Presentation on theme: "Intelligence and General Ability Testing Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:
Intelligence and General Ability Testing Chapter 7
Psychometric approach Developmental progressions Information processing Other theories Models of Intelligence
Based on premise that intelligence can be described in terms of mental factors (Bjorkland, 2005) Spearman’s two-factor model (1927) g (general ability factor) Specific factors Guilford’s structure-of-intelligence theory (1988) 180 intellectual factors in three dimensions: Mental operations Content areas Products Psychometric Approach
Thurstone’s 7 primary mental abilities (1938) Verbal comprehension Word fluency Number facility Perceptual speed Memory Space Reasoning Vernon’s hierarchical theory (1950) g Verbal and educational aptitude & spatial, mechanical and practical aptitude Psychometric Approach (cont.)
One of the more influential contemporary theories g: top stratum Second stratum: Fluid abilities (Gf), crystallized abilities (Gc) & six other broad abilities Third stratum: more specific factors Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model
Developmental theorists posit that intelligence can be better understood by examining how intelligence develops Learning and environment influence the process Jean Piaget (1972) Stages of Development : Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Formal operations Developmental Progressions
Jean Piaget (1972) (cont.) Intellectual functions: Assimilation Accommodation Ceci’s bioecological model (1990, 1993) Intellectual abilities are highly influenced by context in which they are performed Intelligence may not be reflected in methods currently used to assess intelligence Developmental Progressions
These models focus on how individuals process information Luria’s theory (1966) Simultaneous processing Sequential processing Naglieri & Das’ theory (1997, 2005) Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) Sternberg’s triarchic theory (1985, 1988) Internal world of individual or mental processes that underlie intelligence Experiential subtheory Individual’s contextual or external world Information-Processing
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (1993) Any set of adult competencies that are valued in a culture merits consideration as a potential intelligence 9 “frames of mind” 1. Linguistic 2. Logical-mathematical 3. Musical 4. Spatial 5. Bodily-kinesthetic 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalist 9. Existential Measures need to value intellectual capacities in wide range of domains, methods should be appropriate for domain Other Theories
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV, 2008) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, 2003) Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III (WPPSI-III, 2002) Wechsler Memory Scale IV (WMS-IV, 1997) Wechsler Scales
Full Scale IQ Index Scores: Verbal Comprehension (Vocabulary, Similarities, Information, Comprehension*) Perceptual Reasoning (Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights*) Working Memory (Digit Span, Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing*) Processing Speed (Symbol Search, Coding, Cancellation*) Uses basal and ceiling levels WAIS-IV
Full Scale IQ – based on four Index Scores: WISC-IV Similarities Vocabulary Comprehension Information (supplemental) Word Reasoning (supplemental) Verbal Comprehension Index Digit Span Letter-Number Sequencing Arithmetic (supplemental) Working Memory Index Block Design Picture Concepts Matrix Reasoning Picture Completion (supplemental) Perceptual Reasoning Index Coding Symbol Search Cancellation (supplemental) Processing Speed Index
For use with individuals 2 – 85 years old Verbal IQ, Nonverbal IQ, Full Scale IQ Five factors for both verbal and nonverbal areas 1. Fluid Reasoning 2. Knowledge 3. Quantitative Reasoning 4. Visual-Spatial Processing 5. Working Memory Basal level, ceiling level, routing tests Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test – 5
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II, 2004) Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT, 1993) Not as widely used as Wechsler instruments Integration of different theoretical approaches Kaufman Instruments
Designed to assess children ages 3 to 18 Yields 4 or 5 scales depending on whether the Cattell- Horn-Carroll (CHC) or Luria approach is used CHC perspective (Fluid-Crystallized Index) Short-Term Memory Visual Processing Long-term Storage and Retrieval Fluid Reasoning Crystallized Abilities Luria perspective (Mental Processing Index) Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Learning Ability Planning Ability KABC-II
Designed for individuals 11-85 years old 3 intelligence scales: Fluid (Gf) Crystallized (Gc) Composite 6 subtests: 3 assess fluid intelligence 3 assess crystallized intelligence KAIT
Assesses general intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitude, oral language & academic achievement Comprised of two instruments: Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement Based on CHC model of intelligence Clusters: Verbal Ability, Thinking Ability, Cognitive Efficiency, Broad Reading, Broad Math, Broad Written Language, Oral Language Woodcock-Johnson III Complete Battery
Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (Elliot, 2006) Slossen Intelligence Test-Revised, Third Edition (Nicholson & Hibpshman, 1990) Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven et al., 1998) Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007) Test of Nonverbal Intelligence 3 (Brown et al., 1997) Additional Individual Instruments
Given more often than individual intelligence tests, usually in schools Not as easy to monitor test-taker’s behavior during assessment Require more reading than individual tests Must consider other factors of individual (culture, background, language proficiency) when interpreting results Group Intelligence Testing
Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, 8 th Edition (OLSAT-8) Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II (MAB-II) Wonderlic Contemporary Cognitive Ability Test Group Intelligence Testing (cont.)
Infants and young children have the least stable intelligence test scores Early research indicated intelligence gradually declines after age 20 – not supported by later research More recent research indicates intelligence gradually increases from childhood to middle age and then levels off Declines tend to occur in areas of fluid intelligence Degree of decline related to interaction of variables, such as physical health, mental activities, education Is Intelligence Stable?
Intelligence tests appear to be related to academic performance (correlation of 0.5) The relationships among IQ scores, occupational success, and income are not simple Validity generalization Same test score data may be predictive for all jobs – if test is valid for a few occupations, it is valid for all jobs in that cluster GATB validity coefficients can be generalized to other occupations. Concerns regarding the use of the Job Family method and ethnically diverse groups What Do Intelligence Scores Predict?
One of the most controversial issues in intelligence testing Difficult to determine estimates of genetic contribution to intelligence Heritability indexes for intelligence tend to be approximately.50 Both genetic and environmental factors affect intellectual development; IQ scores seemingly related to interaction between the two Is Intelligence Hereditary?
Culture and language School attendance Quality of schooling Family environment Environmental toxins What Environmental Factors Influence Intelligence?
Gender Do not appear to be general intellectual differences between men and women Men may be better at visual-spatial tasks Women may be better at some verbal tasks Ethnicity African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans tend to score lower on intelligence tests than European-Americans or Asian-Americans Differences may be due to socioeconomic, linguistic, cultural factors, etc. Are There Group Differences in Intelligence?
James Flynn (1984, 1987) first to identify steadily increasing intelligence test scores in recent years Gains in IQ not reflected in gains in achievement Possible explanations: better nutrition, more test sophistication, changes in education and opportunities, changes in parenting practices What is the Flynn effect?