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Chapter 4—Learner Differences and Learning Needs

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1 Chapter 4—Learner Differences and Learning Needs
By Jen Miller, Crystal Dunnermann, and Jamie Potts

2 3 Themed of Intelligence
The capacity to Learn Total Knowledge a person a person has acquired The ability to adapt to successfully to new situations and to the environment in general

3 Definitions General Intelligence- used to perform any mental test
Fluid Intelligence -mental efficiency and reasoning. May be related to changes in brain volume, density of dopamine receptors, or processing abilities in the prefrontal lobe of the brain such selective attention and working memory. Crystallized Intelligence- ability to apply the problem solving methods appropriate In your cultural context.

4 Multiple Intelligences Gardner’s Theory
Linguistic (Verbal) Musical Spatial Logical- mathematical Bodily-kinesthetic (movement) Interpersonal (understanding other) Intrapersonal (understanding self) Naturalist (watching and understanding) Natural and Human (made patterns and systems)

5 Logical mathematical Usually a scientist or mathematician
Good at numerical patterns Has ability to handle long chains of reasoning

6 Linguistic Usually a poet or a journalist
Great with sounds, rhythms and meanings of words Sensitivity to the different functions of language

7 Musical Composer or Violinists Easy for them to create rhythm, pitch
Appreciates expressions though music

8 Spatial Navigator or Violinists
They have more of an “out of the box” type of thinking Able to perform transformations on one’s initial perceptions

9 Bodily-kinesthetic Dancer or Athlete Able to control body movements
Handle objects skillfully

10 Interpersonal Therapist or Salesmen
Comes easy to them to respond appropriately to moods, temperament, motivations and desires of others

11 Intrapersonal Person with detailed, accurate self-knowledge
Able to figure out their own feelings, motivations and goals. They seek understanding and learn best indendently

12 Naturalist Farmer or Hunter Have a sensitivity to nature
Gifted in nurturing and growing thing as well as caring and interacting with animals

13 Sex Differences in Intelligence
Most studies find little differences between boys and girls in overall mental and motor development from infancy through the preschool years. School years and on, there are no differences in general intelligence in the standard measures. But, by the end of grade school, females perform better on assessments of verbal abilities when assignments are on writing and topics that females are familiar with. Males, on the other hand, excel and are better at visual measures.

14 Learning and Thinking Styles
Learning Styles- Characteristic approaches to learning and studying Thinking Styles –The preferred thinking approach Learners use such as being inquisitive, analytical, visual, spatial, or problem solvers.

15 3 Types of Learners Cognitive Ability
High special ability –creating, remembering, and manipulating images comes very easily. 2. Cognitive Style Visualize- Uses images and visual info. to think Verbalize-words and verbal info. are used to think Cognitive Style Visual learner-prefers pictures Verbal learner- prefers using words

16 Individual Differences and The Law
IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Latest amendment of the PL ; guarantees a free public education to ALL children regardless of disability. Requires states to provide a free, appropriate public educations (FAPE) FAPE- Public funding to support appropriate educations programs for ALL students, No matter what their needs.

17 Disabilities in IDEA Specific Learning disabilities
Speech/language impairments Intellectual disabilities(mental retardation) Emotional disturbances Other health impairments (not orthopedic) Multiple disabilities Autism spectrum disorders Orthopedic impairments Hearing impairments Developmental delay Visual impairments Traumatic brain injury Deaf-blind

18 Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Is an agreement between parents and the school about the services that will be provided to the student

19 Students with Learning Challenges
New technology has allowed for the amount of research on the brain & learning disabilities to grow substantially

20 Neuroscience and Learning Challenges
Early explanations for learning disabilities was minimal brain dysfunction. Now know there are many other involved in learning challenges including injuries and diseases of the brain. Research on learning problems has focused on working memory because working memory capacity is a good predictor of a range of cognitive skills including language understanding, reading and mathematics abilities, and fluid intelligence.

21 Students with learning disabilities
According to the text, the term learning disability does not have a fully agreed upon definition. Most definitions agree that students with learning disabilities perform significantly below what would be expected, given their abilities. Educational psychologists suggest that there are both physiological and environmental bases for learning disabilities, such as brain injury, exposure to toxins before birth from mothers who smoked or drank while pregnant, poor nutrition, lead-based paint in the home, or even poor instruction. Genetics plays a role as well. If parents have a learning disability, their children have a 30%-50% chance of having a learning disability as well.

22 Students Characteristics
Most common characteristics are specific difficulties in one or more academic areas; poor coordination; problems paying attention; hyperactivity and impulsivity; problems organizing and interpreting visual and auditory information; disorders of thinking, memory, speech, and hearing; and difficulties making and keeping friends. Most students with learning disabilities have difficulties reading. Math, both computation and problems solving, is the second most common problem area for students. Writing of some students is virtually unreadable , and their spoken language can be halting and disorgenized.

23 Teaching Students with learning Disabilities
Early diagnosis is important so that students with learning disabilities do not become terribly frustrated and discouraged. Students may become victims of learned helplessness. Learned helplessness is the expectation, based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that all one’s efforts will lead to failure. Students with learning disabilities may also try to compensate for their problems and develop bad learning habits in the process, or they may begin avoiding certain subjects out of fear of not being able to handle the work.

24 Some general strategies for working with learning disabilities: Preschool and elementary –Keep verbal instructions short and simple; have students repeat directions back to you to be sure they understand; give multiple example and repeat main points several times; allow more practice than usual , especially when material is new. Secondary- In addition to the above, directly teach older students self-monitoring strategies such as cueing students to ask, "was I paying attention?”. Teach students to use external memory strategies such as note-taking, and devices such as assignment book, to-do lists, or electronic calendars.

