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Intelligence and General Ability Testing Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Intelligence and General Ability Testing Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intelligence and General Ability Testing Chapter 7

2  Psychometric approach  Developmental progressions  Information processing  Other theories Models of Intelligence

3  Based on premise that intelligence can be described in terms of mental factors (Bjorkland, 2005)  Spearman’s two-factor model (1927)  g (general ability factor)  Specific factors  Guilford’s structure-of-intelligence theory (1988)  180 intellectual factors in three dimensions:  Mental operations  Content areas  Products Psychometric Approach

4  Thurstone’s 7 primary mental abilities (1938)  Verbal comprehension  Word fluency  Number facility  Perceptual speed  Memory  Space  Reasoning  Vernon’s hierarchical theory (1950)  g  Verbal and educational aptitude & spatial, mechanical and practical aptitude Psychometric Approach (cont.)

5  One of the more influential contemporary theories  g: top stratum  Second stratum: Fluid abilities (Gf), crystallized abilities (Gc) & six other broad abilities  Third stratum: more specific factors Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model

6  Developmental theorists posit that intelligence can be better understood by examining how intelligence develops  Learning and environment influence the process  Jean Piaget (1972)  Stages of Development :  Sensorimotor  Preoperational  Concrete  Formal operations Developmental Progressions

7  Jean Piaget (1972) (cont.)  Intellectual functions:  Assimilation  Accommodation  Ceci’s bioecological model (1990, 1993)  Intellectual abilities are highly influenced by context in which they are performed  Intelligence may not be reflected in methods currently used to assess intelligence Developmental Progressions

8  These models focus on how individuals process information  Luria’s theory (1966)  Simultaneous processing  Sequential processing  Naglieri & Das’ theory (1997, 2005)  Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS)  Sternberg’s triarchic theory (1985, 1988)  Internal world of individual or mental processes that underlie intelligence  Experiential subtheory  Individual’s contextual or external world Information-Processing

9  Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (1993)  Any set of adult competencies that are valued in a culture merits consideration as a potential intelligence  9 “frames of mind” 1. Linguistic 2. Logical-mathematical 3. Musical 4. Spatial 5. Bodily-kinesthetic 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalist 9. Existential  Measures need to value intellectual capacities in wide range of domains, methods should be appropriate for domain Other Theories

10  Wechsler Scales  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale  Kaufman Instruments  Woodcock-Johnson III Complete Battery  Additional Individual Instruments Individual Intelligence Testing

11  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV, 2008)  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, 2003)  Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III (WPPSI-III, 2002)  Wechsler Memory Scale IV (WMS-IV, 1997) Wechsler Scales

12  Full Scale IQ  Index Scores:  Verbal Comprehension (Vocabulary, Similarities, Information, Comprehension*)  Perceptual Reasoning (Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Visual Puzzles, Figure Weights*)  Working Memory (Digit Span, Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing*)  Processing Speed (Symbol Search, Coding, Cancellation*)  Uses basal and ceiling levels WAIS-IV

13  Full Scale IQ – based on four Index Scores: WISC-IV Similarities Vocabulary Comprehension Information (supplemental) Word Reasoning (supplemental) Verbal Comprehension Index Digit Span Letter-Number Sequencing Arithmetic (supplemental) Working Memory Index Block Design Picture Concepts Matrix Reasoning Picture Completion (supplemental) Perceptual Reasoning Index Coding Symbol Search Cancellation (supplemental) Processing Speed Index

14  For use with individuals 2 – 85 years old  Verbal IQ, Nonverbal IQ, Full Scale IQ  Five factors for both verbal and nonverbal areas 1. Fluid Reasoning 2. Knowledge 3. Quantitative Reasoning 4. Visual-Spatial Processing 5. Working Memory  Basal level, ceiling level, routing tests Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test – 5

15  Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II, 2004)  Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT, 1993)  Not as widely used as Wechsler instruments  Integration of different theoretical approaches Kaufman Instruments

16  Designed to assess children ages 3 to 18  Yields 4 or 5 scales depending on whether the Cattell- Horn-Carroll (CHC) or Luria approach is used  CHC perspective (Fluid-Crystallized Index)  Short-Term Memory  Visual Processing  Long-term Storage and Retrieval  Fluid Reasoning  Crystallized Abilities  Luria perspective (Mental Processing Index)  Sequential Processing  Simultaneous Processing  Learning Ability  Planning Ability KABC-II

17  Designed for individuals 11-85 years old  3 intelligence scales:  Fluid (Gf)  Crystallized (Gc)  Composite  6 subtests:  3 assess fluid intelligence  3 assess crystallized intelligence KAIT

18  Assesses general intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitude, oral language & academic achievement  Comprised of two instruments:  Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities  Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement  Based on CHC model of intelligence  Clusters: Verbal Ability, Thinking Ability, Cognitive Efficiency, Broad Reading, Broad Math, Broad Written Language, Oral Language Woodcock-Johnson III Complete Battery

19  Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (Elliot, 2006)  Slossen Intelligence Test-Revised, Third Edition (Nicholson & Hibpshman, 1990)  Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven et al., 1998)  Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007)  Test of Nonverbal Intelligence 3 (Brown et al., 1997) Additional Individual Instruments

20  Given more often than individual intelligence tests, usually in schools  Not as easy to monitor test-taker’s behavior during assessment  Require more reading than individual tests  Must consider other factors of individual (culture, background, language proficiency) when interpreting results Group Intelligence Testing

21  Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT)  Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, 8 th Edition (OLSAT-8)  Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)  Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II (MAB-II)  Wonderlic Contemporary Cognitive Ability Test Group Intelligence Testing (cont.)

22  Infants and young children have the least stable intelligence test scores  Early research indicated intelligence gradually declines after age 20 – not supported by later research  More recent research indicates intelligence gradually increases from childhood to middle age and then levels off  Declines tend to occur in areas of fluid intelligence  Degree of decline related to interaction of variables, such as physical health, mental activities, education Is Intelligence Stable?

23  Intelligence tests appear to be related to academic performance (correlation of 0.5)  The relationships among IQ scores, occupational success, and income are not simple  Validity generalization  Same test score data may be predictive for all jobs – if test is valid for a few occupations, it is valid for all jobs in that cluster  GATB validity coefficients can be generalized to other occupations.  Concerns regarding the use of the Job Family method and ethnically diverse groups What Do Intelligence Scores Predict?

24  One of the most controversial issues in intelligence testing  Difficult to determine estimates of genetic contribution to intelligence  Heritability indexes for intelligence tend to be approximately.50  Both genetic and environmental factors affect intellectual development; IQ scores seemingly related to interaction between the two Is Intelligence Hereditary?

25  Culture and language  School attendance  Quality of schooling  Family environment  Environmental toxins What Environmental Factors Influence Intelligence?

26  Gender  Do not appear to be general intellectual differences between men and women  Men may be better at visual-spatial tasks  Women may be better at some verbal tasks  Ethnicity  African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans tend to score lower on intelligence tests than European-Americans or Asian-Americans  Differences may be due to socioeconomic, linguistic, cultural factors, etc. Are There Group Differences in Intelligence?

27  James Flynn (1984, 1987) first to identify steadily increasing intelligence test scores in recent years  Gains in IQ not reflected in gains in achievement  Possible explanations: better nutrition, more test sophistication, changes in education and opportunities, changes in parenting practices What is the Flynn effect?

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