2RealismThe attempt in literature and art to represent life as it really is, without sentimentalizing or idealizing it.Realistic writing often depicts the everyday life and speech of ordinary people
3Realist themes Experience of the commonplace Focus on the middle class Industrial revolutionInteractions between different classes and countriesComplex ethical choicesOrdinary characters are studied in depth
4Realist characters Shared guilt or responsibility Not extraordinary, everyday people, middle class folkNo distinctive heroes or villains, mix of strengths and flawsMotivated by survival, greed, self-preservation, materialisticDeep connection w nature, each other, social class & pastIntricate and layeredDemocratic, open to change and experimentation
6Realist writing styleRegional dialects, extensive dialogue that connected w publicSimple language so everyone can understand itSpecific to a time period, or place, or time in historyCharacter is more important than the plotDescriptive writing, even if it is graphicComic, satiric, or matter-of-factNarrated by an outside voice
7Naturalism An extreme form of realism Naturalistic writers usually depict the sordid side of life and show characters who are severely, if not hopelessly, limited by their environment or heredity.
8Naturalist themes Nature (scientific observation) Survival of the fittestLack of free willVice, dark side of humans & societyperson vs. nature, person vs. selfPassions such as lust and greed
9Naturalist characters Frequently poorly educated or of the lower classTheir attempt at free will is hurt by forces beyond their controlStruggle with conscience and determining their fateCharacters controlled by fate & environmentUnable to stand up against the enormous weight of circumstancesCharacters are pushed to their limits.
10Naturalist characters Heredity & environment control the individualRejection of the supernaturalNature vs. nurtureChance, fate & destinyPoverty, crime, violence, racism, intolerance, disease, corruption, urban squalor, industrialism, prostitution
11Naturalist writing style No sugar coatingObjective narratorPlot twist at the endDetailed violenceFormal language, piling on of imagesAttention to setting to the point of saturation
12Key terms Verisimilitude-the appearance of truth Brute within-strong, warring emotions, and a fight for survivalVernacular- the language or dialect spoken by the people of a particular regionDeterminism- belief that events are determined by forces beyond the control of human beings; all events have sufficient causesSocial Darwinism- survival of the fittest
13Key termsMimesis- imitation of the real world, as by re-creating instances of human action and events portraying objects found in natureMuckrakers-American journalists & novelists who exposed corruption in big business and government