25 Students with Hyperactivity and attention disorders
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) is a currents term for disruptive behavior disorders marked by over activity, excessive difficulty sustaining attention, or impulsiveness. Children with ADHD are not only more physically active and inattentive than other children, they also have more difficulty responding appropriately and working steadily toward goals. There is a reliance on drug therapy to improvements in academic learning or peer relationships. Teachers can assign a few problems or paragraphs at a time with clear consequences for completion instead of long assignments that are overwhelming. The notion of being in control is also part of a therapy strategy. Enlists the child’s to conquer the problem. Remember SMART: Separating the problems of ADHD from the child Mapping influence of ADHD on the child and family Attending to the exceptions to ADHD story Reclaiming special abilities of children diagnosed with ADHD Telling and celebrating the new story

26 Students with language and communication disorders
Students with communication disorders arte the second largest group served be special education. Language disorders have many sources: hearing impairments, injuries, children who ate not listened to or whose perception of the world is distorted by problems, impairment of motor functions, and problems in cognitive function. Students who cannot produce sounds effectively for speaking are considered to have speech disorders Articulation disorders include any variety of pronunciation difficulties, such as the substitution, distortion of sounds. Cause of stuttering are unclear but may include emotional or neurological problems or learned behaviors. Voicing problems are inappropriate pitch, quality , loudness, or intonation. A students with any of these problems should be referred to a speech therapist. Also students who seldom speak, who use few words or very short sentences, or who rely only on gestures to communicate should be referred for observation or testing.

27 Students with Emotional or behavioral difficulties
Emotional and behavioral disorders are behavior or emotions the deviate so much from the norm that they interfere with the child’s own growth and development and/or the lives of others – inappropriate behaviors, unhappiness or depression, fears and anxieties, and trouble with relationships. Examples are: OCD, PTSD, eating disorders, mood disorders, tic disorders and disruptive behavior disorders. This group is the 4th largest receiving services. Methods from applied behavioral analysis and direct teaching self-regulation skills are two useful approaches. Also provide structure, organizational tools, and choices Suicide is something that is attempted by up to 10% of adolescents and more have considered it . There are four general rick factors, and they seem to adolescents: depression and substance abuse, history of suicide in the family, being under stress, and family rejection or conflict. There is also concern today some drugs prescribed for depression or ADHD may increase the rick of suicide.

28 Students with Intellectual disabilities
Intellectual disability is a more current name for mental retardation. This is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills before age of 18. The American Association on intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)now recommends a classification scheme based on the amount of support that a person requires to function at their highest level. Support varies from intermittent (need during stressful times), to extensive(daily care such as living in a group home)to pervasive (constant high-intensity care for all aspects of living ). Transition programming is the gradual preparation of students with special needs to move from high school into education or training, employment, or community involvement. An ITP, individualized transition plan, may be part of the IEP for students with intellectual disabilities.

29 Students with Health Impairments
Health impairment include: cerebral palsy, seizure disorders, asthma, HIV/AIDS, diabetes and visual impairments. Cerebral palsy is condition involving a range of motor or coordination difficulties due to brain damage. This is characterized be spasticity, the overly tight or tense muscles. A seizure is a cluster of behaviors that occurs in response to abnormal neurochemical activities in the brain. Epilepsy is a disorder marked by seizures and caused by abnormal electrical discharged in the brain. Generalized seizures (grand mal)is a seizure involving a large portion of the brain. Absence seizures (petit mal)is a seizure involving only a part of the brain that causes a child to lose contact briefly. Low vision is vision limited to close objects. This includes a small group of students whose vision impairments are so serious that special educational services are needed. Educationally blind refers to students needing Braille material in order to learn.

30 Autism Spectrum disorders and Asperser syndrome
Autism /Autism spectrum disorders is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3 and ranging from mild major. Children with ASD may have difficulties in social relations, avoid eye contact, communication is impaired, they may obsessively insist on regularity. Children may also be sensitive to light, sound, tough or other sensory information. Asperser syndrome have many of the characteristics but they have the greatest trouble with social relations. Language is less affected. Early and intense interventions that focus on communications and social relations are particularly important for children with ASD.

31 Response to Intervention(RTI)
Response to intervention is a process to make sure students get appropriate research-based instruction and support as soon as possible and that teachers are systematic in documenting what interventions they have tried with these students so that information can be used in planning. A three-tiered system is used to accomplish this. The first tier is to use a strong, well-researched way of teaching all students. If a child does not so well they are moved to the second tier. They extra support and additional small-group instruction. The third tier is one-to-one intensive help and perhaps a special needs assessment.

32 Students who are gifted and talented
Another group with special needs that is often overlooked are gifted and talented students . These students arte very bright, creative, and talented. Truly gifted children are not the students who simply learn quickly with little effort. The work of gifted students is original, extremely advanced for their age, and potentially of lasting importance. Special efforts should be made to support underrepresented gifted students which are girls, students who also have learning disabilities and children living in poverty. Truly gifted students who are accelerated do as well as, and usually better than, non-gifted students who are progressing at the normal pace. Gifted students tend to prefer the company of older playmates and may be bored if kept with children their own age. Skipping grades may not be he best solution for a particular students, but f0r students who are extremely advanced intellectually, the only practical may be to accelerate their education.

33 Diversity and convergences in learning abilities
Even though there are many good tests and careful procedures for making special education placement decisions, racial and ethnic minority students are overrepresented in the disability categories and underrepresented in gifted programs.

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