traits are more likely to survive and reproduce

14 Speciation  Speciation: the formation of new species  Convergent Evolution: different species evolve similar traits because of environment they live in  These species are not related  Divergent Evolution: organisms begin to look different because of the environment they live in  Adaptive Radiation: a new species in a new environment will undergo divergent evolution until population fills many part of the environment

15 Speciation  Geographic Isolation: a population is split due to the habitat becoming divided  Ex: canyons, mountain ranges, bodies of water, deserts, accidentally transported to new area  Reproductive Isolation: there are barriers to successful breeding between population groups in same area 1. Prezygotic: before fertilization 1. Ex. Mating calls, time of mating 2. Postzygotic: after fertilization 1. Ex: offspring cannot reproduce

16 Rates of Speciation  Gradualism: changes occur at a regular, gradual rate  Punctuated Equilibrium: Many years of no change, then all of the sudden have a significant change

17 Evidence of Evolution  Fossil: remains or traces of an organism from long ago.  Biogeography: study of the location of organisms 1. Animals that seemed closely related yet are adapted to different environments in nearby regions. 2. Animals that seemed unrelated but have similar adaptations to similar environments

18 Evidence of Evolution  Anatomy and Embryology  Anatomy: the study of body structure  Embryology: the study of how organisms develop  Homologous Structures: anatomical structures that occur in different species and that originates by common ancestor Ex: human, penguin, alligator, bat all have a humerus, radius, and ulna

19 Evidence of Evolution  Analogous Structure: structures that have similar functions but different structures Ex: wings of birds and insects  Vestigial Structure: structure that have no known function Ex: tailbone, appendix  Biological Molecule  DNA and RNA The greater number of similarities between any given species the more closely related


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